J. M. Torrelles

Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (236)950.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present Very Large Array observations at 7 mm that trace the thermal emission of large dust grains in the HD 169142 protoplanetary disk. Our images show a ring of enhanced emission of radius ~25-30 AU, whose inner region is devoid of detectable 7 mm emission. We interpret this ring as tracing the rim of an inner cavity or gap, possibly created by a planet or a substellar companion. The ring appears asymmetric, with the western part significantly brighter than the eastern one. This azimuthal asymmetry is reminiscent of the lopsided structures that are expected to be produced as a consequence of trapping of large dust grains. Our observations also reveal an outer annular gap at radii from ~40 to ~70 AU. Unlike other sources, the radii of the inner cavity, the ring, and the outer gap observed in the 7 mm images, which trace preferentially the distribution of large (mm/cm sized) dust grains, coincide with those obtained from a previous near-infrared polarimetric image, which traces scattered light from small (micron- sized) dust grains. We model the broad-band spectral energy distribution and the 7 mm images to constrain the disk physical structure. From this modeling we infer the presence of a small (radius ~0.6 AU) residual disk inside the central cavity, indicating that the HD 169142 disk is a pre-transitional disk. The distribution of dust in three annuli with gaps in between them suggests that the disk in HD 169142 is being disrupted by at least two planets or substellar objects.
    The Astrophysical Journal. 07/2014; 791(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We present simultaneous observations of H$_2$O maser emission and radio continuum at 1.3 cm carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array towards two sources, IRAS 16333$-$4807 and IRAS 12405$-$6219, catalogued as planetary nebula (PN) candidates, and where single-dish detections of H$_2$O masers have been previously reported. Our goal was to unambiguously confirm the spatial association of the H$_2$O masers with these two PN candidates. We detected and mapped H$_2$O maser emission in both fields, but only in IRAS 16333$-$4807 the maser emission is spatially associated with the radio continuum emission. The properties of IRAS 16333$-$4807 provide strong support for the PN nature of the object, hereby confirming it as the fifth known case of a H$_2$O maser-emitting PN. This source is bipolar, like the other four known H$_2$O maser-emitting PNe, indicating that these sources might pertain to a usual, but short phase in the evolution of bipolar PNe. In IRAS 12405$-$6219, the H$_2$O maser and radio continuum emission are not associated with each other and, in addition, the available data indicate that this source is an H II region rather than a PN.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 444(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imaging the event horizon of the black hole at the centre of the Galaxy - Testing the theory of General Relativity an/or searching for alternative theories - Studying the origin of AGN jets and jet formation - Cosmological evolution of galaxies and BHs, AGN feedback - Masers in the Milky Way (in stars and star-forming regions) - Extragalactic emission lines and astro-chemistry - Redshifted absorption lines in distant galaxies and study of the ISM and circumnuclear gas - Pulsars, neutron stars, X-ray binaries - Testing cosmology - Testing fundamental physical constants
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out a 12CO(3-2) survey of 52 southern stars with a wide range of IR excesses (LIR/L*) using the single dish telescopes APEX and ASTE. The main aims were (1) to characterize the evolution of molecular gas in circumstellar disks using LIR/L* values as a proxy of disk dust evolution, and (2) to identify new gas-rich disk systems suitable for detailed study with ALMA. About 60% of the sample (31 systems) have LIR/L* > 0.01 typical of T-Tauri or Herbig AeBe stars, and the rest (21 systems) have LIR/L* < 0.01 typical of debris disks. We detect CO(3-2) emission from 20 systems, and 18 (90%) of these have LIR/L* > 0.01. However, the spectra of only four of the newly detected systems appear free of contamination from background or foreground emission from molecular clouds. These include the early-type stars HD 104237 (A4/5V, 116 pc) and HD 98922 (A2 III, 507 pc, as determined in this work), where our observations reveal the presence of CO-rich circumstellar disks for the first time. Of the other detected sources, many could harbor gaseous circumstellar disks, but our data are inconclusive. For these two newly discovered gas-rich disks, we present radiative transfer models that simultaneously reproduce their spectral energy distributions and the 12CO(3-2) line profiles. For both of these systems, the data are fit well by geometrically flat disks, placing them in the small class of non-flaring disks with significant molecular gas reservoirs.
    The Astronomical Journal 05/2014; 148(3). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: W75N(B) is a massive star-forming region that contains three radio continuum sources (VLA 1, VLA 2, and VLA 3), which are thought to be three massive young stellar objects at three different evolutionary stages. VLA 1 is the most evolved and VLA 2 the least evolved source. The 22 GHz H2O masers associated with VLA 1 and VLA 2 have been mapped at several epochs over eight years. While the H2O masers in VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along a radio jet, those in VLA 2 are distributed around an expanding shell. Furthermore, H2O maser polarimetric measurements revealed magnetic fields aligned with the two structures. Using new polarimetric observations of H2O masers, we aim to confirm the elliptical expansion of the shell-like structure around VLA 2 and, at the same time, to determine if the magnetic fields around the two sources have changed. The NRAO Very Long Baseline Array was used to measure the linear polarization and the Zeeman-splitting of the 22 GHz H2O masers towards the massive star-forming region W75N(B). The H2O maser distribution around VLA 1 is unchanged from that previously observed. We made an elliptical fit of the H2O masers around VLA 2. We find that the shell-like structure is still expanding along the direction parallel to the thermal radio jet of VLA 1. While the magnetic field around VLA 1 has not changed in the past 7 years, the magnetic field around VLA 2 has changed its orientation according to the new direction of the major-axis of the shell-like structure and it is now aligned with the magnetic field in VLA 1.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: W75N(B) is a massive star-forming region that contains three radio continuum sources (VLA 1, VLA 2, and VLA 3), which are thought to be three massive young stellar objects at three different evolutionary stages. VLA 1 is the most evolved and VLA 2 the least evolved source. The 22 GHz H2O masers associated with VLA 1 and VLA 2 have been mapped at several epochs over eight years. While the H2O masers in VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along a radio jet, those in VLA 2 are distributed around an expanding shell. Furthermore, H2O maser polarimetric measurements revealed magnetic fields aligned with the two structures. Using new polarimetric observations of H2O masers, we aim to confirm the elliptical expansion of the shell-like structure around VLA 2 and, at the same time, to determine if the magnetic fields around the two sources have changed. The NRAO Very Long Baseline Array was used to measure the linear polarization and the Zeeman-splitting of the 22 GHz H2O masers towards the massive star-forming region W75N(B). The H2O maser distribution around VLA 1 is unchanged from that previously observed. We made an elliptical fit of the H2O masers around VLA 2. We find that the shell-like structure is still expanding along the direction parallel to the thermal radio jet of VLA 1. While the magnetic field around VLA 1 has not changed in the past 7 years, the magnetic field around VLA 2 has changed its orientation according to the new direction of the major-axis of the shell-like structure and it is now aligned with the magnetic field in VLA 1.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report multi-epoch VLBI H$_2$O maser observations towards the compact cluster of YSOs close to the Herbig Be star LkH$\alpha$ 234. This cluster includes LkH$\alpha$ 234 and at least nine more YSOs that are formed within projected distances of $\sim$10 arcsec ($\sim$9,000 au). We detect H$_2$O maser emission towards four of these YSOs. In particular, our VLBI observations (including proper motion measurements) reveal a remarkable very compact ($\sim$0.2 arcsec = $\sim$180 au), bipolar H$_2$O maser outflow emerging from the embedded YSO VLA 2. We estimate a kinematic age of $\sim$40 yr for this bipolar outflow, with expanding velocities of $\sim$20 km s$^{-1}$ and momentum rate $\dot M_w V_w$ $\simeq$ $10^{-4}-10^{-3}$ M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ km s$^{-1}$$\times (\Omega$/$4\pi)$, powered by a YSO of a few solar masses. We propose that the outflow is produced by recurrent episodic jet ejections associated with the formation of this YSO. Short-lived episodic ejection events have previously been found towards high-mass YSOs. We show now that this behaviour is also present in intermediate-mass YSOs. These short-lived episodic ejections are probably related to episodic increases in the accretion rate, as observed in low-mass YSOs. We predict the presence of an accretion disk associated with VLA 2. If detected, this would represent one of the few known examples of intermediate-mass stars with a disk-YSO-jet system at scales of a few hundred au.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2014; 442(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out 7 mm VLA observations at very high angular resolution that reveal substructure and evidence of planet formation in the disk of HD 169142. Our observations, along with near-infrared polarimetric imaging, show that this disk has a ring of enhanced, asymmetric emission at a radius of ~25 AU from the central star. This ring, whose inner region appears devoid of emission, is surrounded by an annular gap in surface density in the ~30-70 AU range of radii. Several mechanisms have been invoked in the literature to explain this kind of gaps and cavities. Among them, one of the most interesting is the possibility that one or more planets in formation are creating these cavities. Since our 7 mm observations show a compact source lying in the 30-70 AU gap, we speculate that this compact source could be tracing dust emission associated with a possible protoplanet. We model the broad-band spectral energy distribution of the disk and we infer its physical structure. From this modeling we infer the presence of a small (r ~ 0.7 AU) disk inside the central cavity, suggesting that the HD 169142 disk is in the pre-transitional disk phase.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: DX Cha (HD 104237) is a southern, optically bright Herbig Ae star with an infrared excess, that is part of a small stellar group younger than 5 Myr. We used the APEX and ASTE submillimeter telescopes in Chile to search for continuum and gas emission around this system. Using LABOCA on APEX we detect strong continuum emission around HD104237-A and system component HD104237-E. Our ASTE spectrum detects a double-peaked 12CO(3-2) line profile towards the system, typical of a rotating disk. The new data are used as constraints with MCFOST to produce a disk model that fits the entire SED as well as the observed CO line profile.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Synchrotron emission at radio wavelengths is commonly found in relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and microquasars and allows the study of the magnetic field in these kind of jets. In contrast, the radio emission from jets from young stellar objecs (YSOs) is usually of very different nature: thermal free-free emission, which does not provide direct information about their magnetic field. Thus, that the magnetic field is still one of the most unknown physical parameters in these YSO jets. However, very recently, we detected for the first time polarized synchrotron emission from of a YSO (HH 80-81), a result that has two important consequences. First, it allows to study the magnetic field in a YSO jet by analyzing the properties of the synchrotron emission, in a similar way than in the case of AGN jets. Secondly, the presence of synchrotron emission in a YSO jet implies the presence of relativistic particles, and therefore, an acceleration mechanism that should be taken place in these "slow" jets. These results open new windows for the study of YSO jets in a wide range of wavelengths, from radio to X- and Gamma-rays.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present CO 3-2, SiO 8-7, C34S 7-6, and 878 mum dust continuum subarcsecond angular resolution observations with the SMA toward IRAS 16293-2422 (I16293). The C34S emission traces well the 878 mum dust continuum, and shows clearly a smooth velocity gradient along the major axis of component I16293A. The CO shows emission at moderate high velocities arising from two bipolar outflows, which appear to be perpendicular with respect to each other. The high sensitivity and higher angular resolution of these observations allows to well pinpoint the origin of these two outflows at the center of component I16293A. Interestingly, the most compact outflow appears to point toward I16293B. Our data show that the previously reported monopolar blueshifted CO outflow associated with component I16293B seems to be part of the compact outflow arising from component I16293A. In addition, the SiO emission is also tracing this compact outflow: on one hand, the SiO emission appears to have a jet-like morphology along the southern redshifted lobe; on the other hand, the SiO emission associated with the blueshifted northern lobe traces a well defined arc on the border of component I16293B facing I16293A. The blueshifted CO lobe of the compact outflow splits in two lobes around the position of this SiO arc. All these leads us to propose that the compact outflow from component I16293A is impacting on the circumstellar gas around component I16293B, possibly being diverged as a consequence of the interaction.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 780(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) H$_2$O maser observations toward the massive young stellar objects (YSOs) VLA 2 and VLA 3 in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Through these observations, we have extended the study of the evolution of the masers towards these objects up to a time span of $\sim$ 10 yrs, measuring their radial velocities and proper motions. The H$_2$O masers in VLA 3, the most massive YSO in AFGL 2591 ($\sim$ 30--40~M$_{\odot}$), are grouped within projected distances of $\lesssim$ 40 mas ($\lesssim$ 130 AU) from VLA 3. In contrast to other H$_2$O masers in AFGL 2591, the masers associated with VLA 3 are significantly blueshifted (up to $\sim$ 30 km s$^{-1}$) with respect to the velocity of the ambient molecular cloud. We find that the H$_2$O maser cluster as a whole, has moved westwards of VLA~3 between the 2001 and 2009 observations, with a proper motion of $\sim$ 1.2 mas yr$^{-1}$ ($\sim$ 20 km s$^{-1}$). We conclude that these masers are tracing blueshifted outflowing material, shock excited at the inner parts of a cavity seen previously in ammonia molecular lines and infrared images, and proposed to be evacuated by the outflow associated with the massive VLA 3 source. The masers in the region of VLA 2 are located at projected distances of $\sim$ 0.7$''$ ($\sim$ 2300 AU) north from this source, with their kinematics suggesting that they are excited by a YSO other than VLA 2. This driving source has not yet been identified.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; 437(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new VLA observations of the ammonia (3,3) and (4,4) inversion transitions with ˜0.8" angular resolution toward the massive protostar Cep A HW2. This source is one of the nearest and best studied disk-jet systems associated with a high mass protostar. We propose that the emission previously attributed to a nearby source may be actually the bluer side of the disk. In this way, we manage to separate the emission into a disk structure and a hot core. With our high angular resolution observations we are able to see the disk rotation and infer a reliable value for the central mass. From the ammonia (4,4) to (3,3) transition ratio, we show that the main heating source of the disk is spatially coincident with the position of the central protostar. In the case of the hot core, we find signs of external heating associated with the wide-angle water maser outflow powered by HW2 (Torrelles et al. 2011).
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: GASPS is a far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary and young debris disks using PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory. The survey includes [OI] at 63 microns, as well as 70, 100 and 160um continuum, with the brightest objects also studied in [OI]145um, [CII]157um, H2O and CO. Targets included T Tauri stars and debris disks in 7 nearby young associations, and a sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide disk sample, systemically comparing the results with models. In this paper we review the main aims, target selection and observing strategy. We show initial results, including line identifications, sources detected, and a first statistical study. [OI]63um was the brightest line in most objects, by a factor of ~10. Detection rates were 49%, including 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars. Comparison with published dust masses show a dust threshold for [OI]63um detection of ~1e-5 M_solar. Normalising to 140pc distance, 32% with mass 1e-6 - 1e-5 M_solar, and a small number with lower mass were also detected. This is consistent with moderate UV excess and disk flaring. In most cases, continuum and line emission is spatially and spectrally unresolved, suggesting disk emission. ~10 objects were resolved, likely from outflows. Detection rates in [OI]145um, [CII]157um and CO J=18-17 were 20-40%, but [CII] was not correlated with disk mass, suggesting it arises instead from a compact envelope. [OI] detection rates in T Tauri associations of ages 0.3-4Myr were ~50%. ~2 stars were detectable in associations of 5-20Myr, with no detections in associations of age >20Myr. Comparing with the total number of young stars, and assuming a ISM-like gas/dust ratio, this indicates that ~18% of stars retain a gas-rich disk of total mass >1M_Jupiter for 1-4Myr, 1-7% keep such disks for 5-10Myr, and none remain beyond 10-20Myr.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 06/2013; 125(927). · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of 22 GHz H$_2$O masers in the high-mass star-forming region of \objectname{W75N}, carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) for three-epochs in 2007 with an angular resolution of $\sim$ 1 mas. We detected H$_2$O maser emission toward the radio jet in VLA 1 and the expanding shell-like structure in VLA 2. .......... We have made elliptical fits to the VLA 2 H$_2$O maser shell-like structure observed in the different epochs (1999, 2005, and 2007), and found that the shell is still expanding eight years after its discovery. From the difference in the size of the semi-major axes of the fitted ellipses in the epochs 1999 ($\simeq$ 71$\pm$1 mas), 2005 ($\simeq$ 97$\pm$3 mas), and 2007 ($\simeq$ 111$\pm$1 mas), we estimate an average expanding velocity of $\sim$ 5 mas yr$^{-1}$, similar to the proper motions measured in the individual H$_2$O maser features. A kinematic age of $\sim$ 20 yr is derived for this structure. In addition, our VERA observations indicate an increase in the ellipticity of the expanding shell around VLA 2 from epochs 1999 to 2007. In fact, the elliptical fit of the VERA data shows a ratio between the minor and major axes of $\sim$ 0.6, in contrast with a most circular shape for the shell detected in 1999 and 2005 (b/a $\sim$ 0.9). This suggests that we are probably observing the formation of a jet-driven H$_2$O maser structure in VLA2, evolving from a non-collimated pulsed-outflow event during the first stages of evolution of a massive young stellar object (YSO). This may support predictions made earlier by other authors on this issue, consistent with recent magnetohydrodynamical simulations. We discuss possible implications of our results in the study of the first stages of evolution of massive YSOs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 767(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we analyze multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) water maser observations carried out with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) toward the high-mass star-forming region AFGL 2591. We detected maser emission associated with the radio continuum sources VLA 2 and VLA 3. In addition, a water maser cluster, VLA 3-N, was detected ~ 0.5" north of VLA 3. We concentrate the discussion of this paper on the spatio-kinematical distribution of the water masers towards VLA 3-N. The water maser emission toward the region VLA 3-N shows two bow shock-like structures, Northern and Southern, separated from each other by ~ 100 mas (~ 330 AU). The spatial distribution and kinematics of the water masers in this cluster have persisted over a time span of seven years. The Northern bow shock has a somewhat irregular morphology, while the Southern one has a remarkably smooth morphology. We measured the proper motions of 33 water maser features, which have an average proper motion velocity of ~ 1.3 mas/yr (~ 20 km/s). The morphology and the proper motions of this cluster of water masers show systematic expanding motions that could imply one or two different centers of star formation activity. We made a detailed model for the Southern structure, proposing two different kinematic models to explain the 3-dimensional spatio-kinematical distribution of the water masers: (1) a static central source driving the two bow-shock structures; (2) two independent driving sources, one of them exciting the Northern bow-shock structure, and the other one, a young runaway star moving in the local molecular medium exciting and molding the remarkably smoother Southern bow-shock structure. Future observations will be necessary to discriminate between the two scenarios, in particular by identifying the still unseen driving source(s).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2012; 430(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the presence of disks or tori around the central stars of pre Planetary Nebulae and Planetary Nebulae is related to the collimation of the jet that are frequently observed in these sources. These disks or tori can be traced by the maser emission of some molecules such as water. In this work we present Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the water maser emission at 22 GHz toward the PN IRAS 18061-2505, for which the masers appear located on one side of the central star. For comparison with the observations, we present a simple kinematical model of a disk rotating and expanding around the central star. The model matches qualitatively the observations. However, since the masers appear only on one side of the disk, these results are not conclusive.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2012; 8(S287):258-259.
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    ABSTRACT: VLBI multi-epoch water maser observations are a powerful tool to study the dense, warm shocked gas very close to massive protostars. The very high-angular resolution of these observations allow us to measure the proper motions of the masers in a few weeks, and together with the radial velocity, to determine their full kinematics. In this paper we present a summary of the main observational results obtained toward the massive star-forming regions of Cepheus A and W75N, among them: (i) the identification of different centers of high-mass star formation activity at scales of 100 AU; (ii) the discovery of new phenomena associated with the early stages of high-mass protostellar evolution (e.g., isotropic gas ejections); and (iii) the identification of the simultaneous presence of a wide-angle outflow and a highly collimated jet in the massive object Cep A HW2, similar to what is observed in some low-mass protostars. Some of the implications of these results in the study of high-mass star formation are discussed.
    Boletin de la Asociacion Argentina de Astronomia La Plata Argentina. 04/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: VLBI multi-epoch water maser observations are a powerful tool to study the gas very close to the central engine responsible for the phenomena associated with the early evolution of massive protostars. In this paper we present a summary of the main observational results obtained toward the massive star-forming regions of Cepheus A and W75N. These observations revealed unexpected phenomena in the earliest stages of evolution of massive objects (e.g., non-collimated "short-lived" pulsed ejections in different massive protostars), and provided new insights in the study of the dynamic scenario of the formation of high-mass stars (e.g., simul- taneous presence of a jet and wide-angle outflow in the massive object Cep A HW2, similar to what is observed in low-mass protostars). In addition, with these observations it has been possible to identify new, previously unseen centers of high-mass star formation through outflow activity.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 04/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Shock-induced H2O masers are important magnetic field tracers at very high density gas. Water masers are found in both high- and low-mass star-forming regions, acting as a powerful tool to compare magnetic field morphologies in both mass regimes. In this paper, we show one of the first magnetic field determinations in the low-mass protostellar core IRAS 16293-2422 at volume densities as high as 10^(8-10) cm^-3. Our goal is to discern if the collapsing regime of this source is controlled by magnetic fields or other factors like turbulence. We used the Very Large Array (VLA) to carry out spectro-polarimetric observations in the 22 GHz Zeeman emission of H2O masers. From the Stokes V line profile, we can estimate the magnetic field strength in the dense regions around the protostar. A blend of at least three maser features can be inferred from our relatively high spatial resolution data set (~ 0.1"), which is reproduced in a clear non-Gaussian line profile. The emission is very stable in polarization fraction and position angle across the channels. The maser spots are aligned with some components of the complex outflow configuration of IRAS 16293-2422, and they are excited in zones of compressed gas produced by shocks. The post-shock particle density is in the range of 1-3 x 10^9 cm^-3, consistent with typical water masers pumping densities. Zeeman emission is produced by a very strong line-of-sight magnetic field (B ~ 113 mG). The magnetic field pressure derived from our data is comparable to the ram pressure of the outflow dynamics. This indicates that the magnetic field is energetically important in the dynamical evolution of IRAS 16293-2422.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
950.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Institut de Ciències de l'Espai
      Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • Kagoshima University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 1987–2011
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • • Centre of Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics
      • • Institute of Astronomy
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 1992–2010
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Astronomy and Metereology
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2009
    • University of the Balearic Islands
      Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain
  • 2001–2009
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Andalusian Astrophysics Institute
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1990–2009
    • Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2001–2008
    • Instituto de Estructura de la Materia
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2000–2008
    • Institut de Ciències del Mar
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1983–2008
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003
    • Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial
      • Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics
      Torrejon de Ardos, Madrid, Spain
  • 1999
    • IEEC Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Astronomy
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
    • Universidad de Jaén
      • Department of Physics
      Jaén, Andalusia, Spain
  • 1997
    • Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (IMEDEA)
      Esporles, Balearic Islands, Spain
  • 1991–1992
    • Institut d'Estudis Catalans
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain