K. F. Harrison

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States

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Publications (10)4.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT
    Agronomy Journal - AGRON J. 01/2004; 96(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) were overseeded into a dormant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) sod and harvested on six dates throughout the spring. Plant growth stage was documented for each forage on each harvest date, and harvested forages were subsequently evaluated for forage quality characteristics. Four ruminally cannulated steers were used to evaluate disappearance kinetics of nitrogen (N) by an in situ method. All forages had high concentrations of N (≥31.1gkg−1DM) throughout harvest dates in March. By 15 April, rye had reached a substantially more advanced growth stage than either wheat or oat. This trait, coupled with the concurrent taller growth habit, caused concentrations of N in rye to decline (P
    Animal Feed Science and Technology - ANIM FEED SCI TECH. 01/2001; 89(1):17-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and rye (Secale cereale L.) were overseeded into a dormant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) sod and harvested at 3-wk intervals throughout March, April, May, and early June. Plant growth stage was documented for each forage on each harvest date, and harvested forages were evaluated for forage quality characteristics. Degradation kinetics of DM and NDF for these forages were evaluated by the in situ method. Fractional degradation rates for DM and NDF in all three species were relatively rapid for vegetative forage (> or =0.086 h(-1)) but declined rapidly by the heading stage of development and stabilized thereafter. Forage quality declined and forages were more resistant to ruminal degradation as plants entered the reproductive stages of growth. Based on these findings, growth stage is an effective predictor of most characteristics of in situ DM and NDF disappearance. The relationships between these degradation parameters and growth stage were typically explained with quadratic or cubic models. Clearly, forage quality characteristics of overseeded rye deteriorated more rapidly with phenological development and growth stage than quality characteristics of overseeded wheat and oat grown in the same environment. For rye, this problem is further complicated by its accelerated phenological development. These factors combine to permit a very narrow harvest window in early spring, relative to the other cereal grains evaluated. Acceptable forage quality may persist for an extended period in wheat and oat; this suggests that producers wishing to utilize these forages may lengthen the harvest window by planting more than one species, either as a mixture or preferably in independent stands.
    Journal of Dairy Science 12/2000; 83(11):2499-511. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beef cattle consuming bermudagrass hay were not supplemented or received a limited amount of ground corn alone or with a mix of protein meals to determine influences of concentrate supplementation on digestion and performance when the ionophore lasalocid (200 mg daily) was given. With limited feed intake, supplement treatment did not change the acetate to propionate shift in beef cows occurring with lasalocid (P < 0.06). Lasalocid did not affect sites of digestion of organic matter or nitrogen with any supplement treatment. However, lasalocid decreased (P < 0.10) ruminal digestion of neutral and acid detergent fibre. Live-weight gain by growing beef calves ingesting bermudagrass hay ad libitum was higher (P < 0.05) with than without supplementation and tended (P < 0.12) to be greater for corn plus protein meals than for corn alone. Lasalocid did not affect or interact with supplement treatment in feed intake or live-weight gain of heifers (236 kg; no growth stimulant) or steers (237 kg; treated with 200 mg progesterone and 20 mg estradiol benzoate). Lasalocid at 200 mg daily did not improve digestion characteristics or influence performance by beef cattle consuming a Basal diet of bermudagrass hay. Further, effects of lasalocid were not modulated by supplementation with concentrate, concentrate type or sex or growth stimulant usage.
    Archives of Animal Nutrition 01/1992; 42(1):79-92. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Canadian Journal of Animal Science - CAN J ANIM SCI. 01/1992; 72(2):435-439.
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    ABSTRACT: Five crossbred beef steers (515 kg) were used in a Latin square experiment and 36 lactating Jersey cows (12 primiparous, 310 kg; 24 multiparous, 365 kg) were used in a completely randomized design study to determine effects on characteristics of digestion and lactational performance of daily alternation of the dietary level of natural protein (NP). In Experiment 1, steers were fed diets of 50% bermudagrass hay and 50% concentrate. Concentrate was approximately 18% crude protein (CP), formulated to be 60, 80 or 100% NP (varying proportions of soybean meal, urea and ground corn), and was fed at 1.5% body weight (dry matter basis). These concentrates were fed daily or ones with 60 and 100% NP were fed on alternate days. Alternate day feeding did not markedly affect characteristics of digestion, including ruminal escape of feed protein, and NP level of concentrate fed continuously had no effects either. In Experiment 2, cows were subjected to treatments similar to those in Experiment 1, and performance on d 20-40 of lactation was measured. Concentrate was given at 1 kg (as fed)/2.15 kg milk produced, yielding a dietary concentrate level of approximately 40% (dry matter basis). Alternate feeding depressed (P less than 0.05) overall milk fat percentage. Alternate feeding increased production of milk and protein and body weight of primiparous cows but caused little change with multiparous cows. Besides increasing the dietary level of concentrate, perhaps alternate feeding regimes have utility to lower milk fat level without impairing milk production. Level of NP in concentrate fed continuously did not affect performance by multiparous cows though primiparous cow performance was generally enhanced, possibly because CP intake was adequate for multiparous cows but marginal for primiparous cows. However, overall, efficiency of production of solids-corrected milk rose slightly with increasing NP.
    Archives of Animal Nutrition 07/1991; 41(5):527-40. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feed intake, digestion and performance by cattle consuming bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) ad libitum and receiving concentrate supplements were determined. In a Latin square with five Holstein steers (228 kg) fed bermudagrass hay (21.6 g nitrogen kg−1 dry matter (DM)), additions of soybean meal, urea or corn gluten and blood meals with or without urea to a ground corn-based supplement did not affect dry matter intake, digestibilities of organic matter or neutral detergent fiber. In a second experiment, crossbred beef heifers (233 kg) and steers (246 kg; zeranol implanted) were fed bermudagrass hay (18.1 g nitrogen kg−1 DM) ad libitum alone (control) or with ground corn plus dried molasses (833:167; 3.0 g kg−1 body weight) without (basal) or with soybean meal (2.5 g kg−1 body weight), urea (0.40 g kg−1 body weight) or corn gluten and blood meals (1.3 and 0.40 g kg−1 body weight, respectively) with or without urea (0.20 g kg−1 body weight; DM). Daily gain in the 84-day trial was 26% greater for basal than for control animals. Urea supplementation did not affect gain. Additions of protein meals elicited similar further increases in gain by implanted steers, but did not affect gain by non-implanted heifers.RésuméOn a étudié l'ingestion, la digestion et les performances de bovins consommant du foin de bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) à volonté et des aliments concentrés. Dans un essai en carré latin sur 5 bouvillons Holstein (228 kg) recevant un foin contenant 21,6 g d'azote par kg de matière sèche, la consommation de matière sèche été la digestibilité de la matière organique et des parois cellulaires (NDF) n'ont pas été modifiées par l'addition au concentré (à base de maïs moulu) de tourteau de soja, d'urée ou de gluten de maïs et de farine de sang avec ou sans urée.Dans un 2ème essai des génisses (233 kg) et des bouvillons (246 kg, avec un implant de zéranol) croisés de races à viandes, ont reçu à volonté du foin de bermudagrass (18,1 g d'azote par kg de matière sèche) seul (lot témoin) ou avec du maïs moulu additionné de mélasse séchée (833: 167; 3 g par kg de poids vif, PV), sans ou avec (régime complémenté) du tourteau de soja (2,5 g par kg de PV), de l'urée (0,4 g par kg de PV) ou du gluten de maïs et des farines de sang (1,3 et 0,4 kg par kg de PV respectivement) sans ou avec urée (0,2 g par kg de PV; matière sèche). Dans les 84 jours de l'essai, le croît journalier a été de 26% plus élevé avec le régime complémenté qu'avec le régime témoin. Il n'a pas été modifié par l'apport d'urée. Il a été amélioré de façon comparable par l'addition des concentrés protéiques chez les bouvillons implantés mais non chez les génisses non implantées.ZusammenfassungIn Versuchen mit Milchkühen wurden Futteraufnahme, Verdaulichkeit und Leistung nach ad libitum Aufnahme von Bermuda-Gras (Cynodon dactylon), ergänzt mit verschiedenen Konzentraten, bestimmt. In einer Versuchsanlage nach dem lateinischen Quadrat mit fünf Ochsen der Rasse Holstein-Frisian beeinfluβte Bermuda-Gras (21.6 g N kg−1 TM) mit Ergänzungen von Sojaschrot, Harnstoff oder Maiskleber und Blutmehl mit oder ohne Harnstoff zu einem gemahlenen Maiskraftfutter weder die Trockenmasse (Tm)-Aufnahme noch die Verdaulichkeit von Organischer Substanz und Neutraler Deternzien Faser (NDF). In einem zweiten Versuch wurden Kreuzungsrinder (233 kg) und Ochsen (246 kg; zeranol-implantiert) mit Heu von Bermudagras (18.1 g N kg−1 TM) als alleinigem Grundfutter ad libitum (Kontroll-Gruppe) oder mit gemahlenem Mais plus getrockneter Melasse (833:167; 3.0 kg kg−1 LG) ohne (Basal-Gruppe) oder mit Sojaschrot (2.5 kg kg−1 LG), Harnstoff (0.4 g kg−1 LG) oder Maiskleber und Blutmehl (1.3 g bzw. 0.4 g kg−1 LG) mit oder ohne Harnstoff (0.2 g kg−1 LG; TM) gefüttert. Die Gewichtszunahmen waren in dem 84 Tagen dauernden Versuch bei den Tieren nach Verfütterung der Basalration um 26% höher als bei den Kontrolltieren. Harnstoffergänzung beeinfluβte die Gewichtszunahmen nicht. Die Ergänzungen mit den proteinreichen Futtermitteln hatten in ähnlicher Weise weitere Anstiege der Gewichtszunahmen bei den implantierten Ochsen zur Folge, beeinfluβten jedoch die Gewichtszunahmen bei den nicht implantierten Rindern nicht.
    Livestock Production Science 08/1989; 22(s 3–4):255–267.
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    ABSTRACT: Well-established stands of 'Common' and 'Tifton 44' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) located at Fayetteville and Batesville, AR, respectively, were chosen to evaluate the effects of stockpiling initiation date (August or September), and N fertiliza- tion rate (0, 33, 66, or 99 lb N/acre) on the dry matter (DM) yield potential of fall-stockpiled bermudagrass forage in 2000 and 2001. Harvest dates began in mid-October and continued at 3-wk intervals through late December. Soil types were a Captina silt loam at Fayetteville, and a Secesh silt loam at Batesville. Within year, DM yield increased linearly (P ≤ 0.008) with N fertilization rate at Fayetteville in 2001, and in Batesville during both years. Stockpiling initiation date, harvest date, and their interaction affected (P ≤ 0.004) DM yield. For August initiation dates, DM yield declined linearly (P ≤ 0.007) with harvest date at both sites during both years; however, cubic responses (P ≤ 0.076) also were observed in three of the four site-years. For September initiation dates, DM yield exhib- ited less consistent patterns over harvest dates. Yields of DM were greatest when stockpiling was initiated in early August, but overall yields, which ranged approximately from 90 to 4,200 lb/acre, were highly dependent on precipitation during August and early September.
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