[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of poverty and inequality in post-war Rwanda. Rwanda is one of the poorest countries in the world, and has recently become one of the most unequal. High levels of poverty and inequality have important implications not only in terms of evaluations of social welfare, but also for management of social tensions and the propensity for violent conflict in the future. This paper uses the first two available and nationally representative rounds of household surveys –EICV1 2000 and EICV2 2005 – to decompose and identify the major ‘sources' of poverty and inequality in the country. I find stark differences in vulnerability to poverty by region, gender and widow status of the head of household. I additionally find important changes in the ‘income generating functions' of Rwandan households, and that distribution of land and financial assets are increasingly important in determining the inter-household distribution of income.
Development Southern Africa 01/2015; 32(2):1-20. DOI:10.1080/0376835X.2014.984375 · 0.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patterns of gendered violence during civil conflict are among the least well-understood aspects of civil war, and even greater gaps in our understanding exist regarding the long-term patterns of gendered power and violence in countries affected by war. This article examines the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence, based on household-level data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Rwanda in 2005. Three results stand out. First, there are significant differences in the prevalence of three different types of gendered violence: physical, emotional and sexual violence. Second, women who are employed but whose husbands are not experience more sexual violence, not less, as would be expected in conventional household bargaining models. This can be interpreted as reflecting 'male backlash' as gender norms are destabilized. Finally, there is a strong inter-district correlation between the post-conflict prevalence of sexual violence and the intensity of political violence during the genocide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We argue that previous research on time devoted to child care has paid insufficient attention to the conceptualization of care time. Three separate problems are evident. First, the conventional focus on explicit activities with children distracts attention from the larger responsibilities of "passive" care, which ranges from time when children are sleeping to time when they are in the same general area but are not engaged in an activity with parents. Second, the empirical analysis of activity time focuses almost exclusively on parents, overlooking the role of relatives such as grandmothers and siblings. Third, the measurement of active care time often ignores the impact of overlaps among both care providers and recipients. Our analysis of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics sheds light on these three problems and presents new measures of passive and active care time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: “Time-use statistics offer a unique tool for exploring a wide range of policy concerns including social change; division of labour; allocation of time for household work; the estimation of the value of household production; transportation; leisure and recreation; pension plans; and health-care programmes, among others” (United Nations). This expertise will discuss recent developments, improvements and future challenges of time use and time budgets for policy and research with focus on international and in particular German national developments. It is written in the sequel of the last German KVI commission report on the improvement of the information infrastructure between sciences and statistics. Topics are: recent :international time use institutions, data archives and surveys; German time use data bases and their access, actual time use research fields and studies; time use and economic and social policy; new methods in time use survey sampling, future developments and European and international challenges. The conclusions recommend first of all a new German Time Use Survey GTUS 2011/12 and urgently calls for its financing and start of organisation. Specific GTUS improvements, SOEP time use issues, a brand new time use panel and a permanent establishment of the German research data centres (RDCs) are recommended in addition.