Kazunori Toida

Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (47)161.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Current stem cell technologies have enabled the induction of cortical progenitors and neurons from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro. To understand the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of apico-basal polarity and the formation of processes associated with the stemness of cortical cells generated in monolayer culture, here, we developed a novel in utero transplantation system based on the moderate dissociation of adherens junctions in neuroepithelial tissue. This method enables 1) the incorporation of remarkably higher numbers of grafted cells and 2) quantitative morphological analyses at single-cell resolution, including time-lapse recording analyses. We then grafted cortical progenitors induced from mouse ESCs into the developing brain. Importantly, we revealed that the mode of process extension depends on the extrinsic apico-basal polarity of the host epithelial tissue, as well as on the intrinsic differentiation state of the grafted cells. Furthermore, we successfully transplanted cortical progenitors induced from human ESCs, showing that our strategy enables investigation of the neurogenesis of human neural progenitors within the developing mouse cortex. Specifically, human cortical cells exhibit multiple features of radial migration. The robust transplantation method established here could be utilized both to uncover the missing gap between neurogenesis from ESCs and the tissue environment and as an in vivo model of normal and pathological human corticogenesis.
    Stem cells and development 12/2013; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)1 and GAD2 are universally contained in GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system of the mouse and rat. The two isoforms are almost identically expressed throughout the brain and spinal cord. By using in situ hybridization, we found that the mouse lateral striatum concentrates medium-sized projection neurons with high-level expression of GAD1, but not of GAD2, mRNA. This was confirmed with several types of riboprobe, including those directed to the 5'-noncoding, 3'-noncoding and coding regions. Immunohistochemical localization of GAD1 also revealed predominant localization of the enzyme in the same striatal region. The lateral region of the mouse striatum, harboring such neurons, is ovoid in shape and extends between interaural +4.8 and +2.8, and at lateral 2.8 and dorsoventral 2.0. This intriguing region corresponds to the area that receives afferent inputs from the primary motor and sensory cortex that are presumably related to mouth and forelimb representations. The lateral striatum is included in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, and is most vulnerable to various noxious stimuli in the neurodegeneration processes involving the basal ganglia. We have confirmed elevated expression of GAD1 mRNA, but not of GAD2 mRNA, also in the rat lateral striatum. Image analysis favored the view that the regional increase is caused by elevated cellular expression, and that the greatest number of medium-sized spiny neurons were positive for GAD1 mRNA. The GAD1 mRNA distribution in the mouse lateral striatum partially resembled those of GPR155 and cannabinoid receptor type 1 mRNAs, suggesting functional cooperation in some neurons.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 03/2012; 35(5):711-22. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory mechanisms of ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression are not well known, although methamphetamine (METH) has been reported to up-regulate RyRs in mouse brain. This study investigate regulatory mechanisms of RyR expression by dopaminergic system using the midbrain and cerebral cortical neurons in primary culture intermittently exposed to METH and dopamine receptor (DR) agonists (1 h/day, for 3 days). Intermittent METH (10 μM) exposure enhanced RyR-1 and -2 proteins and their mRNA, but not RyR-3 expression in the both types of the neurons. These METH-induced increases of RyR proteins and their mRNA were dose-dependently blocked by SCH23390 (a selective D(1) DR antagonist), but not a D(2)DR antagonist sulpiride, suggesting a regulatory role of D(1)DRs in RyR expression by METH in these neurons. In cerebral cortical neurons, intermittent SKF82958 (a selective D(1)DR agonist) exposure increased RyR-1 and -2 proteins and their mRNA, whereas quinpirole (a selective D(2)DR agonist) showed no effects. KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor, dose-dependently attenuated the METH-stimulated RyR-1 and -2 expressions in cerebral cortical neurons. METH significantly increased phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein, which was completely suppressed by SCH23390. These results indicate that RyR-1 and -2 expressions are regulated by D(1)DRs via the signal transduction linked to D(1)DRs.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2011; 118(5):773-83. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excitatory synapses on dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) represent an important role in psychostimulant-induced rewarding effect. This study investigated the regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in mice under intermittent methamphetamine (METH) treatment using a place preference procedure. RyR-1 and -2 significantly increased in the VTA of mice with METH-induced place preference, whereas RyR-3 showed no changes. In addition, the levels of NR1, NR2A, and NR2B subunits were increased in the VTA. The METH-induced place preference was inhibited by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, and ifenprodil, a selective NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor antagonist, in a dose-dependent manner. Under these conditions, the increase of RyR-1 and -2 in the VTA was significantly blocked by ifenprodil. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed the colocalization of RyR-1 and -2 with NR2B subunits in dopaminergic neurons in the mouse VTA. These findings suggest that RyRs could be involved in the development of METH-induced place preference and that NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors in mice showing METH-induced place preference play an important role in expression of RyRs.
    Synapse 05/2011; 65(11):1156-65. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A hallmark of neurogenesis in the vertebrate brain is the apical-basal nuclear oscillation in polarized neural progenitor cells. Known as interkinetic nuclear migration (INM), these movements are synchronized with the cell cycle such that nuclei move basally during G1-phase and apically during G2-phase. However, it is unknown how the direction of movement and the cell cycle are tightly coupled. Here, we show that INM proceeds through the cell cycle-dependent linkage of cell-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. During S to G2 progression, the microtubule-associated protein Tpx2 redistributes from the nucleus to the apical process, and promotes nuclear migration during G2-phase by altering microtubule organization. Thus, Tpx2 links cell-cycle progression and autonomous apical nuclear migration. In contrast, in vivo observations of implanted microbeads, acute S-phase arrest of surrounding cells and computational modelling suggest that the basal migration of G1-phase nuclei depends on a displacement effect by G2-phase nuclei migrating apically. Our model for INM explains how the dynamics of neural progenitors harmonize their extensive proliferation with the epithelial architecture in the developing brain.
    The EMBO Journal 03/2011; 30(9):1690-704. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For review there are little available data on regulatory mechanisms of ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression with cocaine treatment, though methamphetamine was reported to up-regulate RyRs in mouse brain. This study attempted to investigate regulatory mechanisms of RyR expression using the cerebral cortical neurons in primary culture intermittently exposed to a psychostimulant, cocaine. Intermittent exposure to cocaine (10 μM) significantly enhanced RyR 1 and 2 proteins and their mRNA, but not RyR 3 expression in the neurons. These cocaine-induced increases of RyR proteins and their mRNA were dose-dependently blocked by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390), but not by a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride). These results indicate a regulatory role of dopamine D1 receptors in RyR expression bycocaine.
    Synapse 03/2011; 65(10):1106-12. · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Urology 01/2011; 78(3). · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that olfactory function is impaired in patients with allergic rhinitis. However, the mechanism of olfactory dysfunction in allergic rhinitis remains poorly understood. Because of difficulties in obtaining and analyzing human olfactory mucosa due to both technical and ethical issues, an animal model needs to be established to clarify the mechanism of olfactory dysfunction in allergic rhinitis. The purpose of this study was to study olfactory function and changes in olfactory mucosa using allergic rhinitis mice. A model of allergic rhinitis mice with olfactory dysfunction was developed by sensitizing with ovalbumin (OVA), and intranasally challenging with the same allergen. Olfactory function of mice with or without allergic rhinitis was assessed by odor detection ability test with cycloheximide and local field potential (LFP) with 1-octanal. We also evaluated histological changes in the olfactory mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice by both light and electron microscopy. Both of odor detection ability test and LFP showed that olfactory function was impaired in mice with allergic rhinitis, but not in mice without allergic rhinitis. Histopathological findings showed prominent infiltration of eosinophils, plasma cells, neutrophils, mast cells, and macrophages in lamina propria of olfactory mucosa of mice with allergic rhinitis, although infiltration of these cells was not seen in control mice. Allergic rhinitis also increased the number and size of glands in olfactory mucosa, suggesting an elevated amount of mucin in olfactory mucosa. This study showed for the first time that mice with allergic rhinitis have impaired olfactory function, increased size and number of olfactory glands, and infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells, plasma cells, and macrophages in the olfactory mucosa. This suggests that allergic reactions are seen in olfactory mucosa of mice with allergic rhinitis, and that greater olfactory gland activity is associated with olfactory dysfunction. Also, this mouse model could provide an expedient system for analyzing mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction.
    Auris, nasus, larynx 03/2010; 37(5):575-83. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Within glomeruli, the initial sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory pathway, olfactory sensory axons terminate on dendrites of projection and juxtaglomerular (JG) neurons. JG cells form at least two major circuits: the classic intraglomerular circuit consisting of external tufted (ET) and periglomerular (PG) cells and an interglomerular circuit comprised of the long-range connections of short axon (SA) cells. We examined the projections and the synaptic inputs of identified JG cell chemotypes using mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the promoter for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 kDa, 67 kDa, or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Virtually all (97%) TH+ cells are also GAD67+ and are thus DAergic-GABAergic neurons. Using a combination of retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, and single-cell three-dimensional reconstruction, we show that different JG cell chemotypes contribute to distinct microcircuits within or between glomeruli. GAD65+ GABAergic PG cells ramify principally within one glomerulus and participate in uniglomerular circuits. DAergic-GABAergic cells have extensive interglomerular projections. DAergic-GABAergic SA cells comprise two subgroups. One subpopulation contacts 5-12 glomeruli and is referred to as "oligoglomerular." Approximately one-third of these oligoglomerular DAergic SA cells receive direct olfactory nerve (ON) synaptic input, and the remaining two-thirds receive input via a disynaptic ON-->ET-->SA circuit. The second population of DAergic-GABAergic SA cells also disynaptic ON input and connect tens to hundreds of glomeruli in an extensive "polyglomerular" network. Although DAergic JG cells have traditionally been considered PG cells, their interglomerular connections argue that they are more appropriately classified as SA cells.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2010; 30(3):1185-96. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin F(2alpha) is synthesized by prostaglandin F synthase, which exists in two types, prostaglandin F synthase I (PGFS I) and prostaglandin F synthase II (PGFS II). Prostaglandin F(2alpha) binds to its specific receptor, FP. Our previous immunohistochemical study showed the distinct localization of prostaglandin F synthases in rat spinal cord. PGFS I exists in neuronal somata and dendrites in the gray substance, and PGFS II exists in ependymal cells and tanycytes surrounding the central canal. Both enzymes are also present in endothelial cells of blood vessels in the white and gray substances of the spinal cord. In this study, we found that FP localizes in neuronal somata and dendrites but not in ependymal cells, tanycytes, or endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of serial sections showed the colocalization of FP and PGFS I. FP immunoreactivity was intense in spinal laminae I and II of the dorsal horn, a connection site of pain transmission, and was similar to that of PGFS I in neuronal elements. These findings suggest that prostaglandin F(2alpha) synthesized in the neuronal somata and dendrites exert an autocrine action there.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2009; 50(10):1996-2003. · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Shigeru Takami, Kazunori Toida
    Anatomical Science International 01/2009; 83(4):183-5. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Kazunori Toida
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    ABSTRACT: Olfaction is one of the chemical senses in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals essential for a variety of social behaviors. Recent molecular biological and physiological studies using optical recording have indicated elaborate mechanisms in the main olfactory bulb for processing input from olfactory receptor neurons and control of output to higher centers in the brain. The current challenge is to identify a structural basis for understanding such elaborate molecular and functional organization. Immunocytochemistry and other advanced technologies have enabled us to label bulbar neurons selectively, and they have shown that the olfactory bulb has much greater heterogeneity in chemical and structural neuronal organization and in synaptic connectivity than previously believed. This review describes the structural aspects of the main olfactory bulb of rats and summarizes the findings for its synaptic organization based on chemical coding of neurons. Current uncertainties and issues that need to be clarified in the future are also discussed.
    Anatomical Science International 01/2009; 83(4):207-17. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2009; 181(4):307-308.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroepithelial (NE) cells, the primary stem and progenitor cells of the vertebrate central nervous system, are highly polarized and elongated. They retain a basal process extending to the basal lamina, while undergoing mitosis at the apical side of the ventricular zone. By studying NE cells in the embryonic mouse, chick and zebrafish central nervous system using confocal microscopy, electron microscopy and time-lapse imaging, we show here that the basal process of these cells can split during M phase. Splitting occurred in the basal-to-apical direction and was followed by inheritance of the processes by either one or both daughter cells. A cluster of anillin, an essential component of the cytokinesis machinery, appeared at the distal end of the basal process in prophase and was found to colocalize with F-actin at bifurcation sites, in both proliferative and neurogenic NE cells. GFP-anillin in the basal process moved apically to the cell body prior to anaphase onset, followed by basal-to-apical ingression of the cleavage furrow in telophase. The splitting of the basal process of M-phase NE cells has implications for cleavage plane orientation and the relationship between mitosis and cytokinesis.
    The EMBO Journal 11/2008; 27(23):3151-63. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection has been suggested to stimulate expression of the NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)-based oxidase system in guinea pig gastric epithelium, whereas Nox1 mRNA expression has not yet been documented in the human stomach. PCR of human stomach cDNA libraries showed that Nox1 and Nox organizer 1 (NOXO1) messages were absent from normal stomachs, while they were specifically coexpressed in intestinal- and diffuse-type adenocarcinomas including signet-ring cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry showed that Nox1 and NOXO1 proteins were absent from chronic atrophic gastritis (15 cases), adenomas (4 cases), or surrounding tissues of adenocarcinomas (45 cases). In contrast, Nox1 and its partner proteins were expressed in intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (19/21 cases), diffuse-type adenocarcinomas (15/15 cases), and signet-ring cell carcinomas (9/9 cases). Confocal microscopy revealed that Nox1, NOXO1, Nox activator 1, and p22(phox) were predominantly associated with Golgi apparatus in these cancer cells, while diffuse-type adenocarcinomas also contained cancer cells having Nox1 and its partner proteins in their nuclei. Nox1-expressing cancer cells exhibited both gastric and intestinal phenotypes, as assessed by expression of mucin core polypeptides. Thus, the Nox1-base oxidase may be a potential marker of neoplastic transformation and play an important role in oxygen radical- and inflammation-dependent carcinogenesis in the human stomach.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2008; 43(12):1627-38. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information to the cerebellum enters via many afferent sources collectively known as precerebellar nuclei. We investigated the distribution of cholinergic terminal-like structures in the mouse precerebellar nuclei by immunohistochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). VAChT is involved in acetylcholine transport into synaptic vesicles and is regarded as a reliable marker for cholinergic terminals and preterminal axons. In adult male mice, brains were perfusion-fixed. Polyclonal antibodies for VAChT, immunoglobulin G-peroxidase and diaminobenzidine were used for immunostaining. In the mouse brain, immunoreactivity was seen in almost all major cholinergic cell groups including brainstem motoneurons. In precerebellar nuclei, the signal could be detected as diffusely beaded terminal-like structures. It was seen heaviest in the pontine nuclei and moderate in the pontine reticulotegmental nucleus; however, it was seen less in the medial solitary nucleus, red nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, external cuneate nucleus and vestibular nuclear complex. In particular, VAChT-immunoreactive varicose fibers were so dense in the pontine nuclei that detailed distribution was studied using three-dimensional reconstruction of the pontine nuclei. VAChT-like immunoreactivity clustered predominantly in the medial and ventral regions suggesting a unique regional difference of the cholinergic input. Electron microscopic observation in the pontine nuclei disclosed ultrastructural features of VAChT-immunoreactive varicosities. The labeled bouton makes a symmetrical synapse with unlabeled dendrites and contains pleomorphic synaptic vesicles. To clarify the neurons of origin of VAChT-immunoreactive terminals, VAChT immunostaining combined with wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase retrograde labeling was conducted by injecting a retrograde tracer into the right pontine nuclei. Double-labeled neurons were seen bilaterally in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. It is assumed that mesopontine cholinergic neurons negatively regulate neocortico-ponto-cerebellar projections at the level of pontine nuclei.
    Neuroscience 07/2007; 146(4):1869-78. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Causative viruses of postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) have not yet been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate causative viruses in patients with PVOD. Nasal discharge was collected from 24 patients with PVOD. We investigated the presence of 10 viruses in nasal discharge and examined the time course, with regard to changes in olfactory dysfunction and nasal obstruction in patients with PVOD, using questionnaires, acoustic rhinometry, and olfactory tests. Rhinoviruses were detected in 10 patients by electrophoresis. Rhinoviruses were also confirmed in four patients by nucleotide sequences. Viral serotypes were identified to be human rhinovirus (HRV)-40, HRV-75, HRV-78, and HRV-80. One of the four patients complained of anosmia, whereas another complained of dysosmia. Olfactory testing did not show significant improvement at 4, 8, 11, and 24 weeks after the first visit in the four patients, although results of acoustic rhinometry significantly improved. Two of the four patients complained of olfactory dysfunction even 6 months after the first visit. Coronavirus and parainfluenza virus were detected in one patient each, and Epstein-Barr viruses were detected in three patients. This study for the first time detected rhinovirus, coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and Epstein-Barr virus in nasal discharge of patients with PVOD. Furthermore, the present study suggests that rhinoviruses can cause olfactory dysfunction through mechanisms other than nasal obstruction and that rhinoviruses can induce various severities and different time courses of olfactory dysfunction.
    The Laryngoscope 03/2007; 117(2):272-7. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy using T-cell epitope peptides or CpG DNA conjugated with allergenic protein is useful, although the mechanisms of these therapies differ. However, the combination of CpG DNA and peptide, but not protein, had not been documented. Therefore, we investigated CpG DNA conjugated with peptide to obtain positive synergistic effects. In the first experiment, mice were vaccinated with a conjugate of CpG DNA and Cry j 2 T-cell epitope peptide p246-259 (CpG-peptide); a mixture of CpG DNA and peptide (CpG+peptide); peptide alone, or PBS alone, and immunized with Cry j 2. In the second experiment, mice were immunized with Cry j 2 and injected with CpG-peptide, CpG+peptide, peptide only, or PBS only. In both experiments, Cry j 2-specific IgE, IL-4, and IL-5 were significantly lower in mice given CpG-peptide, versus those given CpG+peptide, peptide alone, or PBS alone. However, IgG2a, IgG2b and IFN-gamma did not increase in mice injected with CpG-peptide. In the third experiment, CpG-peptide significantly attenuated nasal symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing) compared to CpG+peptide, peptide alone, or PBS alone. Mice were also injected with a conjugate of CpG DNA and Cry j 2 protein (CpG-Cry j 2) or CpG-peptide to compare prime responses. Mice vaccinated with CpG-Cry j 2 generated Cry j 2-specific IgG1, whereas those vaccinated with CpG-peptide did not produce IgG1. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that immunotherapy with CpG DNA conjugated with a T-cell peptide is useful in preventing and treating allergic conditions.
    International Immunopharmacology 02/2007; 7(1):46-54. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyse the gene expression level of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) and its relationship with conventional clinicopathological manifestations, to evaluate its prognostic value for patient outcome, and to determine the effect of PSCA on the progression of CC-RCC. We quantified PSCA mRNA level in human RCC cell lines (ACHN, A704, KPK-1, Caki-1, and Caki-2) and in 154 surgical tissue samples (81 from CC-RCC, 73 from normal kidney) using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The findings were analysed in relation to clinicopathological factors. Immunohistochemical expression was examined using confocal laser scanning light-microscopy. PSCA was overexpressed in all RCC cell lines. PSCA mRNA levels were significantly higher in CC-RCC than in normal kidney tissue samples (P < 0.001), in G2-G3 than in G1 tumours (P = 0.028), and in advanced disease (T3-T4) than in organ-confined (T1-T2) tumours (P = 0.016). There was significantly higher PSCA mRNA expression in patients with M1 than in those with M0 disease (P = 0.029). Patients in whom the lesions had high PSCA expression levels had a significantly worse prognosis than those with low PSCA expression levels (P = 0.044). Using immunohistochemical analysis there was markedly greater PSCA expression in CC-RCC than in normal kidney, and in advanced-disease high-grade tumours than in organ-confined low-grade tumours. A significant correlation was detected in the gene expression level of PSCA with histological grade, clinicopathological stage and prognosis in CC-RCC. Our data indicate that PSCA is associated with carcinogenesis and progression of CC-RCC.
    BJU International 09/2006; 98(3):668-73. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rab3A small G protein is a member of the Rab family and is most abundant in the brain, where it is localized on synaptic vesicles. Evidence is accumulating that Rab3A plays a key role in neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. Rab3A cycles between the GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active forms, and this change in activity is associated with the trafficking cycle of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. Rab3 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) stimulates the GTPase activity of Rab3A and is expected to determine the timing of the dissociation of Rab3A from synaptic vesicles, which may be coupled with synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Rab3 GAP consists of two subunits: the catalytic subunit p130 and the noncatalytic subunit p150. Recently, mutations in p130 were found to cause Warburg Micro syndrome with severe mental retardation. Here, we generated p130-deficient mice and found that the GTP-bound form of Rab3A accumulated in the brain. Loss of p130 in mice resulted in inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release from cerebrocortical synaptosomes and altered short-term plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region. Thus, Rab3 GAP regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity by limiting the amount of the GTP-bound form of Rab3A.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2006; 103(26):10029-34. · 9.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

982 Citations
161.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2010
    • Nagoya City University
      • Department of Otorhinolaryngology
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • Okayama Prefectural University
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
    • Kyorin University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kawasaki Medical University
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
  • 2000–2003
    • The University of Tokushima
      • • Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology
      • • Department of Physiology
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 1994–2001
    • Kyushu University
      • Faculty of Medical Sciences
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan