[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of H. pylori in the pathogenesis of ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients is poorly defined. Therefore, we sought to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the occurrence of gastroduode-nal lesions in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Seroprevalence of H. pylori was tested in 110 patients with liver cirrhosis and 44 asymptomatic patients with chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis using an anti-H. pylori-IgG-ELISA. Cirrhotic patients underwent upper intestinal endoscopy for macroscopic and histological evaluation of gastric mucosa, and for the detection of mucosal colonisation of H. pylori using Giemsa staining and urease test.
There was no significant difference between the H. pylori seroprevalence in patients with liver cirrhosis (76/110; 69%) and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (27/44, 63%, p=0.465). Gastric mucosal colonization with H. pylori in cirrhotic patients was significantly lower than the serologically determined H. pylori prevalence (45% vs. 69%, p=0.001). Etiology of liver cirrhosis did not influence the prevalence of H. pylori infection. 8 of 110 cirrhotic patients had gastric ulcers and 10 had duodenal ulcers. 61% of cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcers were asymptomatic. H. pylori was histologically identified in 61% of gastroduodenal ulcers, and 47% of gastroduodenal erosions.
Patients with liver cirrhosis have a high prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers. The lack of a firm association between H. pylori prevalence and ulcer frequency in cirrhotic patients argues against a pivotal role of H. pylori in the etiology of ulcers in cirrhotic patients.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2011; 4(1):26-31. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enlarged perihilar lymph nodes have been described in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The aim of the study was to determine the clinical relevance of perihilar lymph nodes in PSC patients with and without cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC).
The status of perihilar lymph nodes was investigated in 117 patients with PSC using "high-end" ultrasound. Thirty-five of the 117 PSC patients had histologically proven CCC. Lymph node status was correlated with the presence of CCC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Seventy-three percent of PSC patients without CCC and 86% of patients with CCC had enlarged perihilar lymph nodes (NS). In CCC patients, the width of lymph nodes was significantly larger (12+/-6 mm versus 8+/-4 mm; p=0.0001), and the length:width ratio (2.15+/-0.7:1 versus 2.5+/-0.6:1; p=0.004) of the lymph nodes was significantly lower. Thirty-seven percent of PSC patients without CCC and 57% of patients with PSC and CCC had multiple perihilar lymph nodes (p=0.04). In all patients, the presence versus absence of IBD had no influence on the number (84% versus 74%,) and size of perihilar lymph nodes (length: 21+/-10 mm versus 19+/-7 mm). Lymph node status did not correlate with the number of episodes of cholangitis.
Enlarged perihilar lymph nodes are characteristic of patients with PSC. Since perihilar lymph nodes are not predictive of the presence of complicating CCC, such patients should not be excluded from liver transplantation.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2008; 43(11):1366-70. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a multidisciplinary conference patients with advanced non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were stratified according to their clinical status and tumor extent to different regional modalities or to best supportive care. The present study evaluated all patients who were stratified to repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) from 1999 until 2003 in terms of tumor response, toxicity, and survival. A moderate embolizing approach was chosen using a combination of degradable starch microspheres (DSM) and iodized oil (Lipiodol) in order to combine anti-tumoral efficiency and low toxicity.
Fourty-seven patients were followed up prospectively. TACE treatment consisted of cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)), doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2)), 450-900 mg DSM, and 5-30 ml Lipiodol. DSM and Lipiodol were administered according to tumor vascularization. Patient characteristics, toxicity, and complications were outlined. In multivariate regression analyses of pre-treatment variables from a prospective database, predictors for tumor response and survival after TACE were determined.
112 TACE courses were performed (2.4+/-1.5 courses per patient). Mean maximum tumor size was 75 (+/-43) mm, in 68% there was bilobar disease. Best response to TACE treatment was: progressive disease (PD) 9%, stable disease (SD) 55%, partial remission (PR) 36%, and complete remission (CR) 0%. Multivariate regression analyses identified tumor size <or=75 mm, tumor number <or=5, and tumor hypervascularization as predictors for PR. The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year-survival rates were 75%, 59%, and 41%, respectively, and the median survival was 26 months. Low alpha-fetoprotein levels (<400 ng/ml) (Odds ratio=3.3) and PR as best response to TACE (Odds ratio=6.7) were significantly associated with long term survival (>30 months, R(2)=36%). Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 7.1% (n=8), and grade 4 toxicity in 3.6% (n=4) of all courses in terms of reversible leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The incidence of major complications was 5.4% (n=6). All complications were managed conservatively. The mortality within 6 weeks after TACE was 2.1% (one patient).
DSM and Lipiodol were combined successfully in the palliative TACE treatment of advanced HCC resulting in high rates of tumor response and survival at limited toxicity. Favourable tumor response was associated with tumor extent and vascularization. TACE using DSM and Lipiodol can be considered a suitable palliative measure in patients who might not tolerate long acting embolizing agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 40-year-old female patient was admitted for work-up of multiple abdominal masses. The lymphoma-mimicking tumors were detected accidentally during an ultrasound course. The past medical history was unremarkable besides a status post-traumatic splenic rupture and splenectomy. The patient was asymptomatic, especially there were no complaints of fever, night sweats or weight loss. Laboratory tests did not show pathological results. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed multiple hypoechoic mesenterial and peritoneal enlarged tumors as well as a subhepatic mass (30 x 20 mm). Transmission computed tomography (CT) showed a normal chest, excluded abnormal thoracal masses and confirmed the multiple abdominal nodules. Microparticles were trapped only by tissue with phagocytosis function as cells of the reticulohistiocytary system in liver and spleen. Uptake of (99 m)Tc-labeled microparticles is specific for splenic tissue. All abdominal masses were detectable by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous administration of this radiotracer. Ultrasound-guided biopsy proved the presence of spleen tissue with follicular hyperplasia. In conclusion, we report a case of post-traumatic splenosis. In 16 - 67 % of patients who experienced traumatic splenic rupture autotransplanted spleen tissue can be detected. Splenosis therefore is an important differential diagnosis of abdominal masses in splenectomized patients.
Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 12/2005; 43(11):1225-9. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The side effects caused by malaria prophylaxis with mefloquine (Lariam) are well known. We describe the case of a 42-year-old female Caucasian patient suffering from painless jaundice and showing elevated liver, cholestasis and inflammation laboratory findings 7 days after returning from Tanzania. Acute cholecystitis was diagnosed by ultrasound. Treatment with parenteral nutrition and antibiotic therapy did not show any beneficial effect. Excluding the possibility of infectious diseases, the elevated laboratory and ultrasound findings were normalized after the discontinuation of the malaria prophylaxis.
Der Internist 11/2005; 46(10):1147-51. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major clinical problem. The only efficient treatment options are percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RF) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), but these therapies are only applicable to patients with limited tumor spread and sufficient liver function. For patients with advanced tumor and poor liver function a systemic therapy is required. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog with antimitotic activity, is a controversial treatment option.
In the current study we prospectively assigned a group of 41 HCC patients with advanced HCC and cirrhosis stage to treatment with octreotide. The clinical and laboratory parameters were monitored and survival was analyzed using a Cox regression model.
The medium survival in the group of all patients was 571 days. Using the Cox regression there was a significant difference in survival for alpha-fetoprotein (P = 0.026) and Quick's test (P = 0.009) in consideration of the tumor dimension compared to the other characteristics. The tumor remained stable in 26 patients over a mean follow-up of 21 months and progressed in 14 patients. One patient showed a partial response. There was no incidence of severe side-effects (WHO grade 3-4). During the follow-up time, 14 patients died because of their underlying disease.
Treatment with octreotide appears safe and patients show similar survival compared to a group of patients with advanced HCC treated with TACE. Further studies are necessary to investigate somatostatin receptor subtypes or receptor mutations of patients with advanced HCC in relation to their response.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10/2005; 20(9):1422-8. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetal hydrocephalus is induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 8 mg/kg 6-aminonikotinamide (6-AN), a niacinamide antagonist, in Sprague-Dawley rats on day 13 of gestation. Laparotomy was carried out in some rats 3, 6, 7 and 8 days after the intraperitoneal injection. The fetuses were collected by uterotomy and fixed in a formalin solution after measuring head circumference and body length for further histological investigations. The ventricular areas and volumes of the lateral ventricles were measured using a computer morphometric technique after all fetuses were serially sectioned sagittally or coronally. Furthermore, 8 maternal rats (4 treated with 6-AN and 4 controls) were used for ultrasound investigation. The fetal ventricular system and the central canal were demonstrated and compared by transabdominal ultrasound in the 6-AN and control groups. On day 19 of gestation the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained in some fetuses for 18 h through a thin micro-catheter, which was inserted into the lateral ventricle. In some other fetuses the intracranial pressure (ICP) and the intra-amniotic pressure (IAP) were measured after Doppler sonography of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). These measurements were carried out using a transuterine approach following the laparotomy.
Hydrocephalus was produced due to the closure of all outlets of the fourth ventricle. Macrocephalus was clear on day 17 (4 days after 6-AN injection). The entire ventricular system was dilated, including the aqueduct and foramen of Monro, and cerebellar hypoplasia was revealed.
Increased ICP in 6-AN fetuses was associated with decreasing CBF. The cerebral mantel was better developed after CSF drainage. The intra-amniotic pressure was increased in all pregnant rats and was either similar to or higher than ICP.
Child s Nervous System 06/2005; 21(5):365-71. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. However, treatment options are limited and often inefficient. The aim of this study was to determine current survival rates for patients diagnosed with HCC and to identify prognostic factors, which will help in choosing optimal therapies for individual patients. A retrospective analysis of medical records was performed on 389 patients who were identified through the central tumour registry at our institution from 1998 to 2003. Clinical parameters, treatments received and survival curves from time of diagnosis were analysed. Overall median survival was 11 months. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed in 80.5% of all patients. A total of 170 patients received transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and/or percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) with a median survival rate of 16 months for patients receiving TACE, 11 months for patients receiving PEI and 24 months for patients receiving TACE followed by PEI. Independent negative prognostic parameters for survival were the presence of portal vein thrombosis, advanced liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh score B or C) and a score of >2. This study will help to estimate survival rates for patients with HCC according to their clinical status at diagnosis and the treatments received.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2005; 92(10):1862-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In nonresectable cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) therapeutic options are limited. Recently, systemic chemotherapy has shown response rates of up to 30%. Additional regional therapy of the arterially hyper vascularized hepatic tumors might represent a rational approach in an attempt to further improve response and palliation. Hence, a protocol combining transarterial chemoembolization and systemic chemotherapy was applied in patients with CCC limited to the liver.
Eight patients (6 women, 2 men, mean age 62 years) with nonresectable CCC received systemic chemotherapy (gemcitabine 1 000 mg/m(2)) and additional transarterial chemoembolization procedures (50 mg/m(2) cisplatin, 50 mg/m(2) doxorubicin, up to 600 mg degradable starch microspheres). Clinical follow-up of patients, tumor markers, CT and ultrasound were performed to evaluate maximum response and toxicity.
Both systemic and regional therapies were tolerated well; no severe toxicity (WHO III/IV) was encountered. Nausea and fever were the most commonly observed side effects. A progressive rarefication of the intrahepatic arteries limited the maximum number of chemoembolization procedures in 4 patients. A median of 2 chemoembolization cycles (range, 1-3) and a median of 6.5 gemcitabine cycles (range, 4-11) were administered. Complete responses were not achieved. As maximum response, partial responses were achieved in 3 cases, stable diseases in 5 cases. Two patients died from progressive disease after 9 and 10 mo. Six patients are still alive. The current median survival is 12 mo (range, 9-18); the median time to tumor progression is 7 mo (range, 3-18). Seven patients suffered from tumor-related symptoms prior to therapy, 3 of these experienced a treatment-related clinical relief. In one patient the tumor became resectable under therapy and was successfully removed after 10 mo.
The present results indicate that a combination of systemic gemcitabine therapy and repeated regional chemoembolizations is well tolerated and may enhance the effect of palliation in a selected group of patients with intrahepatic nonresectable CCC.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2005; 11(8):1091-5. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung Malariaprophylaxe mit Mefloquin (Lariam®) kann zu unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen führen. Wir berichten über eine 42-jährige Patientin weißer Hautfarbe, die 7 Tage nach Urlaubsreise in Tansania mit schmerzlosem Ikterus und erhöhten Leber-, Cholestase- und Entzündungsparametern stationär aufgenommen wurde. Eine sonographisch diagnostizierte akute Cholezystitis wurde zunächst erfolglos mittels parenteraler Ernährung und antibiotischer Therapie behandelt. Nach Ausschluss von Infektionserkrankungen führte der Abbruch der Malariaprophylaxe erfreulicherweise zu einem Abfall der erhöhten Laborparameter, und auch sonographisch stellte sich wieder ein Normalbefund dar.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pelvic MRI and transanal ultrasound constitute the gold standard for the imaging of perianal inflammatory lesions in Crohn's disease. Perianal ultrasound (PAUS), however, is rarely considered in recent literature. In contrast to the established methods, perianal ultrasound represents an easy, cost-effective and at the same time sensitive method for the imaging of perianal abscesses and fistulas. This article illustrates the performance of perianal ultrasound and shows typical images of pathological findings such as abscesses and fistulas. PAUS is especially useful for acute diagnostics to rule out perianal abscesses and for follow-up evaluation of fistula treatment. For example, complications such as abscesses can be detected in a timely manner.
Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 12/2004; 42(11):1315-20. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The telomere hypothesis of cancer initiation indicates that telomere shortening initiates cancer by induction of chromosomal instability. To test whether this hypothesis applies to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we analyzed the telomere length of hepatocytes in cytological smears of fine-needle biopsies of liver tumors from patients with cirrhosis (n = 39). The tumors consisted of 24 HCC and 15 regenerative nodules as diagnosed by combined histological and cytological diagnostics. In addition, we analyzed the telomere length of hepatocytes in HCC and surrounding noncancerous liver tissue within individual patients in another cohort of 10 patients with cirrhosis. Telomere length analysis of hepatocytes was correlated with tumor pathology and ploidy grade of the tumors, which was analyzed by cytophotometry. Telomeres were significantly shortened in hepatocytes of HCC compared to hepatocytes in regenerative nodules or surrounding noncancerous liver tissue. Hepatocyte telomere shortening in HCC was independent of the patient's age. There was no overlap in mean telomere lengths of individual samples when comparing HCC with regenerative nodules or noncancerous surrounding liver. Within the HCC group, telomeres were significantly shorter in hepatocytes of aneuploid tumors compared to diploid tumors. In conclusion, our data suggest that the telomere hypothesis of cancer initiation applies to human HCC and that cell type-specific telomere length analysis might indicate the risk of HCC development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer around the world. Although several therapeutic approaches for treatment of HCC are available, survival rates for HCC patients are still very poor because of inefficient treatment options. For HCC, as well as other tumors, antigen-specific immunotherapy remains a viable approach that is dependent on the definition of tumor-associated antigens. NY-ESO-1, a member of the cancer testis antigen family, is one possible candidate for a tumor-specific antigen in HCC. The aim of this study was to show the relevance of NY-ESO-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sera samples from 189 HCC patients were analyzed for NY-ESO-1-specific antibodies. Forty-nine HCC patients were screened for NY-ESO-1 mRNA expression in HCC tissue. Selected patients were followed for up to 3 years to correlate their immune response with their clinical course of events. NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses from NY-ESO-1 seropositive patients were analyzed and a NY-ESO-1+ specific cytotoxic T-cell line was generated.
Twelve of 49 analyzed tumor samples expressed NY-ESO-1 mRNA and 23 of 189 patients showed NY-ESO-1-specific antibody responses. These humoral immune responses were accompanied by NY-ESO-1-specific functional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. Finally, NY-ESO-1 humoral responses were dependent on the presence of NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors.
This is the first report of a spontaneous immune response in HCC patients to a known tumor-specific antigen, NY-ESO-1 protein. Our data favor the possibility of immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of HCC.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2004; 10(13):4332-41. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of a patient who presented with a left sided inguinal swelling. Ultrasound examination clearly revealed a bilateral inguinal lymphoma. In addition, a renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed through ultrasound. The differences in texture between lymph nodes and renal tumour as well as the even concentric swelling of the lymph node sinus permitted a clear cut differentiation between the two entities. CT could not provide this clear distinction. Despite some controversy several case reports as well as a few retrospective studies showed an increased coincidence of renal cell carcinoma and malignant lymphoma. However, a pathophysiological connection has not yet been discovered. This report presents another case of synchronous appearance of renal cell carcinoma and malignant lymphoma and demonstrate the relevance of ultrasound in the discrimination between the two clinical entities. It is essential for physicians performing either sonography and/or CT to be aware of this coincidence to avoid misdiagnosis of lymphadenopathy in patients with renal cell carcinoma as metastasis and, vice versa, renal tumours in lymphoma patients as renal manifestation of the lymphoma.
Ultraschall in der Medizin 03/2004; 25(1):65-9. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To gain more insight into the role of chromosomal instability (CIN), the cytogenetic hallmark of most solid tumors, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on interphase nuclei of cytological specimens enabling the correct detection of chromosome copies in intact tumor cells of 18 well (G1), moderately (G2), or poorly (G3) differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). A close correlation between the morphological dedifferentiation and increasing copy numbers and variation of FISH signals was seen for chromosomes 1 and 8, respectively (P < or = 0.0002). Four HCC G1 had constant chromosome patterns for chromosomes 1 and/or 8 with a mean of signals per nucleus < or =5.08 and < or =3 different signal combinations, indicating a low level of CIN, as confirmed by FISH using probes for centromeres of chromosomes 3, 7, and 17. In contrast to this, five HCC G2-3 revealed > or =8.46 signals per nucleus and 23-41 different signal combinations, indicating high levels of CIN. In the remaining cases, signal counts from 5.96-8.46 and 7-15 combinations were seen. Here, nuclei with constant aberration patterns and low copy numbers occurred alongside nuclei with inconstant patterns and high copy numbers. It is evident that in these cases a transition from well to moderately differentiated HCC developed in parallel to an increase in CIN, possibly induced by a major dysregulation of mitotic control mechanisms. In conclusion, CIN may induce a stepwise increase of aneuploidy in HCC that is mirrored by the morphological dedifferentiation of tumor cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2004; 101(5):1309-14. · 9.81 Impact Factor