[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to characterize the ways in which older HIV-infected people differ from younger HIV-infected people.
Prospective cohort study. PISCIS cohort includes newly attended HIV-infected subjects since January 1, 1998. Naive patients were selected. Two groups were defined: G1 (>or=50 years at time of diagnosis, n=493) and G2 (18-49 years, n=4511). Statistical analysis was performed using chi(2), Student's t test, Cox regression and linear mixed models.
G1 had different features: males (G1: 84% vs. G2: 75%, p<0.001), sexual transmission (52% vs. 32%, p<0.001), AIDS at first visit (38% vs. 22%, p<0.001). The follow-up was 6 years. Ninety-five percent of patients in G1 and 92% in G2 presented a detectable viral load (>or=500 copies/mm(3)) at the first visit (p=0.016). G1 presented lower CD4 levels with respect to G2 throughout the period but the increase of CD4 in G1 at the end of the study period was 254 cells/mm(3) whereas for G2 it was 196 cells/mm(3) (p<0.001). Mortality was 9% for G1 and 4% for G2 (p<0.001).
HIV-infected people diagnosed at the age of 50 years or older showed different features. They showed good viral and immunological response to HAART.
The Journal of infection 08/2008; 57(1):64-71. · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyze the factors related to progression to AIDS or death in HIV-infected patients from the Proyecto para la Informatización del Seguimiento Clínico epidemiológico de los pacientes con Infección por VIH/SIDA (PISCIS) Cohort and we assess the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) taking lead time into account.
We selected naive patients who were AIDS-free and initiated HAART after January 1998. Statistical analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Lead time was defined as the time it took the deferred group with an early disease stage to reach the later stage. The analysis accounting for lead time was performed using multiple imputation methods based on estimates from the pre-HAART period as described elsewhere.
Multivariate analysis on 2035 patients (median follow-up = 34.3 months) showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for a CD4 count <200 cells/microL (HR = 3.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.18 to 6.57), HIV-1 RNA level >100,000 copies/mL (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.69), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection (HR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.65 to 3.49), whereas a lower risk was found for those who started HAART between January 2001 and June 2004 (HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.90). When lead time and unseen events were included, we found a higher risk of progression to AIDS among patients who deferred treatment when the CD4 count reached <200 cells/microL (HR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.91 to 4.63) and 200 to 350 cells/microL (HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.33) compared with those who started treatment with CD4 counts from 200 to 350 cells/microL and >350 cells/microL, respectively.
Advanced HIV disease, HCV coinfection, and early HAART period were determinants of AIDS progression or death. Lead-time analysis in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients suggests that the best time to start HAART is before the CD4 count falls to lower than 350 cells/microL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low response rates and concerns about safety have limited the implementation of treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in patients with HIV infection. The efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin in HIV-infected patients with CHC were evaluated in a prospective, open-label, multicenter study. Sixty patients with persistently high transaminases, positive HCV-RNA, CD4 count > or = 300 cells/microl, and HIVRNA <10,000 copies/ml were included. Patients were given peg-IFN 80-150 microg/week plus ribavirin 800-1200 mg/day. Treatment was scheduled for 24 weeks for genotypes 2/3 and 48 weeks for genotypes 1/4. In an intent- to-treat analysis, 16 (26.7%) patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). Twenty patients (33.3%) discontinued treatment prematurely, but only in 10 (16.6%) was discontinuation due to adverse events. Negative predictive values for SVR on the basis of HCV-RNA decline between baseline and week 4 were 100% for 1- and 2-log10 fall, and positive predictive values were 40% and 58.3% for 1- and 2-log10 fall, respectively. CD4 fell by a median of 216 cells during treatment, but no HIV-associated complications occurred. In conclusion, treatment with peg-IFN alpha-2b plus ribavirin is safe and clears RNA-HCV in about one-quarter of HIV-infected patients with CHC. Efforts should be focused on optimizing management of side effects and counseling to improve adherence and to keep patients on treatment. Assessment of HCV-RNA at week 4 may help guide early therapeutic decision making.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 05/2006; 22(4):315-20. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to describe the process of implementation of the PISCIS cohort, and to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and trends of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among patients enrolled from 1998 through 2003.
Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients aged > or = 16 years newly attended in 10 Catalonian hospitals and one Balearic Islands hospital. Analysis were done using the Mantel's chi2 test for trend.
A total of 5,968 patients (mean age 39 yrs; 75% men) were recruited with a mean follow-up of 26.4 months (13,130 person-years). A total of 2,763 patients were newly diagnosed and among these, the most frequent transmission route was the heterosexual one (43%), followed by homosexual (31%). We observed an increasing trend in the proportion of persons < 35 years and immigrants. Among newly diagnosed, 43% had < 200 CD4 T cells/microl in the nearest determination from HIV diagnosis. In the year 2003, 83% of patients were on ART. A decrease of the protease inhibitor-based regimen (from 85% in 1998 to 25% in 2003; p < 0.001) and an increase of nucleoside and non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors-containing regimens were observed over time among naive patients who started ART with three or more drugs.
HIV infected patients' cohorts are feasible in our setting and are an important tool in clinical and public health. The heterosexual route of transmission was the most frequent among newly diagnosed patients. The diagnosis delay is high and, on the other hand, ARV regimens have been changing according to the recommended guidelines.