[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper attempts to answer a very simple question: how does a farm household respond as a unit in the labor market when benefits or health insurance is tied to employer provided jobs. One of the major changes affecting US agriculture has been a decline in the number of farms and an increase in the multiple job-holding, especially among farm women to fulfill various objectives ranging from helping out with farm expenses or securing benefits like health insurance. In addition to this, the new health care law or "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA") to be operational by 2014 requires that all individuals be covered by a health plan. Hence, it's important to understand the relationship between health insurance and labor markets to appropriately identify the impact of health policy reform for farm families.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Audience segmentation is a useful tool for designing effective campaigns. Further, the efficiency promised in diffusion science rests to some degree on the existence of adopter categories that can be identified and used to strategically disseminate prevention innovations. This study investigates the potential to identify adopter categories in potential recipients (n = 127) of an innovation to prevent food shortages in Mozambique. A 5-class model was found using latent class analysis, but it showed important differences from existing descriptions of adopter categories. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Journal of Health Communication 09/2012; · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns) requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is common practice to seek the opinions of future end-users during the development of innovations. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate latent classes of users in Mozambique based on their preferences for mosquito-control technology attributes and covariates of these classes, as well as to explore which current technologies meet these preferences.
Surveys were administered in five rural villages in Mozambique. The data were analysed with latent class analysis.
This study showed that users' preferences for malaria technologies varied, and people could be categorized into four latent classes based on shared preferences. The largest class, constituting almost half of the respondents, would not avoid a mosquito-control technology because of its cost, heat, odour, potential to make other health issues worse, ease of keeping clean, or inadequate mosquito control. The other three groups are characterized by the attributes which would make them avoid a technology; these groups are labelled as the bites class, by-products class, and multiple-concerns class. Statistically significant covariates included literacy, self-efficacy, willingness to try new technologies, and perceived seriousness of malaria for the household.
To become widely diffused, best practices suggest that end-users should be included in product development to ensure that preferred attributes or traits are considered. This study demonstrates that end-user preferences can be very different and that one malaria control technology will not satisfy everyone.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract It is well recognized that the informal economy—unregulated economic activities that generate real or in-kind income—features prominently in the day-to-day lives of many in the developing world. Researchers have begun to explore the informal economy in developed countries but this work has focussed primarily on urban areas to the neglect of rural areas. In this paper the nature and correlates of informal work in nonmetropolitan Pennsylvania are described through an analysis of survey data on 505 families. Results indicate that participation in informal activities is widespread, is not more typical of the poor, does not contribute greatly to family income on average but does help many poor families weather difficult economic times, is both economically and noneconomically motivated, and, net of other sociodemographic variables, is positively related to rurality of residence and formal labor supply.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary This paper uses data from the Malawi Financial Markets and Household Food Security survey to examine the impact of gendered access to credit on labor allocation patterns within the household. The paper corrects for potential endogeneity of access to credit in the estimations. Access to credit relies on the credit limit concept. Thus, an individual has access to credit from a particular source if he/she is able to borrow a positive amount from that source. Results suggest that the impact of access to credit depends upon both the gender of the recipient and whether it is formal or informal credit.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Underemployment, which goes beyond unemployment to include the working poor, discouraged workers, and involuntary part-time workers, is a useful measure of employment hardship. We argue that underemployment should be included with other conventional indicators of the disadvantaged circumstances of nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) labor, in terms not only of prevalence, but also of the likelihood of transitions into and out of underemployment. We take advantage of the quasi-longitudinal nature of the U.S. Current Population Surveys to estimate models of year-to-year employment transitions for the quarter century 1968 to 1993. We find that (1) adequately employed nonmetro workers are more likely than their more urban counterparts to become underemployed; (2) the nonmetro underemployed are less likely to become adequately employed; (3) statistical controls only strengthen these nonmetro disadvantages; (4) the employment transitions of nonmetro workers are less affected by shifts in the direction of the national economy than are those of metro workers; and (5) nonmetro women are more disadvantaged than women residing elsewhere.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Farm households in developed countries are highly dependent on multiple job-holding and dual job-holding, with off-farm work being common and off-farm income comprising a significant portion of the income of most farm households. Using data from a national survey of farm women conducted by Penn State University in 2001, participation in off-farm work by women is shown to increase significantly over recent decades while rates among farmers are shown to be relatively stable around 50 percent. Regional rates, and particularly those for farm women, are shown to be surprisingly high in those regions where traditional agriculture is practiced and where population density is low. Since 1980, changes in off-farm participation to labor rates are shown to have occurred concomitantly with decreases in farm women’s participation in farm tasks oriented toward home consumption and with significant increases in farm women’s engagement in major farm decision-making. Given recent changes within farm households in the U.S. as well as in many developed countries, it is recognized that intra-household interactions are likely to be important. Using a household bargaining approach, the influence of intergenerational farm transfer patterns – through his family or though hers – is tested to determine whether farm asset control affects off-farm and farm participation à la main d’oeuvre and farm decision-making. The reason for this focus is that farm women in the United-States are now more likely to be the recipients of intergenerational transfers of farms than in the past. Results show that if the farm is transferred through his family, he is more likely to work on the farm and less likely to work off-farm, while she is less likely to work on the farm. Conversely, if the farm is transferred through her family, she is more likely to work off-farm, perhaps to provide financial support to continue the farm operation. Strong effects are observed relative to decision-making, with transfer through her family positively influencing her involvement in farm decision-making and transfer through his family strongly influencing her exclusion from farm decision-making.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents results of research that investigates if long hours of work spent by children in fuel wood and water-collection activities, i. e., natural resource-collection work, influence the likelihood that a child aged 6–14 attends school. Potential endogeneity of resource-collection work hours is corrected for, using two-stage conditional maximum likelihood estimation. Data from the 1997–1998 Malawi Integrated Household Survey (IHS) conducted by the Malawi National Statistics Office (NSO) in conjunction with the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) are used. The study finds that Malawian children are significantly involved in resource-collection work and their likelihood of attending school decreases with increases in hours allocated to this work. The study further shows that girls spend more hours on resource-collection work and are more likely to be attending school while burdened by this work. Consequently, girls may find it difficult to progress well in school. However, girls are not necessarily less likely to be attending school. Results further show that presence of more women in a household is associated with a lower burden of resource-collection work on children and a higher probability of children's school attendance. Finally, the research shows that children from the most environmentally degraded districts of central and southern Malawi are less likely to attend school and relatively fewer of them have progressed to secondary school compared to those-from districts in the north.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Farming is among the high-stress occupations in the United States and farm women have higher stress scores due to multiple job holdings. The study investigates the determinants of time stress experienced by farm women in Pennsylvania applying an economic model of stress developed by Hamermesh and Lee (2003).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary: The traditional discussion about CO2 emissions and greenhouse gases as a source of global warming has been rather static, namely in the sense that innovation dynamics have not been considered much. Given the global nature of the climate problem, it is natural to develop a more dynamic Schumpeterian perspective and to emphasize a broader international analysis, which takes innovation dynamics and green international competitiveness into account: We discuss key issues of developing a consistent global sustainability indicator, which should cover the crucial dimensions of sustainability in a simple and straightforward way. The basic elements presented here concern genuine savings rates – covering not only depreciations on capital, but on the natural capital as well -, the international competitiveness of the respective country in the field of environmental ("green") goods and the share of renewable energy generation. International benchmarking can thus be encouraged and opportunities emphasized - an approach developed here. This new EIIW-vita Global Sustainability Indicator is consistent with the recent OECD requirements on composite indicators and thus, we suggest new options for policymakers. The US and Indonesia have suffered from a decline in their performance in the period 2000-07; Germany has improved its performance as judged by the new composite indicator whose weights are determined from factor analysis. The countries covered stand for roughly 91% of world GDP, 94% of global exports, 82% of global CO2 emissions and 68% of the population.
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 01/2004; 86(5):1289-1296. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper examines the effects of off-farm employment by either farm man or farm woman on selected farming practices. The paper uses recent (2001) data on farm households sampled from throughout the U.S. collected by Penn State University in conjunction with the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS/USDA) and in collaboration with the Economic Research Service (ERS/USDA). Practices include the use of contracting, the hiring of farm labor, the use of IPM, among other practices often used on crop or livestock operations in the U.S.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a bargaining framework, this paper analyzes the impact of access to credit on household labor allocation and on consumption expenditures in rural Malawi. The labor participation decisions of married men and women and female heads are estimated using random-effects probit models, and are corrected for endogeneity of access to credit. Expenditure shares are estimated using ordinary least squares and Tobit models.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examine the physical and mental health effects of providing care to an elderly mother on the adult child caregiver. We address the endogeneity of the selection in and out of caregiving using an instrumental variable approach, and carefully control for baseline health and work status of the adult child using fixed effects and Arellano-Bond estimation techniques. Continued caregiving over time increases depressive symptoms for married women and married men. In addition, the increase in depressive symptoms is persistent for married men. Depressive symptoms for single men and women are not affected by continued caregiving. There is a small protective effect on the likelihood (10%) of having any heart conditions among married women who continue caregiving. Robustness checks confirm that the increase in depressive symptoms and decrease in likelihood of heart conditions can be directly attributable to caregiving behavior, and not due to a direct effect of the death of the mother. The initial onset of caregiving, by contrast, has no immediate effects on physical or mental health for any subgroup of caregivers.
International Agricultural Policy Reform and Adjustment Project (IAPRAP), Policy Reform and Adjustment Workshop, October 23-25, 2003, Imperial College London, Wye Campus. 01/2003;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Participation rates for farm women in off-farm labor markets continue to increase, as does their participation in making major farm decisions such as whether to buy or sell land, adopt a new production practice or invest in farm equipment. Data from the Survey of U.S. Farm Women conducted in 2001 by Penn State in collaboration with researchers at the Economic Research Service and in collaboration with NASS are used to examine the multiple work roles of farm women off the farm and in farming. Descriptive statistics for the results of the 2001 survey are compared to those from the last major survey of U.S. farm women conducted by Rosenfeld in 1980. Then, using data limited to farm couples, models of job choice considering jointness in participation are estimated and tested under conditions of presence or absence of children, followed by estimation of models of on-farm decision-making using a household bargaining approach. Of particular interest is the effect of the >path= of intergenerational farm transfer (i.e., if inherited or purchased through her family or through her spouse=s/partner=s family) on job choice and farm decision-making. Results show that the work decisions of farm couples are correlated, both when children are present and when they are not. Further, the >path= of farm transfer influences the choices that women make. The transferof the farm through her family has in some cases a positive influence on her choices, both in terms of her involvement on the farm and her participation in farm decisions. Farm transfer through the husband=s/partner=s family generally has strong negative influences on her participation in farm decision-making. Keywords: bargaining models, multiple job-holding, decision-making, intergenerational transfer, farm women, off-farm employment, employment, labor
American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association), 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA. 01/2002;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most agricultural output in the northeastern United States comes from counties that have experienced significant development, A mail survey, with 300 responses, was conducted in southeastern Pennsylvania to determine farmer adaptation to urbanization in this region. Despite development, traditional agriculture still predominates. Changes in land use were examined using multinominal logit models. Results show that changes in population density and farm preservation policies have an influence, as increased population density reduced totat land operated and having land in an agricultural security area increased it. Both differential assessment and agricultural security areas increased the cultivation of traditiontd, land extensive crops.
Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 02/2001; 30(1).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most agricultural output in the northeastern United States comes from counties that have experienced significant development. A mail survey, with 300 responses, was conducted in southeastern Pennsylvania to determine farmer adaptation to urbanization in this region. Despite development, traditional agriculture still predominates. Changes in land use were examined using multinomial logit models. Results show that changes in population density and farm preservation policies have an influence, as increased population density reduced total land operated and having land in an agricultural security area increased it. Other measures of urbanization, such as proximity to a city or inter-state highway had no statistically significant effect on farm practices. Keywords: Agricultural adaptation, rural development, off-farm income, urbanization, land use
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the Labor Utilization Framework (LUF), this paper focuses on assessing the prevalence and determinants of underemployment in the South. Data from the March Current Pop- ulation Survey (CPS) are used to measure underemployment rates, with comparisons made between demographic groups, metro and nonmetro locations, and over time. Matched CPS data files are then used to examine the determinants of transitions from underem- ployment into "adequate employment". Study results show that nonmetro residents in the South are at a distinct disadvantage -- they are less likely than even central city residents to move upward from underemployment into adequate jobs. Being black reduces the likelihood of getting a job (even a marginal job) or finding better employment, and women employed in marginal jobs face particular difficulties with respect to moving into better jobs. A high school degree makes a difference, even in nonmetro areas, but it is becoming increasingly difficult over time to move out of unem- ployment into adequate jobs especially in the nonmetro South. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 has focused increasing attention on employment as a means of ameliorating poverty in the United States, rather than reli- ance on entitlements. Although there continues to be great debate over the efficacy of reducing the protection provided by a federal "safety net" especially in the long run, the need exists to create and