J. M. Torrelles

Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (160)529.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present simultaneous observations of H$_2$O maser emission and radio continuum at 1.3 cm carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array towards two sources, IRAS 16333$-$4807 and IRAS 12405$-$6219, catalogued as planetary nebula (PN) candidates, and where single-dish detections of H$_2$O masers have been previously reported. Our goal was to unambiguously confirm the spatial association of the H$_2$O masers with these two PN candidates. We detected and mapped H$_2$O maser emission in both fields, but only in IRAS 16333$-$4807 the maser emission is spatially associated with the radio continuum emission. The properties of IRAS 16333$-$4807 provide strong support for the PN nature of the object, hereby confirming it as the fifth known case of a H$_2$O maser-emitting PN. This source is bipolar, like the other four known H$_2$O maser-emitting PNe, indicating that these sources might pertain to a usual, but short phase in the evolution of bipolar PNe. In IRAS 12405$-$6219, the H$_2$O maser and radio continuum emission are not associated with each other and, in addition, the available data indicate that this source is an H II region rather than a PN.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 444(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imaging the event horizon of the black hole at the centre of the Galaxy - Testing the theory of General Relativity an/or searching for alternative theories - Studying the origin of AGN jets and jet formation - Cosmological evolution of galaxies and BHs, AGN feedback - Masers in the Milky Way (in stars and star-forming regions) - Extragalactic emission lines and astro-chemistry - Redshifted absorption lines in distant galaxies and study of the ISM and circumnuclear gas - Pulsars, neutron stars, X-ray binaries - Testing cosmology - Testing fundamental physical constants
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out a 12CO(3-2) survey of 52 southern stars with a wide range of IR excesses (LIR/L*) using the single dish telescopes APEX and ASTE. The main aims were (1) to characterize the evolution of molecular gas in circumstellar disks using LIR/L* values as a proxy of disk dust evolution, and (2) to identify new gas-rich disk systems suitable for detailed study with ALMA. About 60% of the sample (31 systems) have LIR/L* > 0.01 typical of T-Tauri or Herbig AeBe stars, and the rest (21 systems) have LIR/L* < 0.01 typical of debris disks. We detect CO(3-2) emission from 20 systems, and 18 (90%) of these have LIR/L* > 0.01. However, the spectra of only four of the newly detected systems appear free of contamination from background or foreground emission from molecular clouds. These include the early-type stars HD 104237 (A4/5V, 116 pc) and HD 98922 (A2 III, 507 pc, as determined in this work), where our observations reveal the presence of CO-rich circumstellar disks for the first time. Of the other detected sources, many could harbor gaseous circumstellar disks, but our data are inconclusive. For these two newly discovered gas-rich disks, we present radiative transfer models that simultaneously reproduce their spectral energy distributions and the 12CO(3-2) line profiles. For both of these systems, the data are fit well by geometrically flat disks, placing them in the small class of non-flaring disks with significant molecular gas reservoirs.
    The Astronomical Journal 05/2014; 148(3). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: W75N(B) is a massive star-forming region that contains three radio continuum sources (VLA 1, VLA 2, and VLA 3), which are thought to be three massive young stellar objects at three different evolutionary stages. VLA 1 is the most evolved and VLA 2 the least evolved source. The 22 GHz H2O masers associated with VLA 1 and VLA 2 have been mapped at several epochs over eight years. While the H2O masers in VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along a radio jet, those in VLA 2 are distributed around an expanding shell. Furthermore, H2O maser polarimetric measurements revealed magnetic fields aligned with the two structures. Using new polarimetric observations of H2O masers, we aim to confirm the elliptical expansion of the shell-like structure around VLA 2 and, at the same time, to determine if the magnetic fields around the two sources have changed. The NRAO Very Long Baseline Array was used to measure the linear polarization and the Zeeman-splitting of the 22 GHz H2O masers towards the massive star-forming region W75N(B). The H2O maser distribution around VLA 1 is unchanged from that previously observed. We made an elliptical fit of the H2O masers around VLA 2. We find that the shell-like structure is still expanding along the direction parallel to the thermal radio jet of VLA 1. While the magnetic field around VLA 1 has not changed in the past 7 years, the magnetic field around VLA 2 has changed its orientation according to the new direction of the major-axis of the shell-like structure and it is now aligned with the magnetic field in VLA 1.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: W75N(B) is a massive star-forming region that contains three radio continuum sources (VLA 1, VLA 2, and VLA 3), which are thought to be three massive young stellar objects at three different evolutionary stages. VLA 1 is the most evolved and VLA 2 the least evolved source. The 22 GHz H2O masers associated with VLA 1 and VLA 2 have been mapped at several epochs over eight years. While the H2O masers in VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along a radio jet, those in VLA 2 are distributed around an expanding shell. Furthermore, H2O maser polarimetric measurements revealed magnetic fields aligned with the two structures. Using new polarimetric observations of H2O masers, we aim to confirm the elliptical expansion of the shell-like structure around VLA 2 and, at the same time, to determine if the magnetic fields around the two sources have changed. The NRAO Very Long Baseline Array was used to measure the linear polarization and the Zeeman-splitting of the 22 GHz H2O masers towards the massive star-forming region W75N(B). The H2O maser distribution around VLA 1 is unchanged from that previously observed. We made an elliptical fit of the H2O masers around VLA 2. We find that the shell-like structure is still expanding along the direction parallel to the thermal radio jet of VLA 1. While the magnetic field around VLA 1 has not changed in the past 7 years, the magnetic field around VLA 2 has changed its orientation according to the new direction of the major-axis of the shell-like structure and it is now aligned with the magnetic field in VLA 1.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report multi-epoch VLBI H$_2$O maser observations towards the compact cluster of YSOs close to the Herbig Be star LkH$\alpha$ 234. This cluster includes LkH$\alpha$ 234 and at least nine more YSOs that are formed within projected distances of $\sim$10 arcsec ($\sim$9,000 au). We detect H$_2$O maser emission towards four of these YSOs. In particular, our VLBI observations (including proper motion measurements) reveal a remarkable very compact ($\sim$0.2 arcsec = $\sim$180 au), bipolar H$_2$O maser outflow emerging from the embedded YSO VLA 2. We estimate a kinematic age of $\sim$40 yr for this bipolar outflow, with expanding velocities of $\sim$20 km s$^{-1}$ and momentum rate $\dot M_w V_w$ $\simeq$ $10^{-4}-10^{-3}$ M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ km s$^{-1}$$\times (\Omega$/$4\pi)$, powered by a YSO of a few solar masses. We propose that the outflow is produced by recurrent episodic jet ejections associated with the formation of this YSO. Short-lived episodic ejection events have previously been found towards high-mass YSOs. We show now that this behaviour is also present in intermediate-mass YSOs. These short-lived episodic ejections are probably related to episodic increases in the accretion rate, as observed in low-mass YSOs. We predict the presence of an accretion disk associated with VLA 2. If detected, this would represent one of the few known examples of intermediate-mass stars with a disk-YSO-jet system at scales of a few hundred au.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 442(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out 7 mm VLA observations at very high angular resolution that reveal substructure and evidence of planet formation in the disk of HD 169142. Our observations, along with near-infrared polarimetric imaging, show that this disk has a ring of enhanced, asymmetric emission at a radius of ~25 AU from the central star. This ring, whose inner region appears devoid of emission, is surrounded by an annular gap in surface density in the ~30-70 AU range of radii. Several mechanisms have been invoked in the literature to explain this kind of gaps and cavities. Among them, one of the most interesting is the possibility that one or more planets in formation are creating these cavities. Since our 7 mm observations show a compact source lying in the 30-70 AU gap, we speculate that this compact source could be tracing dust emission associated with a possible protoplanet. We model the broad-band spectral energy distribution of the disk and we infer its physical structure. From this modeling we infer the presence of a small (r ~ 0.7 AU) disk inside the central cavity, suggesting that the HD 169142 disk is in the pre-transitional disk phase.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: DX Cha (HD 104237) is a southern, optically bright Herbig Ae star with an infrared excess, that is part of a small stellar group younger than 5 Myr. We used the APEX and ASTE submillimeter telescopes in Chile to search for continuum and gas emission around this system. Using LABOCA on APEX we detect strong continuum emission around HD104237-A and system component HD104237-E. Our ASTE spectrum detects a double-peaked 12CO(3-2) line profile towards the system, typical of a rotating disk. The new data are used as constraints with MCFOST to produce a disk model that fits the entire SED as well as the observed CO line profile.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) H$_2$O maser observations toward the massive young stellar objects (YSOs) VLA 2 and VLA 3 in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Through these observations, we have extended the study of the evolution of the masers towards these objects up to a time span of $\sim$ 10 yrs, measuring their radial velocities and proper motions. The H$_2$O masers in VLA 3, the most massive YSO in AFGL 2591 ($\sim$ 30--40~M$_{\odot}$), are grouped within projected distances of $\lesssim$ 40 mas ($\lesssim$ 130 AU) from VLA 3. In contrast to other H$_2$O masers in AFGL 2591, the masers associated with VLA 3 are significantly blueshifted (up to $\sim$ 30 km s$^{-1}$) with respect to the velocity of the ambient molecular cloud. We find that the H$_2$O maser cluster as a whole, has moved westwards of VLA~3 between the 2001 and 2009 observations, with a proper motion of $\sim$ 1.2 mas yr$^{-1}$ ($\sim$ 20 km s$^{-1}$). We conclude that these masers are tracing blueshifted outflowing material, shock excited at the inner parts of a cavity seen previously in ammonia molecular lines and infrared images, and proposed to be evacuated by the outflow associated with the massive VLA 3 source. The masers in the region of VLA 2 are located at projected distances of $\sim$ 0.7$''$ ($\sim$ 2300 AU) north from this source, with their kinematics suggesting that they are excited by a YSO other than VLA 2. This driving source has not yet been identified.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; 437(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GASPS is a far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary and young debris disks using PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory. The survey includes [OI] at 63 microns, as well as 70, 100 and 160um continuum, with the brightest objects also studied in [OI]145um, [CII]157um, H2O and CO. Targets included T Tauri stars and debris disks in 7 nearby young associations, and a sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide disk sample, systemically comparing the results with models. In this paper we review the main aims, target selection and observing strategy. We show initial results, including line identifications, sources detected, and a first statistical study. [OI]63um was the brightest line in most objects, by a factor of ~10. Detection rates were 49%, including 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars. Comparison with published dust masses show a dust threshold for [OI]63um detection of ~1e-5 M_solar. Normalising to 140pc distance, 32% with mass 1e-6 - 1e-5 M_solar, and a small number with lower mass were also detected. This is consistent with moderate UV excess and disk flaring. In most cases, continuum and line emission is spatially and spectrally unresolved, suggesting disk emission. ~10 objects were resolved, likely from outflows. Detection rates in [OI]145um, [CII]157um and CO J=18-17 were 20-40%, but [CII] was not correlated with disk mass, suggesting it arises instead from a compact envelope. [OI] detection rates in T Tauri associations of ages 0.3-4Myr were ~50%. ~2 stars were detectable in associations of 5-20Myr, with no detections in associations of age >20Myr. Comparing with the total number of young stars, and assuming a ISM-like gas/dust ratio, this indicates that ~18% of stars retain a gas-rich disk of total mass >1M_Jupiter for 1-4Myr, 1-7% keep such disks for 5-10Myr, and none remain beyond 10-20Myr.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 06/2013; 125(927). · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we analyze multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) water maser observations carried out with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) toward the high-mass star-forming region AFGL 2591. We detected maser emission associated with the radio continuum sources VLA 2 and VLA 3. In addition, a water maser cluster, VLA 3-N, was detected ~ 0.5" north of VLA 3. We concentrate the discussion of this paper on the spatio-kinematical distribution of the water masers towards VLA 3-N. The water maser emission toward the region VLA 3-N shows two bow shock-like structures, Northern and Southern, separated from each other by ~ 100 mas (~ 330 AU). The spatial distribution and kinematics of the water masers in this cluster have persisted over a time span of seven years. The Northern bow shock has a somewhat irregular morphology, while the Southern one has a remarkably smooth morphology. We measured the proper motions of 33 water maser features, which have an average proper motion velocity of ~ 1.3 mas/yr (~ 20 km/s). The morphology and the proper motions of this cluster of water masers show systematic expanding motions that could imply one or two different centers of star formation activity. We made a detailed model for the Southern structure, proposing two different kinematic models to explain the 3-dimensional spatio-kinematical distribution of the water masers: (1) a static central source driving the two bow-shock structures; (2) two independent driving sources, one of them exciting the Northern bow-shock structure, and the other one, a young runaway star moving in the local molecular medium exciting and molding the remarkably smoother Southern bow-shock structure. Future observations will be necessary to discriminate between the two scenarios, in particular by identifying the still unseen driving source(s).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2012; 430(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: VLBI multi-epoch water maser observations are a powerful tool to study the dense, warm shocked gas very close to massive protostars. The very high-angular resolution of these observations allow us to measure the proper motions of the masers in a few weeks, and together with the radial velocity, to determine their full kinematics. In this paper we present a summary of the main observational results obtained toward the massive star-forming regions of Cepheus A and W75N, among them: (i) the identification of different centers of high-mass star formation activity at scales of 100 AU; (ii) the discovery of new phenomena associated with the early stages of high-mass protostellar evolution (e.g., isotropic gas ejections); and (iii) the identification of the simultaneous presence of a wide-angle outflow and a highly collimated jet in the massive object Cep A HW2, similar to what is observed in some low-mass protostars. Some of the implications of these results in the study of high-mass star formation are discussed.
    Boletin de la Asociacion Argentina de Astronomia La Plata Argentina. 04/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present new results on the HH 80-81 jet obtained from SMA and VLA observations. These observations allowed us to resolve a compact circumstellar disk around the massive protostar, and to discover linearly polarized synchrotron emission from the jet.
    10/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN Presentamos nuevas resultados en el chorro HH 80-81 obtenidos por medio de observaciones con el SMA y el VLA. Estas observaciones nos han permitido resolver un disco circunestelar compacto alrededor de la protoestrella masiva, y descubrir emisión sincrotrón linealmente polarizada en el chorro. ABSTRACT We present new results on the HH 80-81 jet obtained from SMA and VLA observations. These observations allowed us to resolve a compact circumstellar disk around the massive protostar, and to discover linearly polarized synchrotron emission from the jet.
    XIII Latin American Regional IAU Meeting; 10/2011
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    ABSTRACT: A debated topic in star formation theory is the role of magnetic fields during the protostellar phase of high-mass stars. It is still unclear how magnetic fields influence the formation and dynamics of massive disks and outflows. Most current information on magnetic fields close to high-mass protostars comes from polarized maser emissions, which allows us to investigate the magnetic field on small scales by using very long-baseline interferometry. The massive star-forming region W75N contains three radio continuum sources (VLA1, VLA2, and VLA3), at three different evolutionary stages, and associated masers, while a large-scale molecular bipolar outflow is also present. Very recently, polarization observations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers at milliarsecond resolution have been able to probe the strength and structure of the magnetic field over more than 2000 AU around VLA1. The magnetic field is parallel to the outflow, suggesting that VLA1 is its powering source. The observations of water masers at 22 GHz can give more information about the gas dynamics and the magnetic fields around VLA1 and VLA2. The NRAO Very Long Baseline Array was used to measure the linear polarization and the Zeeman-splitting of the 22 GHz water masers in the star-forming region W75N. We detected 124 water masers, 36 around VLA1 and 88 around VLA2 of W75N, which indicate two different physical environments around the two sources, where VLA1 is in a more evolved state. The linear polarization of the masers confirms the tightly ordered magnetic field around VLA1, which is aligned with the large-scale molecular outflow, and also reveals an ordered magnetic field around VLA2, which is not parallel to the outflow. [abridged]
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to better understand the formation of asymmetric structures in planetary nebulae (PNe) we have studied two of the three planetary nebulae that are known to harbor water maser emission: K 3-35, IRAS 17347-3139. These objects show a clear bipolar morphology with a narrow waist; the water maser emission arises from the central region and in the case of K 3-35 it is also found located at the surprisingly large distance of 4000 AU from the central star (near the tips of the bipolar lobes). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the bipolar morphology of PNe. In the case of K 3-35 we believe that we may be observing some of them at the same time: (i) a disk-like structure traced by the H_{2}O masers, (ii) a precessing bipolar jet probably due to the presence of a binary companion and (iii) circular polarization in the OH 1665 MHz masers, which suggests the presence of a magnetic field. A detailed modeling of all these observational results might shed light on the formation of asymmetric structures in planetary nebula. On the other hand, we also present the first high angular resolution images of the ionized gas (in radio continuum at lambda= 1.3 and 0.7 cm) of IRAS 17347-3139. The results support the presence of a collimated wind which might be shaping the bipolar lobes. Additionally, the 0.7 cm images show an equatorial structure that has been interpreted as a high density ionized torus in which the water maser emission would be arising.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: K 3-35 is a very young planetary nebula (PN) with a characteristic S-shaped radio emission morphology. It is the first PN where water vapor maser was detected: the emission is located in a torus-like structure with a radius of 100 AU and also at the surprisingly large distance of 5000 AU from the star, in the tips of the bipolar lobes. Several mechanism have been proposed to explain the bipolar morphology of PNe, and in the case of K 3-35 we believe we may be observing several of them at the same time: i) a disk-like structure traced by the H2O masers, ii) a precessing bipolar jet probably due to the presence of a binary companion and iii) circular polarization in the OH 1665 MHz masers, which suggests the presence of a magnetic field. Additional observations and modeling are needed to establish what mechanisms are shaping K 3-35.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2010; 6:414 - 415.
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    ABSTRACT: We present five epochs of VLBI water maser observations around the massive protostar Cepheus A HW2 with 0.4 mas (0.3 AU) resolution. The main goal of these observations was to follow the evolution of the remarkable water maser linear/arcuate structures found in earlier VLBI observations. Comparing the data of our new epochs of observation with those observed five years before, we find that at "large" scales of > 1" (700 AU) the main regions of maser emission persist, implying that both the surrounding medium and the exciting sources of the masers have been relatively stable during that time span. However, at smaller scales of < 0.1" (70 AU) we see large changes in the maser structures, particularly in the expanding arcuate structures R4 and R5. R4 traces a nearly elliptical patchy ring of ~ 70 mas size (50 AU) with expanding motions of ~ 5 mas/yr (15 km/s). This structure is probably driven by the wind of a still unidentified YSO located at the centre of the ring (~ 0.18" south of HW2). On the other hand, the R5 expanding bubble structure (driven by the wind of a previously identified YSO located ~ 0.6" south of HW2) is currently dissipating in the circumstellar medium and losing its previous degree of symmetry, indicating a very short-lived event. In addition, our results reveal, at scales of ~ 1" (700 AU), the simultaneous presence of a relatively slow (~ 10-70 km/s) wide-angle outflow (opening angle of ~ 102 deg, traced by the masers, and the fast (~ 500~km/s) highly collimated radio jet associated with HW2 (opening angle of ~ 18 deg, previously observed with the VLA. This simultaneous presence of a wide-angle outflow and a highly collimated jet associated with a massive protostar is similar to what is found in some low-mass YSOs. The implications of these results in the study of the formation of high-mass stars are discussed. Comment: 28 pages, 7 figures. Animations will be included as supporting material online (MNRAS web page)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2010; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have done a statistical analysis of Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data of water masers in the star-forming regions (SFRs) Cepheus A and W75 N, using correlation functions to study the spatial clustering and Doppler-velocity distribution of these masers. Two-point spatial correlation functions show a characteristic scale size for clusters of water maser spots < or ~1 AU, similar to the values found in other SFRs. This suggests that the scale for water maser excitation tends to be < or ~1 AU. Velocity correlation functions show power-law dependences with indices that can be explained by regular velocity fields, such as expansion and/or rotation. These velocity fields are similar to those indicated by the water maser proper-motion measurements; therefore, the velocity correlation functions appear to reveal the organized motion of water maser spots on scales larger than 1 AU. Comment: 16 pages, 8 figures, and 3 tables. Accepted by The Astrophysical Journal
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2010; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze radio continuum and line observations from the archives of the Very Large Array, as well as X-ray observations from the \emph{Chandra} archive of the region of massive star formation W75N. Five radio continuum sources are detected: VLA 1, VLA 2, VLA 3, Bc, and VLA 4. VLA 3 appears to be a radio jet; we detect J=1-0, v=0 SiO emission towards it, probably tracing the inner parts of a molecular outflow. The radio continuum source Bc, previously believed to be tracing an independent star, is found to exhibit important changes in total flux density, morphology, and position. These results suggest that source Bc is actually a radio Herbig-Haro object, one of the brightest known, powered by the VLA~3 jet source. VLA 4 is a new radio continuum component, located a few arcsec to the south of the group of previously known radio sources. Strong and broad (1,1) and (2,2) ammonia emission is detected from the region containing the radio sources VLA~1, VLA~2, and VLA~3. Finally, the 2-10 keV emission seen in the \emph{Chandra}/ACIS image shows two regions that could be the termination shocks of the outflows from the multiple sources observed in W75N. Comment: 26 pages, 7 figures
    The Astronomical Journal 04/2010; · 4.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
529.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Institut de Ciències de l'Espai
      Catalonia, Spain
  • 1987–2011
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • • Centre of Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics
      • • Institute of Astronomy
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 1992–2010
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Astronomy and Metereology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Institut d'Estudis Catalans
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1990–2009
    • Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2001–2008
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Andalusian Astrophysics Institute
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Instituto de Estructura de la Materia
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2000–2008
    • Institut de Ciències del Mar
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1983–2006
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • IEEC Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Astronomy
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 1997
    • Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (IMEDEA)
      Esporles, Balearic Islands, Spain