ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm infants are associated with increased intra-hospital mortality.
Variables associated with death were studied with Cox regression analysis in a prospective cohort of preterm infants with birth weight <1500 g in the Brazilian Network on Neonatal Research. Intra-hospital death and death after 28 days of life were analyzed as dependent variables. Independent variables were infant demographic and clinical characteristics and RBC transfusions.
Of 1077 infants, 574 (53.3%) received at least one RBC transfusion during the hospital stay. The mean number of transfusions per infant was 3.3 ± 3.4, with 2.1 ± 2.1 in the first 28 days of life. Intra-hospital death occurred in 299 neonates (27.8%), and 60 infants (5.6%) died after 28 days of life. After adjusting for confounders, the relative risk of death during hospital stay was 1.49 in infants who received at least one RBC transfusion in the first 28 days of life, compared with infants who did not receive a transfusion. The risk of death after 28 days of life was 1.89 times higher in infants who received more than two RBC transfusions during their hospital stay, compared with infants who received one or two transfusions.
Transfusion was associated with increased death, and transfusion guidelines should consider risks and benefits of transfusion.
The Journal of pediatrics 04/2011; 159(3):371-376.e1-3. · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To study the association between maternal preeclampsia and neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight newborns.
We studied all infants with birth weights between 500 g and 1500 g who were admitted to 6 neonatal intensive care units of the Brazilian Network on Neonatal Research for 2 years. Exclusion criteria were major malformations, death in the delivery room, and maternal chronic hypertension. Absolute neutrophil count was performed in the first 72 hours of life.
A total of 911 very low birth weight infants (preeclampsia, 308; non-preeclampsia, 603) were included. The preeclampsia group had significantly higher gestational age, more cesarean deliveries, antenatal steroid, central catheters, total parenteral nutrition, and neutropenia, and less rupture of membranes>18 hours and mechanical ventilation. Both groups had similar incidences of early sepsis (4.6% and 4.2% in preeclampsia and non-preeclampsia groups, respectively) and late sepsis (24% and 22.1% in preeclampsia and non- preeclampsia groups, respectively). Vaginal delivery and neutropenia were associated with multiple logistic regressions with early sepsis, and mechanical ventilation, central catheter, and total parenteral nutrition were associated with late sepsis. Death was associated with neutropenia in very preterm infants.
Preeclampsia did not increase neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants, and death was associated with neutropenia in very preterm infants.
The Journal of pediatrics 09/2010; 157(3):434-8, 438.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate perinatal factors associated with early neonatal death in preterm infants with birth weights (BW) of 400-1,500 g.
A multicenter prospective cohort study of all infants with BW of 400-1,500 g and 23-33 weeks of gestational age (GA), without malformations, who were born alive at eight public university tertiary hospitals in Brazil between June of 2004 and May of 2005. Infants who died within their first 6 days of life were compared with those who did not regarding maternal and neonatal characteristics and morbidity during the first 72 hours of life. Variables associated with the early deaths were identified by stepwise logistic regression.
A total of 579 live births met the inclusion criteria. Early deaths occurred in 92 (16%) cases, varying between centers from 5 to 31%, and these differences persisted after controlling for newborn illness severity and mortality risk score (SNAPPE-II). According to the multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with early intrahospital neonatal deaths: gestational age of 23-27 weeks (odds ratio - OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.7-9.4), absence of maternal hypertension (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.0-3.7), 5th minute Apgar 0-6 (OR = 2.8; 95%CI 1.4-5.4), presence of respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.4-6.6), and network center of birth.
Important perinatal factors that are associated with early neonatal deaths in very low birth weight preterm infants can be modified by interventions such as improving fetal vitality at birth and reducing the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. The heterogeneity of early neonatal rates across the different centers studied indicates that best clinical practices should be identified and disseminated throughout the country.
Jornal de Pediatria 06/2008; 84(4):300-7. · 1.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: There have been dramatic increases in very low birth weight infant survival. However, respiratory morbidity remains problematic. The aim here was to verify associations between pulmonary mechanics, pulmonary structural abnormalities and respiratory morbidity during the first year of life.
Prospective cohort study at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro.
Premature infants with birth weight < 1500 g were studied. Lung function tests and high-resolution chest tomography were performed before discharge. During the first year, infants were assessed for respiratory morbidity (obstructive airways, pneumonia or hospitalization). Neonatal lung tests and chest tomography and covariables potentially associated with respiratory morbidity were independently assessed using relative risk (RR). RR was subsequently adjusted via logistic regression.
Ninety-seven newborn infants (mean birth weight: 1113 g; mean gestational age: 28 weeks) were assessed. Lung compliance and lung resistance were abnormal in 40% and 59%. Tomography abnormalities were found in 72%; respiratory morbidity in 53%. Bivariate analysis showed respiratory morbidity associated with: mechanical ventilation, prolonged oxygen use (beyond 28 days), oxygen use at 36 weeks, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal pneumonia and patent ductus arteriosus. Multivariate analysis gave RR 2.7 (confidence interval: 0.7-10.0) for simultaneous lung compliance and chest tomography abnormalities. Adjusted RR for neonatal pneumonia and mechanical ventilation were greater.
Upon discharge, there were high rates of lung mechanism and tomography abnormalities. More than 50% presented respiratory morbidity during the first year. Neonatal pneumonia and mechanical ventilation use were statistically significant risk factors.
Sao Paulo Medical Journal 03/2006; 124(2):77-84. · 0.71 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics.
To evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g).
A cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance) and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public healthcare institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment.
Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/Kruskal Wallis). The significance level was set at 0.05.
Abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%), whereas 20 (23.3%) had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H2O/kg and 63.7 cm H2O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72%) infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H2O/kg) high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H2O/kg) and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H2O/kg) were significantly different (p=0.015). Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography.
The results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic abnormalities in asymptomatic very low birth weight infants at the time of discharge. They also show an association between lung morphological and functional abnormalities.
Sao Paulo Medical Journal 08/2003; 121(4):167-72. · 0.71 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the features of clinical presentation of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and its associated factors.
Retrospective study of the cases of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 56) diagnosed at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Lagoa (NICU), between December 1986 and July 1992. Diagnosis and stages of the disease followed the modified Bell's criteria. Diagnosis and follow-up of all cases were evaluated. The cases of enterocolitis - degrees II and III (n = 44) - were subsequently selected and compared to a case-control group (n = 44), selected according to birthweight (+/- 250 g) and hospitalization period (+/- 2 weeks). The statistically significant analysis was considered as p < 0.05.
Out of 2,447 newborns admitted to the NICU, 56 (2.3%) presented enterocolitis. Mean weight was 1908.5 g; mean gestational age was 35 weeks and 1 day; mean period for diagnosis was 10.7 days; 51 (91.1%) patients were fed before diagnosis; 18 (32.1%) needed urgent surgery; nine (16.9%) hemocultures were positive; 10 (17.8%) patients died. Four clinical standards were observed: fulminant, acute with pneumatosis, insidious and suspect. Comparatively to the case-control group, three factors were significantly associated with enterocolitis: apnea (p = 0.045), rapid increase of food intake (< 20 ml/kg/day) - (p = 0.048) and presence of infectious agent (p = 0.000).
Significant factors associated with enterocolitis were occurrence of apnea, rapid increase of food intake and identification of the infectious agent.
Jornal de Pediatria 79(2):159-64. · 1.01 Impact Factor