[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery can result in severe postoperative pain. We compared a continuous subacromial infusion to a continuous interscalene block with levobupivacaine for patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery.
Sixty patients were randomized to two groups: 1) interscalene block with 0.5% levobupivacaine (30 mL) followed by a postoperative subacromial infusion: 0.125% levobupivacaine 5 mL/h basal infusion, 5 mL bolus dose and a 20 min lockout time or; 2) interscalene block with 0.5% levobupivacaine (30 mL) followed by a postoperative interscalene infusion: 0.125% levobupivacaine 5 mL/h basal infusion, 5 mL bolus dose and a 20 min lockout time. Infusions were maintained for 48 hours.
The VAS scores in the postanesthesia care unit and at 4 h were not different. The VAS scores at 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h were lower than 4 in both groups; but they were significantly lower in the interscalene group. Additional analgesic requirements were lower in the interscalene group (16.6% vs 53.3%, p<0.05). Patients' satisfaction was higher in the interscalene group (9.4±0.8 vs 8±1.2, p<0.01). One patient had a toxicity related to interscalene block but; there was no complication related to subacromial catheters.
This study demonstrates that subacromial infusions, although provided good postoperative analgesia, are not as effective as interscalene infusions and additional analgesics should be prescribed when subacromial infusions are started. Subacromial infusions could be considered as an alternative in case of any contraindication to interscalene block.
Agri: Agri (Algoloji) Dernegi'nin Yayin organidir = The journal of the Turkish Society of Algology 01/2011; 23(1):7-12.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may differ from institution to institution, even within different sites in the same institution. A variety of factors may influence the outcome. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of CPR attempts guided by the current standards and aimed to define the factors influencing the outcome following in-hospital cardiac arrest. One hundred and thirty-four patients who required CPR were studied prospectively. Different variables for the CPR performance were recorded using forms designed for this study in the light of the guidelines. In these CPR forms various data including the demographics, history, monitoring, number, composition and experience of the anaesthesiologists, the site of CPR, time of day, the delay before onset of CPR, tracheal intubation, duration of arrest, initial rhythm in ECG monitored patients, management of CPR, drug administration and reversible causes of cardiac arrest were recorded. Our rates of immediate survival, survival at 24 h and survival to discharge 49.3%, 28.5% and 13.4%, respectively. The extent of monitoring prior to arrest, the attendance of one or more experienced anesthesiologists in the CPR team, CPR during office hours, CPR in ICU or operating room, early initiation of CPR and tracheal intubation prior to arrest were found as the factors increasing discharge survival. We conclude that early initiation of CPR with an experienced team in a well-equipped hospital sites increases the discharge survival rate following cardiac arrest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study we compared the effects of three different dose regimens of magnesium on intraoperative propofol and atracurium requirements, and postoperative morphine consumption in patients undergoing gynaecological surgery.
Eighty women were allocated to four equal groups. The control group received normal saline; magnesium groups received 40 mg kg(-1) of magnesium before induction of anaesthesia, followed by i.v. infusion of normal saline, magnesium 10 mg kg(-1) h(-1) or magnesium 20 mg kg(-1) h(-1) for the next 4 h. Propofol infusion was targeted to keep bispectral index values between 45 and 55. Postoperative analgesia was achieved using PCA with morphine.
Magnesium groups required significantly less propofol [mean (sd) 121.5 (13.3), 102.2 (8.0) and 101.3 (9.7) microg kg(-1) min(-1) respectively] than the control group (140.7 (16.5) microg kg(-1) min(-1)). Atracurium use was significantly higher in the control group than magnesium groups [0.4 (0.06) vs 0.34 (0.06), 0.35 (0.04), 0.34 (0.06) mg kg(-1) h(-1) respectively]. Morphine consumption was significantly higher in control group than magnesium groups on the first postoperative day [0.88 (0.14) vs 0.73 (0.17), 0.59 (0.23), 0.53 (0.21) mg kg(-1) respectively]. The heart rate was lower in magnesium groups and 20 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion group demonstrated the lowest values.
Magnesium 40 mg kg(-1) bolus followed by 10 mg kg(-1) h(-1) infusion leads to significant reductions in intraoperative propofol, atracurium and postoperative morphine consumption. Increasing magnesium dosage did not offer any advantages, but induced haemodynamic consequences.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 03/2006; 96(2):247-52. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this prospective, randomized study we compared the recovery profiles of bispectral index (BIS)-guided anesthesia regimens with desflurane or propofol in ambulatory arthroscopy. Fifty ASA I-II adult patients who underwent knee arthroscopy were randomized to receive desflurane (D) or propofol (P) infusion accompanied by remifentanil and nitrous oxide during maintenance, titrated to maintain a bispectral index value between 50 and 60. Initial awakening, fast-track eligibility, and home readiness as well as intraoperative hemodynamics, were compared. The groups did not differ with respect to demographics, duration of operation, or intraoperative vital signs. Although the times for initial awakening parameters were shorter in group D, the differences between the groups were not significant. The time needed for the White fast-track score to reach 12 was shorter in group P than group D (9 +/- 3.5 min vs 12.5 +/- 5.3 min). However, home readiness did not differ significantly between the groups. Desflurane is an alternative to propofol for BIS-guided ambulatory anesthesia. Using desflurane in combination with opioid analgesics blunted its rapid emergence characteristics, and the higher frequency of emetic symptoms with desflurane diminished the success of its fast-track eligibility.
Journal of Anesthesia 02/2006; 20(2):149-52. · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PEEP on oxygenation and airway pressures during PCV-OLV.
Randomized, crossover, clinical study.
Twenty-five patients undergoing thoracotomy.
During the first 5 minutes of OLV, all patients were ventilated with VCV (PEEP: 0) (VCV-ZEEP). Afterward, ventilation was changed to PCV with PEEP: 0 (PCV-ZEEP) or PEEP: 4 cmH2O (PCV-PEEP) for 20 minutes. In the following 20 minutes, PCV-PEEP and PCV-ZEEP were applied in reverse sequence.
At the end of VCV-ZEEP airway pressures (peak airway pressure, plateau airway pressure, mean airway pressure, and pause airway pressure) were recorded. At the end of PCV-PEEP and PCV-ZEEP airway pressures, PaO2 and Qs/Qt were recorded. Ppeak and Pplat were significantly lower with PCV-PEEP compared with VCV-ZEEP (eg, Ppeak: 33.4+/-4.2, 28.3+/-4.1, and 28.9+/-3.7 cmH2O in VCV-ZEEP, PCV-ZEEP, and PCV-PEEP, respectively; p<0.05 for PCV-ZEEP v VCV-ZEEP and PCV-PEEP v VCV-ZEEP). PCV-PEEP was associated with an increased PaO2 (230.3+/-69.8 v 189.0+/-54.8 mmHg, p<0.05) and decreased Qs/Qt (33.4%+/-7.3% v 38.4%+/-5.7%, p<0.05) compared with PCV-ZEEP (mean+/-SD). Eighty-eight percent of the patients have benefited from PEEP.
During OLV, PCV with a low level of PEEP leads to improved oxygenation with lower airway pressures.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 03/2005; 19(1):71-5. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between peripheral and central venous pressures in different patient positions (supine, prone, lithotomy, Trendelenburg, and Fowler), different catheter diameters (18 G and 20 G), and catheterization sites (dorsal hand and forearm) during surgical procedures.
Prospective clinical study.
Five hundred adult patients.
Peripheral over-the-needle intravenous catheters were placed in the dorsal hand or forearm. Central venous catheters were inserted via the internal jugular or subclavian vein after induction of anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS and
Simultaneous measurements of central and peripheral venous pressures were made during stable conditions at random time points in surgery; 1953 paired measurements were performed. Mean central venous pressure was 11 +/- 3.7 mmHg and peripheral venous pressure was 13 +/- 4 mmHg (p = 0.0001). The overall correlation between central venous and peripheral venous pressures was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.89, r(2) = 0.8, p = 0.0001). Mean difference between peripheral and central venous pressure was 2 +/- 1.8 mmHg. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement were 5.6 to -1.6 mmHg.
It has been assumed that replacing central venous pressure by peripheral venous pressure would cause problems in clinical interpretation. If the validity of this data is confirmed by further studies, the authors suggest that central venous pressure could be estimated by using regression equations to compare the 2 methods.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 09/2004; 18(4):446-50. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a prospective, randomised, double-blind study the effects of FiO (2) of 0,5 with CPAP and a FiO (2) of 1.0 without CPAP on oxygenation and pulmonary shunt during one-lung ventilation (OLV) were examined.
In 20 patients undergoing thoracotomy (ASA II/III) two sequential ventilation methods were used during OLV: a) FiO (2) of 1.0 (OLV-100) and b) a FiO (2) of 0.5 in N (2)O combined with CPAP of 5 cm H (2)O to the non-ventilated lung (OLV-CPAP), whereby the sequence in 10 patients was OLV-CPAP followed by OLV-100; and the opposite in the remaining 10 patients. Operating conditions were graded by the surgeon.
OLV-CPAP was associated with a better oxygenation and a lower shunt compared to OLV-100 (paO (2) : 198 +/- 40 mmHg vs 181 +/- 38 mmHg; p < 0.05 and Qs/Qt: 30 +/- 6 % vs. 34 +/- 8 %; p < 0.01, respectively). The different sequence of the ventilation methods did not cause significant differences in the results. The surgical conditions were not impaired by the CPAP of 5 cm H (2)O.
The application of low FiO (2) with CPAP provided a better oxygenation and a lower pulmonary shunt during the OLV compared to high FiO (2) without CPAP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide levels and augmentation of pulmonary blood flow achieved by insertion of systemic-pulmonary shunts.
Prospective clinical study.
Nineteen cyanotic children with tetralogy of Fallot.
Modified Blalock-Taussig shunt operations were performed on the left side in 14 patients and on the right side in 5 patients.
End-tidal carbon dioxide tension was recorded, and an arterial blood gas sample was obtained simultaneously after thoracotomy (T0) and after completion of systemic-pulmonary shunt (T1). End-tidal carbon dioxide tension was significantly higher ( p < 0.01), and arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide tension difference was significantly lower (p < 0.01) at T1 when compared with T0. The increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide showed a statistically significant correlation with the response of arterial oxygen saturation (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). The fall in arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide tension difference correlated inversely with the change of oxygen saturation (r = -0.81, p < 0.0001).
It is concluded that end-tidal carbon dioxide tension alterations offer an alternative intraoperative tool to monitor pulmonary blood flow during modified Blalock-Taussig shunt procedures.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 04/2004; 18(2):152-5. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of thiopental and propofol during defibrillation threshold testing (DFT) on hemodynamics and recovery profile in patients requiring automatic internal cardioverter-defibrilator placement.
Prospective clinical investigation.
Thirty-four adult patients.
After administration of midazolam, 0.025 mg/kg, and fentanyl, 0.5 to 1 mug/kg, surgery was performed under topical infiltration with 1% lidocaine. In group I (GI) (n = 17), patients received thiopental by slow injection and patients in group II (GII) (n = 17) received propofol before induction of ventricular fibrillation (VF).
Patients received 4.1 +/- 1.4 mg of midazolam, 114 +/- 34 mug of fentanyl, and 280 +/- 78 mg of thiopental in GI; and 4.6 +/- 1.7 mg of midazolam, 119 +/- 62 mug of fentanyl, and 147 +/- 40 mg of propofol in GII (p > 0.05). Hemodynamics did not show significant differences between the groups at any recording time. Average time needed to regain the pretest sedation level was 16.4 +/- 8.8 minutes in GI and 10.9 +/- 5.5 minutes in GII (p = 0.03). Time required to achieve a score of 10 using a modified Aldrete score was 26.4 +/- 9.3 minutes in GI and 17.4 +/- 4.9 in GII (p = 0.001). Seven patients in GII (41%) and 1 patient in GI (6%) became hypotensive after DFT (p = 0.04).
Deepening the sedation level by slow injection of thiopental or propofol before DFT provided satisfactory conditions during brief episodes of VF. Delay in recovery of arterial pressure after DFT with propofol and delay in arousal and discharge of patients with thiopental are major disadvantages of the regimens.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 10/2003; 17(5):613-6. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interest in combining local and general anaesthesia has lead to studies investigating possible interactions. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we tested whether local anaesthetics administered i.m. potentiate the hypnotic effect of propofol.
Sixty patients (three groups, n=20) undergoing lower abdominal surgery with total i.v. propofol anaesthesia were investigated. Patients in Group B received i.m. bupivacaine (5 mg ml(-1)) 1 mg kg(-1), patients in Group L received i.m. lidocaine (100 mg ml(-1)) 2 mg kg(-1) and patients in Group C received i.m. saline 5 ml before operation. Hypnosis was measured with bispectral index (BIS).
The induction (BIS <45), and the maintenance doses of propofol (BIS between 40 and 50) were significantly less in Group B and Group L compared with the control group. Induction doses were 1.58 (SD 0.39), 1.56 (0.24) and 2.03 (0.33) mg kg(-1) respectively; P<0.0001. Maintenance doses were 6.33 (2.06), 7.08 (1.23) and 9.95 (2.02) mg kg(-1) respectively in the first hour; P<0.0001. Groups B and L were associated with an attenuated haemodynamic response to both induction and intubation.
I.M. administered local anaesthetics are associated with a decrease in both the induction and maintenance doses of propofol during total i.v. anaesthesia and a reduction in haemodynamic responses.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 01/2003; 89(6):849-52. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arthroscopic knee surgery is one of the most common surgeries done in outpatient settings; however, postoperative pain is believed to be the major barrier for discharge and early rehabilitation. In this study we evaluated and compared the efficacy of intraarticular application of long-lasting non-steroidal analgesic drug tenoxicam, a long-lasting local anaesthetic bupivacaine and combination of the two on postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. With the approval of the local ethics committee and signed informed consent of the patients, 75 American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients aged between 18 and 65 years going under elective arthroscopic meniscectomy were included in this randomized, blind, prospective study. The patients were divided into three groups: group-T (GT) patients ( n=25) had intraarticular 20 mg of tenoxicam in 20 ml normal saline; group-B (GB) patients ( n=25) had 50 mg bupivacaine in 20 ml normal saline (0.25%); group-BT (GBT) patients ( n=25) had intraarticular 20 mg of tenoxicam and 50 mg bupivacaine (0.25%) in 20 ml normal saline after completion of the surgery and before deflation of the tourniquet. Postoperative analgesia was maintained by intravenous tramadol hydrochloride 50 mg/s at the first 4 h and paracetamol 500 mg and codeine 7.5 mg preparation (Pacofen) as needed (maximum six per day) during the study period. The numeric rating scale (NRS) values were at rest and at active-passive motion at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h, total analgesic consumption, at 4 h for tramadol and at the end of 48 h for oral medication; and patient satisfaction at the end of 48 h was evaluated and recorded. The demographic features of the patients, and tourniquet times, were found to be similar between the groups. Group BT had significantly lower NRS values than GB at 12 h at rest. Group BT was found to have significantly lower NRS values at 4 h compared with GT, and significantly lower NRS values at 12 h compared with GB. Group BT was found to have significantly lower NRS values at 48 h compared with GB. Group T had significantly higher NRS values at 4 h compared with GB. Group B had significantly higher values at 12 h compared with GT and GBT. Group B used significantly more analgesics than GBT and GT throughout the study period. Group BT patients had significantly more satisfaction at the end of the study period when compared with GT and GB. Application of intraarticular tenoxicam-bupivacaine solution is a simple, safe and effective method of analgesia after arthroscopic meniscectomy with high patient satisfaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this clinical, randomized, prospective study, we compared the effects of three different analgesia techniques (thoracic epidural analgesia [TEA] with and without preoperative initiation and IV patient-controlled analgesia [IV-PCA]) on postthoracotomy pain in 69 patients. In two groups, a thoracic epidural catheter was inserted preoperatively. Group Pre-TEA had bupivacaine and morphine solution preoperatively and intraoperatively. Postoperative analgesia was maintained with epidural PCA with a similar solution. Group Post-TEA, with no intraoperative medication, had the same postoperative analgesia as Group Pre-TEA plus the bolus dose. Group IV-PCA received only IV-PCA with morphine for postoperative analgesia. Pain was evaluated every 4 h during the first 48 h at rest, cough, and movement. Pre-TEA was associated with decreased pain compared with the other groups. Six months later, the patients were asked about their pain. The incidence and the intensity of pain were most frequent in Group IV-PCA (78%) and were the least in Group Pre-TEA (45%) (Group Pre-TEA versus Group IV-PCA, P = 0.0233; Group Pre-TEA versus Group IV-PCA, P = 0.014). Patients having pain on the second postoperative day had 83% chronic pain. TEA with preoperative initiation is a preferable method in preventing acute and long-term thoracotomy pain. IMPLICATIONS: Preoperatively initiated thoracic epidural analgesia has the most satisfying results in controlling postthoracotomy pain in the acute and long-term period, and it is associated with a decreased incidence (and intensity) of chronic pain compared with postoperative (epidural or IV) analgesia. Chronic pain has an incidence of 62%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of two different inspiratory oxygen fractions (FiO2) on oxygenation and pulmonary shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) during one-lung-ventilation (OLV) were compared in a prospective, randomized, clinical investigation. Following Ethical Committee approval and informed patient consent 26 patients undergoing thoracotomy were included. Anaesthesia was maintained with 60 % O2 in air and isoflurane % 0.7-1.5 until OLV. During OLV, FiO2 of 100 % and 60 % was applied in alternating sequences of 20 minutes each in all patients (OLV100 and OLV60). Arterial and venous blood samples were drawn before OLV, at the end of OLV60 and OLV100, and after 20 minutes after OLV to record PaO2 and the necessary parameters to calculate Qs/Qt.
PaO2 was found statistically lower in OLV60 (PaO2: Before-OLV: 191.4±42.9; OLV60: 124.5±39.7; OLV100: 188±69.5; After-OLV: 190.4±40,1 mmHg; p<0.0001); while there were significant differences between OLV and two-lung-ventilations measurements and also between OLV60 and OLV100 in Qs/Qt (Qs/Qt: Before-OLV: 14.2±4.1; OLV60: 27.5±6.6; OLV100: 32±6.9; After-OLV: 14.3±3.4 %; p<0.0001). PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly higher in OLV60 compared to OLV100 (209.2±67.6 vs 188.0±69.5; p<0.01). FiO2 of 100 % during OLV is associated with a better oxygenation, but also with an increase in Qs/Qt.
Considering that the increase of shunt because of high FiO2 would lead to serious problems, it seems to be more rational to increase the FiO2 only following a clinical examination during OLV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of ketamine in comparison with isoflurane in the maintenance of anesthesia in children with tetralogy of Fallot.
Prospective, randomized study.
Fifty children scheduled for correction of tetralogy of Fallot.
After intubation, patients were assigned randomly to receive 2 different anesthesia maintenance regimens: group I, isoflurane, 0 to 1% plus fentanyl, 0.1 microg/kg/min; group II, ketamine, 0 to 5 mg/kg/h, plus fentanyl, 0.1 microg/kg/min. Isoflurane concentration and ketamine infusion rate were adjusted to maintain arterial pressure within 25% of baseline. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded at the end of 4 intervals: T0, before induction of anesthesia; T1, induction to 10 minutes postintubation; T2, 10 minutes postintubation to poststernotomy; and T3, poststernotomy to completion of catheterizations.
In comparing group I with group II, significant differences were observed in mean arterial pressure (p < 0.0001), heart rate (p < 0.01), arterial oxygen saturation (p < 0.0001), arterial oxygen tension (p < 0.001), arterial carbon dioxide tension (p < 0.001), arterial pH (p < 0.0001), base excess (p < 0.05), and arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide tension difference (p < 0.01) at T3.
The use of ketamine anesthesia is recommended as an alternative maintenance regimen in children undergoing definitive correction of tetralogy of Fallot.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 11/2000; 14(5):557-61. · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the leading nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria has increased in recent years, and these pathogens cause most of the deaths attributable to pneumonia. The authors, therefore, evaluated factors associated with selected multidrug-resistant ventilator-associated pneumonia in critical care patients.
The authors prospectively recorded potential risk factors at the time of intensive care unit admission. An endotracheal aspirate was obtained in all patients who met clinical criteria for pneumonia. Patients were considered to have ventilator-associated pneumonia only when they met the clinical criteria and aspirate culture was positive for bacteria 48 h or more after initiation of mechanical ventilation. Pediatric patients were excluded. Adult patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia were first grouped as "early-onset" (< 5 days) and "late-onset," determined by episodes of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and then, assigned to four groups based on the bacteria cultured from their tracheal aspirates: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and all others. The first three bacteria were considered to be multidrug resistant, whereas the others were considered to be antibiotic susceptible. Potential risk factors were evaluated with use of univariate statistics and multivariate regression.
Among 486 consecutive patients admitted during the study, 260 adults underwent mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h. Eighty-one patients (31%) experienced 99 episodes of ventilator-associated pneumonia, including Pseudomonas(33 episodes), methicillin-resistant staphylococci (17 episodes), Acinetobacter(9 episodes), and nonresistant bacteria (40 episodes). Sixty-six of these episodes were early onset and 33 episodes were late onset. Logistic regression analysis identified three factors significantly associated with early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by any one of the multidrug-resistant bacterial strains: emergency intubation (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-20.2), aspiration (odds ratio, 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-64.6), and Glasgow coma score of 9 or less (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-11.3). A. baumanii-related pneumonia cases were found to be significantly associated with two of these factors: aspiration (odds ratio, 14.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-133.8) and Glasgow coma score (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-32.6).
The authors recommend that patients undergoing emergency intubation or aspiration or who have a Glasgow coma score of 9 or less be monitored especially closely for early-onset multidrug-resistant pneumonia. The occurrence of aspiration and a Glasgow coma score of 9 or less are especially associated with pneumonia caused by A. baumanii.