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Publications (11)30.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Survival rates of adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) are low, because these tumors are generally in an advanced stage by the time they are detected. Chromosomal regions 1q32, 7q21, and 8p22 display critical alterations in GEJ cancers; however, the genes underlying alterations in these genomic areas are largely unknown. To delineate overexpressed genes, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and mRNA expression analysis of 15 GEJ adenocarcinoma samples using a fine-tiling cDNA array covering chromosome segments 1q31.3~q41 (193.9-215.8 Mb: 21.9 Mb), 7q11.23~q22.1 (72.3-103.0 Mb: 30.7 Mb), and 8p23.1~p21.3 (11.1-20.7 Mb: 9.6 Mb). Based on a mRNA overexpression criterion, 11 genes were selected: ELF3 and SLC45A3 on 1q; CLDN12, CDK6, SMURF1, ARPC1B, ZKSCAN1, MCM7, and COPS6 on 7q; and FDFT1 and CTSB on 8p. The protein expression levels were subsequently determined by immunohistochemical analysis of the cancer samples. There was a significant correlation between genomic amplification, mRNA, and protein expression or overexpression for CDK6, a cell cycle regulator on 7q21.2 (92.1 Mb; P<0.01); other genes showed less stringent associations. In conclusion, using a straightforward approach we constructed a targeted gene profile for GEJ adenocarcinomas.
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 02/2009; 189(1):37-42. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histopathologic grading of dysplasia in Barrett esophagus (BE) shows substantial interobserver and intraobserver variation. We used immunohistochemical analysis with a set of tumor cell markers, ie, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ERBB2 (HER2/neu), MYC, CDKN2A (p16), SMAD4, MET, CCND1 (cyclin D1), CTNNB1 (beta-catenin), and TP53 (p53), in histologic sections of endoscopic biopsies of 86 patients with BE in various stages of neoplastic progression. The markers, except SMAD4, were scored as 0 (<1% of cells stained), 1 (1%-25%), 2 (26%-50%), or 3 (>50%). All markers, except EGFR, showed a significant trend for immunohistochemical protein overexpression during malignant progression in BE (P <.01). When the successive stages along the metaplasia-low-grade dysplasia (LGD)-high-grade dysplasia (HGD)-adenocarcinoma axis were compared, protein overexpression of beta-catenin separated LGD from metaplasia, whereas protein overexpression of cyclin D1 and p53 discriminated HGD from LGD (all P <.001). beta-Catenin can be helpful for a diagnosis of LGD in BE, although it stains positively in a subset only, whereas p53 remains an appropriate marker to define HGD. In case of doubt, cyclin D1 can be added to separate LGD from HGD in BE.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 11/2008; 130(5):745-53. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amplification of chromosome band 7q21 has been frequently detected in various types of cancer including gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas. At present, no gene has been disclosed that can explain this frequent amplification of 7q21 in GEJ carcinomas. Therefore, a detailed genomic analysis of the 7q21 region was performed on a selected series of GEJ adenocarcinomas, i.e., 14 primary adenocarcinomas and 10 cell lines, by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) with a 7q11.22-q31.2 contig array. A distinct peak of amplification was identified at 92.1 Mb in 7q21.2, precisely comprising cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), a gene involved in cell cycle regulation. A smaller peak was seen at 116.2 Mb in 7q31.2, the locus of the MET proto-oncogene. No distinct peak was detected for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) at 81.3 Mb in 7q21.11. An immunoprofile of HGF, CDK6 and MET revealed a strong correlation between aCGH and immunohistochemical protein expression for CDK6 (P = 0.002). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry did not show expression of CDK6 in Barrett's dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, correlating expression of CDK6 with a malignant phenotype. We conclude that high-resolution genomic analysis and immunoprofiling identify CDK6 as the main candidate target for the recurrent amplification of 7q21 in GEJ adenocarcinomas.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 09/2008; 47(8):649-56. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC) has been associated with a high risk of developing colonic adenocarcinoma. Importantly, both low- and high-grade dysplasia are strongly related to the presence or development of malignancy. The canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is of crucial importance in cancer development and progression, but its role in UC-related carcinogenesis remains to be determined. We evaluated the immunolabeling patterns of beta-catenin, as well as the products of Wnt-associated cancer genes E-cadherin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, along the dysplasia-carcinoma pathway in UC. For this purpose, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 18 adenocarcinomas and 17 dysplasias, derived from 21 patients. We found that intracellular beta-catenin accumulation, the hallmark of Wnt signaling activation, is observed in dysplasia, together with enhanced labeling of nuclear protein cyclin D1 and reduction of membranous labeling of E-cadherin. c-myc displayed moderate immunolabeling in the (pre)malignant lesions. Thus, the Wnt pathway is activated in early stages of malignant progression in UC. Furthermore, upregulation of the oncogene cyclin D1 and downregulation of tumor suppressor E-cadherin also occurs in the (pre)neoplastic state. This may contribute to the high potential for malignant degeneration of dysplasia in UC-related colitis.
    Acta Histochemica 02/2007; 109(4):266-72. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Longstanding ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with a high risk of developing UC-related colonic adenocarcinoma (UCC). These carcinomas originate from nonadenomatous dysplastic regions referred to as dysplasia associated lesion or mass (DALM). We evaluated chromosomal and microsatellite instability (MSI) in 21 DALM/UCCs. Chromosomal instability was determined by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization with a 3500-element BAC-PAC array. MSI was assessed with markers BAT25 and BAT26 and by immunohistochemical analysis of mismatch repair genes. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed frequent losses of array clones (>20% of tumors) at chromosome arms 4p, 5q, and 18q, frequent gains of array clones (>20% of tumors) were found at 1q, 5p, 6p, 7p, 7q, 8p, 8q, 11p, 11q, 12q, 14q, 17q, 19q, 20p, and 20q. The pattern of alterations is dominated by gains on 5p and 20q with loss of 4p, all of which were already present in a patient with carcinoma in situ. Immunohistochemical analysis of mismatch repair genes MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 showed negative immunostaining in 1 neoplasm (5%). MSI of BAT25 and BAT26 was seen in 3 tumors (14%) including the neoplasm with aberrant immunostaining. In conclusion, we constructed a genomic profile of DALM/UCC including several novel genetic alterations. Further, we found a low percentage of MSI. Thus, DALM/UCCs display profound chromosomal instability, but this is not associated with concurrent MSI.
    Diagnostic Molecular Pathology 01/2007; 15(4):216-22. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-standing ulcerative colitis is associated with an elevated risk of developing colonic adenocarcinoma. A very limited group of patients present with multiple synchronous cancers. This could be due to either a multifocal presentation of the same neoplastic clone or different tumors arising in a large area of polyclonal dysplastic colonic mucosa ("field cancerization"). Here, we describe a patient with long-standing colitis and three different tumors in the rectosigmoid part of the large bowel. Clonal evaluation of the lesions was performed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These three neoplasms showed a comparable pattern of genomic alterations characterized by gains of chromosomes 12, 13, and 20. Noteworthy, dysplastic mucosa distal to the three cancers displayed a completely different pattern of genomic changes indicating that different cell lineages were present. In addition, all three carcinomas were microsatellite stable and revealed identical immunoprofiles for several cancer-associated genes. We conclude that these three multifocal tumors must have originated from the same preneoplastic lineage.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 01/2007; 449(6):716-21. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early (T1 stage) adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction is a potentially curable disease. We analyzed the genomic spectra of 33 early neoplastic lesions after subdividing the tumors into six depths of invasion (T1-mucosal, m1-m3; T1-submucosal, sm1-sm3). Two subgroups were defined, T1m1-sm1 (n = 18) and T1sm2-sm3 (n = 15). The latter group is associated with frequent lymphatic spread and a high percentage of local and/or distant recurrence. Comparative genomic hybridization with a genomewide 3,500-element BAC-PAC array revealed a characteristic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma pattern of changes, with losses on chromosome arms 4pq, 5q, 8p, 9p, 17p, and 18q and gains on 1q, 6p, 7pq, 11q, 15q, 17q, and 20pq. However, when the two groups were compared, the following BAC clones showed significantly more alterations in the T1sm2-sm3 group: RP11-534L20 (1q32.1) and RP11-175A4 (6p21.32), showing gains, and RP11-356F24, RP11-433L7, and RP11-241P12 (all at 8p), showing losses. Gain of RP11-534L20 (1q32.1) and loss of RP11-433L7 (8p22) were associated not only with a recurrence-free period (P = 0.0007 and 0.007, respectively), but also with regional lymphatic dissemination (P = 0.005 and 0.003, respectively). These DNA clones can be considered genomic markers for the aggressive behavior of early esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 06/2006; 45(5):516-25. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical and morphological definition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), dysplasia and adenoma suffers from a lack of biological understanding. This is especially important in the histomorphological diagnosis of nodular liver lesions in needle biopsies. Therefore, we constructed a liver tissue micro-array (TMA) and evaluated 48 HCCs, 46 dysplasias, 8 adenomas, 20 cirrhotic specimens and 28 normal liver samples derived from 68 patients. Protein (over)expression by tumor suppressor genes p16, p53 and Rb1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, the proliferative capacity was examined by immunostaining of Ki67. Further, DNA ploidy status (hyperdiploidy) was measured by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a chromosome 1-specific repetitive DNA probe. An abnormal chromosome 1 number, i.e. the percentage of hyperdiploid cells, was 11.0, 13.7, 16.1, 23.7 and 31.3 for normal liver samples, adenomas, cirrhosis, dysplasias and HCCs, respectively. A significant difference was found for HCC versus cirrhosis (P = 0.024) or adenoma (P = 0.033), a trend (borderline significance) was seen for dysplasia versus cirrhosis (P = 0.094). Immunohistochemical protein localisation of p53 and Rb1, as well as Ki67 indicating proliferation, was clearly higher in HCC than in cirrhosis or dysplasia (all P < 0.001). Proliferation was also higher in HCC than in adenoma (P = 0.025), whereas a trend (borderline significance) was observed for Rb1 overexpression (P = 0.063). These data suggest that in the liver cell dysplasia-carcinoma pathway, changes in ploidy are followed by increased proliferation and cell biological perturbations involving p53 and Rb1. Adenomas can be distinguished from carcinomas, but not from dysplasias, based on ploidy and proliferation characteristics.
    Acta Histochemica 01/2005; 107(3):161-71. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent human malignancies, especially in Asia and Africa, but also in the Western world its incidence is increasing. HCC is a complication of chronic liver disease with cirrhosis as the most important risk factor. Viral co-pathogenesis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seems to be an important factor in the development of HCC. Curative therapy is often not possible due to the late detection of HCC. Thus, it is attractive to find parameters which predict malignant transformation in HBV- and HCV-infected livers. In the past decade, preneoplastic lesions, i.e. dysplastic foci or nodules, have gained interest as possible markers for imminent malignancy. Noteworthy, dysplastic liver lesions are increasingly detected by imaging techniques. We describe here two cases of chronic viral liver disease, one HBV-and one HCV-related, in which dysplastic lesions were present adjacent to HCC. In the HBV case, a (smaller) satellite of HCC was present as well. The neoplastic specimens were investigated by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Both methods revealed multiple genetic alterations in the HCCs. The genetic patterns of the HBV-related HCC and the satellite tumor showed many shared alterations suggesting a clonal relationship. A subset of genetic changes were already present in dysplasias illustrating their preneoplastic nature. Surrounding liver cirrhosis samples did not display chromosomal aberrations. A literature survey illustrates the relative paucity of information concerning genetic alterations in preneoplastic liver lesions. However, all the data strongly suggests a role for liver cell dysplasia as a precursor condition of liver cell cancer.
    Acta Histochemica 02/2003; 105(1):29-41. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is approximately one million cases a year. This makes HCC one of the most frequent human malignancies, especially in Asia and Africa, although the incidence is increasing also in the western world. HCC is a complication of chronic liver disease, with cirrhosis as the most important risk factor. Viral co-pathogenesis makes cirrhosis due to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection a very important factor in the development of HCC. As curative therapy is often ruled out due to the late detection of HCC, it would be attractive to find parameters which predict malignant transformation in HBV- and HCV-infected livers. This study has used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to analyse 26 HCCs (11 non-viral, nine HBV, six HCV) and 12 concurrent dysplasias (five non-viral, five HBV, two HCV). Frequent gain (> or =25% of all tumours) was detected, in decreasing order of frequency, on 8q (69%), 1q (46%), 17q (46%), 12q (42%), 20q (31%), 5p (27%), 6q (27%), and Xq (27%). Frequent loss (> or =25% of all tumours) was found, in decreasing order of frequency, on 8p (58%), 16q (54%), 4q (42%), 13q (39%), 1p (35%), 4p (35%), 16p (35%), 18q (35%), 14q (31%), 17p (31%), 9p (27%), and 9q (27%). Minimal overlapping regions could be determined at multiple locations (candidate genes in parentheses). Minimal regions of overlap for deletions were assigned to 4p14-15 (PCDH7), 8p21-22 (FEZ1), 9p12-13, 13q14-31 (RB1), 14q31 (TSHR), 16p12-13.1 (GSPT1), 16q21-23 (CDH1), 17p12-13 (TP53), and 18q21-22 (DPC4, DCC). Minimal overlapping amplified sites could be seen at 8q24 (MYC), 12q15-21 (MDM2), 17q22-25 (SSTR2, GH1), and 20q12-13.2 (MYBL2, PTPN1). A single high level amplification was seen on 5q21 in an HBV-related tumour. Aberrations appeared more frequent in HBV-related HCCs than in HCV-associated tumours (p=0.008). This was most prominent with respect to losses (p=0.004), specifically loss on 4p (p=0.007), 16q (p=0.04), 17p (p=0.04), and 18q (p=0.03). In addition, loss on 17p was significantly lower in non-viral cancers than in HBV-related HCC (p<0.001). Furthermore, loss on 13q was more prevalent in HCCs in non-cirrhotic livers (p=0.02), thus suggesting a different, potentially more aggressive, pathway in neoplastic progression. A tendency (p=0.07) was observed for loss on 9q in high-stage tumours; no specific changes were found in relation to tumour grade. A subset of the HCC-associated genetic changes was disclosed in the preneoplastic stage, i.e. liver cell dysplasia. This group of dysplasias showed frequent gain on 17q (25%) and frequent loss on 16q (33%), 4q (25%), and 17p (25%). The majority of the dysplasias with alterations revealed genetic changes that were also present in the primary tumour. In conclusion, firstly, this study has provided a detailed map of genomic changes occurring in HCC of viral and non-viral origin, and has suggested candidate genes. Loss on 17p, including the TP53 region, appeared significantly more prevalent in HBV-associated liver cancers, whereas loss on 13q, with possible involvement of RB1, was distinguished as a possible genetic biomarker. Secondly, CGH analysis of liver cell dysplasia, both viral and non-viral, has revealed HCC-specific early genetic changes, thereby confirming its preneoplastic nature. Finally, genes residing in these early altered regions, such as CDH1 or TP53, might be associated with hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
    The Journal of Pathology 11/2000; 192(2):207-15. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is known for its heterogeneous histological appearance. It is currently not clear whether this histological heterogeneity is also reflected in the genomic composition of a tumor. The cancer DNA's were retrieved from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer section Rotterdam (ERSPC). Tumors with volumes 1.0-1.5 ml and a Gleason score of 3+3 or 3+4 were selected. Comparative genomic hybridization with a 3500-element BAC array was used to detect differences in the genetic content of Gleason patterns 3 and 4. A total of 1155 gains and 583 losses were discriminated in 10 G3 areas; 768 gains and 497 losses were detected in 7 G4 regions. Frequent losses included chromosome arms 6q, 8p and 13q, while frequent gains were seen on 7q and 8q. There were no significant differences between Gleason patterns 3 and 4, or between Gleason grades within one cancer. Histological heterogeneity, defined by Gleason grades 3 and 4, does not have a genomic counterpart. Furthermore, these asymptomatic screen-detected prostate carcinomas have genetic signatures comparable with those commonly seen in symptomatic cancers.
    Anticancer research 26(2A):1193-200. · 1.71 Impact Factor