Publications (3)4.15 Total impact
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Tanzania HIV Care and Treatment Plan was launched in October 2004 aiming at providing 440,000 AIDS patients with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and track disease progression in 1.2 million HIV+ persons by the end of the 2008. This paper is intended to provide information to stake holders of the achievements and challenges of the HIV Care and Treatment Plan since its inception in 2004. Facility patient reports are aggregated at district and then regional level before being sent to the national level where they are aggregated to form a national report. By December 2007, 210 health facilities were offering HIV care and treatment services in Tanzania. About 123,147 (5%) of the 2,636,785 estimated people living with HIV and AIDS were enrolled, and 71,439 (13.6%) of the estimated 527,357 AIDS cases commenced ART. More females than males started ART, F:M ratio being 3:2. Most (49%) patients were started ART due to low CD4 counts (< 200). About 6,618 patients had their initial ARV regimen changed due to starting anti-TB treatment 679 (10%), peripheral neuropathy 812 (12%), skin rash 378 (6%), and stock out 247 (4%) or other reasons (18%), while 2,653 (42%) had no reason recorded. The proportion of patients still alive and on ART at 6, 12 and 24 months after initiation of treatment was 60%, 60%, and 50%, respectively, while those collecting ARVs on schedule was 34%, 25% and 10% respectively. About 3,084 patients developed TB after starting ART, of whom 1,557 (approximately 50%) patients during the first three months of treatment. During the three years (2004-2007) of HIV care and treatment services in Tanzania, there has been an increase in the number of CTC facilities, geographical coverage of services, the number of enrolled patients and those on ART. However, the set target for ART services has not been achieved and there are significant geographical variations in these achievements, which do not correspond with either population density or disease burden. Efforts should be made to i) ensure equitable accessibility when scaling up ART services in Tanzania, ii) improve the recording and reporting system and iii) armonize the activities of various stakeholders.Tanzania journal of health research 07/2009; 11(3):136-43.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Estimations and Projections Package (EPP 2005) for HIV/AIDS estimates and projects HIV prevalence, number of people living with HIV and new HIV infections and AIDS cases using antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance data. The prevalence projection produced by EPP can be transferred to SPECTRUM, a demographic projection model, to calculate the number of AIDS deaths. This paper presents estimates and projections of HIV prevalence, new cases of HIV infections and AIDS deaths in Tanzania between 2001 and 2010 using the EPP 2005 and SPECTRUM soft-wares on ANC data. For this study we used; the 1985-2004 ANC data set, the 2005 UN population estimates for urban and rural adults, which is based on the 2002 population census, and results of the 2003 Tanzania HIV Indicator Survey. The ANC surveillance sites were categorized into urban and rural areas on the basis of the standard national definitions of urban and rural areas, which led to 40 urban and 35 rural clinic sites. The rural and urban epidemics were run independently by fitting the model to all data and on level fits. The national HIV prevalence increased from 0% in 1981 to a peak of 8.1% in 1995, and gradually decreased to 6.5% in 2004 which stabilized until 2010. The urban HIV epidemic increased from 0% in 1981 peaking at 12.6% in 1992 and leveled to between 10.9% and 11.8% from 2003 to 2010. The rural epidemic peaked in 1995 at 7.0% and gradually declined to 5.2% in 2004, and then stabilized at between 5.1% and 5.3% from 2005 to 2010. New infections are projected to rise steadily, resulting in 250,000 new cases in 2010. Deaths due to AIDS started in 1985 and rose steadily to reach 120,000 deaths in 2010, with more females dying than men. The fact that the number of new infections is projected to increase steadily to reach 250,000 per year in 2010 calls for more concerted efforts to combat the spread of HIV infection particularly in the rural areas where the infrastructure needed for prevention programmes such as counseling and testing, condom accessibility and AIDS information is less developed.BMC Public Health 02/2006; 6:120. · 2.08 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis infections among women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in Tanzania obtained during the 2003/2004 ANC surveillance. Ten geographical regions; six of them were involved in a previous survey, while the remaining four were freshly selected on the basis of having the largest population among the remaining 20 regions. For each region, six ANC were selected, two from each of three strata (urban, peri-urban and rural). Three of the sites did not participate, resulting into 57 surveyed clinics. 17,813 women who were attending the chosen clinics for the first time for any pregnancy between October 2003 and January 2004. Patient particulars were obtained by interview and blood specimens were drawn for HIV and syphilis testing. HIV testing was done anonymously and the results were unlinked. Of the 17,813 women screened for HIV, 1,545 (8.7% (95% CI = 8.3-9.1)) tested positive with the highest prevalence in women aged 25-34 years (11%), being higher among single women (9.7%) than married women (8.6%) (p < 0.07), and increased with level of education from 5.2% among women with no education to 9.3% among those at least primary education (p < 0.001). Prevalence ranged from 4.8% (95% CI = 3.8%-9.8%) in Kagera to 15.3% (95% CI = 13.9%-16.8%) in Mbeya and was; 3.7%, 4.7%, 9.1%, 11.2% and 15.3% for rural, semi-urban, road side, urban and 15.3% border clinics, respectively (p < 0.001). Of the 17,323 women screened for syphilis, 1265 (7.3% (95%CI = 6.9-7.7)) were positive, with highest prevalence in the age group 35-49 yrs (10.4%) (p < 0.001), and being higher among women with no education than those with some education (9.8% versus 6.8%) (p < 0.0001), but marital status had no influence. Prevalence ranged from 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4%-3.0%) in Kigoma to 14.9% (95% CI = 13.3%-16.6%) in Kagera and was 16.0% (95% CI = 13.3-18.9), 10.5% (95% CI = 9.5-11.5) and 5.8% (95% CI = 5.4-6.3) for roadside, rural and urban clinics, respectively. Syphilis and HIV co-infection was seen in 130/17813 (0.7%). The high HIV prevalence observed among the ANC clinic attendees in Tanzania call for expansion of current voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services and access to antiretroviral drugs (ARV) in the clinics. There is also a need for modification of obstetric practices and infant feeding options in HIV infection in order to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV. To increase uptake to HIV testing the opt-out strategy in which all clients are offered HIV testing is recommended in order to meet the needs of as many pregnant women as possible.BMC Public Health 01/2006; 6:91. · 2.08 Impact Factor