[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper attempts to answer a very simple question: how does a farm household respond as a unit in the labor market when benefits or health insurance is tied to employer provided jobs. One of the major changes affecting US agriculture has been a decline in the number of farms and an increase in the multiple job-holding, especially among farm women to fulfill various objectives ranging from helping out with farm expenses or securing benefits like health insurance. In addition to this, the new health care law or "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA") to be operational by 2014 requires that all individuals be covered by a health plan. Hence, it's important to understand the relationship between health insurance and labor markets to appropriately identify the impact of health policy reform for farm families.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve the well-being of individuals, development policies not only have to take into account how resources are allocated within the family or household but also look at the impact of this resource allocation on individuals. The objective of this article is to understand how intrahousehold dynamics (e.g., variations in household bargaining behaviors) lead to differences in outcomes of specific interest (e.g., food and non-food expenditure). The household bargaining model is used to study the effects of credit, both formal and informal, on consumption choices. The focus is on the household expenditure patterns and participation in the credit market is taken as the measure of bargaining between the head and the spouse. This article uses the International Food Policy Research Institute's Food Management and Research Support Project (IFPRI-FMRSP) household survey of Bangladesh for the years 1998–99. OLS is used to estimate the food share and personal care share equations, and Tobit models are used to estimate the 10 other non-food budget shares. Our results indicated that more men compared to women participate in the credit market. Amount of credit taken by the male household head negatively affects food expenditure and positively affects the share spent on adult goods. The negative effect on food expenditure has policy implications related to nutritional intake and educational attainment of children in the household. Women's use of credit has a positive impact on the expense of children's goods, durable goods, education, and housing. The results show that resources in the hands of women have implications for improvement in child outcomes, especially educational outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Audience segmentation is a useful tool for designing effective campaigns. Further, the efficiency promised in diffusion science rests to some degree on the existence of adopter categories that can be identified and used to strategically disseminate prevention innovations. This study investigates the potential to identify adopter categories in potential recipients (n = 127) of an innovation to prevent food shortages in Mozambique. A 5-class model was found using latent class analysis, but it showed important differences from existing descriptions of adopter categories. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Journal of Health Communication 09/2012; · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns) requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because the official U.S. poverty level is too low to adequately assess need for assistance among low income households, assistance agencies set eligibility levels to multiples of the poverty level, such as 125 or 150 percent. The Self Sufficiency Standard provides an alternative measurement that accounts for many characteristics of modern society and geographical differences in cost of living. We use both measures to examine eligibility levels for customers seeking payment arrangements for their utility bill arrearage. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the two methods are in the greatest agreement when the poverty level is adjusted to 185 percent. We conclude that the Standard is a more accurate assessment of poverty and the need for assistance, but is unlikely to be politically feasible. Given this, we see it as a useful tool for determining the appropriate multiple of the official poverty level to use in setting eligibility levels for assistance programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is common practice to seek the opinions of future end-users during the development of innovations. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate latent classes of users in Mozambique based on their preferences for mosquito-control technology attributes and covariates of these classes, as well as to explore which current technologies meet these preferences.
Surveys were administered in five rural villages in Mozambique. The data were analysed with latent class analysis.
This study showed that users' preferences for malaria technologies varied, and people could be categorized into four latent classes based on shared preferences. The largest class, constituting almost half of the respondents, would not avoid a mosquito-control technology because of its cost, heat, odour, potential to make other health issues worse, ease of keeping clean, or inadequate mosquito control. The other three groups are characterized by the attributes which would make them avoid a technology; these groups are labelled as the bites class, by-products class, and multiple-concerns class. Statistically significant covariates included literacy, self-efficacy, willingness to try new technologies, and perceived seriousness of malaria for the household.
To become widely diffused, best practices suggest that end-users should be included in product development to ensure that preferred attributes or traits are considered. This study demonstrates that end-user preferences can be very different and that one malaria control technology will not satisfy everyone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary This paper uses data from the Malawi Financial Markets and Household Food Security survey to examine the impact of gendered access to credit on labor allocation patterns within the household. The paper corrects for potential endogeneity of access to credit in the estimations. Access to credit relies on the credit limit concept. Thus, an individual has access to credit from a particular source if he/she is able to borrow a positive amount from that source. Results suggest that the impact of access to credit depends upon both the gender of the recipient and whether it is formal or informal credit.
World Development 04/2010; 38(4):555-566. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract It is well recognized that the informal economy—unregulated economic activities that generate real or in-kind income—features prominently in the day-to-day lives of many in the developing world. Researchers have begun to explore the informal economy in developed countries but this work has focussed primarily on urban areas to the neglect of rural areas. In this paper the nature and correlates of informal work in nonmetropolitan Pennsylvania are described through an analysis of survey data on 505 families. Results indicate that participation in informal activities is widespread, is not more typical of the poor, does not contribute greatly to family income on average but does help many poor families weather difficult economic times, is both economically and noneconomically motivated, and, net of other sociodemographic variables, is positively related to rurality of residence and formal labor supply.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Labor market areas (LMAs) have long been a staple of regional and urban analysis. As commuting patterns have expanded over time, these areas have become larger and more complex, and the dichotomous designation of a county either belonging to an LMA or not may no longer be adequate. We apply recent advances in network science to conduct a more refined analysis of U.S. commuting patterns, and examine their effects on local economic growth. Results show that network degree and entropy measures explain variations in county per capita income growth patterns. Higher in- and out-commuting entropies are associated with lower per capita income growth, but their interaction enhances economic growth in places simultaneously open to both in- and out-commuters. Using these results, common ground may be found for creating new forms of regional governance that better reflect local realities of cross-county border flows of workers and economic activity. Copyright (c) 2010 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..
Growth and Change 01/2010; 41(2):276-302. · 1.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Underemployment, which goes beyond unemployment to include the working poor, discouraged workers, and involuntary part-time workers, is a useful measure of employment hardship. We argue that underemployment should be included with other conventional indicators of the disadvantaged circumstances of nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) labor, in terms not only of prevalence, but also of the likelihood of transitions into and out of underemployment. We take advantage of the quasi-longitudinal nature of the U.S. Current Population Surveys to estimate models of year-to-year employment transitions for the quarter century 1968 to 1993. We find that (1) adequately employed nonmetro workers are more likely than their more urban counterparts to become underemployed; (2) the nonmetro underemployed are less likely to become adequately employed; (3) statistical controls only strengthen these nonmetro disadvantages; (4) the employment transitions of nonmetro workers are less affected by shifts in the direction of the national economy than are those of metro workers; and (5) nonmetro women are more disadvantaged than women residing elsewhere.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women farmers are underserved in agricultural education and technical assistance. Long held social constructions of farming women as ‘farmwives’ and in some cases ‘the bookkeepers’ rather than farmers or decision-makers influence the direction of most educational programming delivered through extension programs in land-grant universities in the United States. Consequently, many women farmers generally view these spaces as hostile, rather than helpful environments. This paper uses the agricultural training framework developed by Liepins and Schick (1998) to analyze our research on developing educational programming for women farmers. We conducted five focus groups with members of the Pennsylvania Women's Agricultural Network (PA-WAgN) to better understand women farmers’ needs for education. Women farmers reported the kinds of knowledge and information they want, in what kinds of contexts, and through what means of communication. We adapt and extend the original theoretical framework developed by Liepins and Schick to incorporate the seriality of women's identities, their discourses of embodiment and the agency granted to them through social networks. Through a presentation of the results of these focus groups, we discuss both the relevance of gender to agricultural education and the importance of the network model in providing education to women farmers.
Journal of Rural Studies 10/2008; · 2.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human and Social Capital in Rural Development – EU and US PerspectivesHuman and social capital play critical roles in rural development, in both the US and Europe. The development of these resources at the individual and community levels is both an ultimate goal of sustainable rural development (RD), and a key means to pursue it. Rural areas face a range of specific issues and challenges for human and social capital. In this article we examine some of these, finding similarity in many issues faced by EU and US rural areas, including the trend toward counter-urbanization in some locations. We also give examples of some apparently useful policy and grass-root approaches in the EU and US used to support farmers and in some cases rural people more generally. We assert that the US lags behind the EU in recognising the value of social capital development, but that it could learn from EU experience in terms of alternative approaches and their successes or failures. Traditionally, policies which promote the enhancement of rural human capital and strengthen social capital in rural areas have failed to attract large-scale RD funding or prominence. They have, however, gained in credibility, and influence within the policy rhetoric, in recent years. We suggest that they deserve a higher profile in RD policies given likely future trends and challenges.Le capital social et humain dans le développement rural: Perspectives aux États-Unis et dans l’Union européenneLe capital social et humain joue un rôle crucial dans le développement rural à la fois aux États-Unis et dans l’Union européenne. Le développement de ces ressources au niveau de l’individu et à celui de la communauté est à la fois une finalité du développement rural durable et un moyen clé d’y parvenir. Les zones rurales sont confrontées à toute une gamme de problèmes et de défis au plan du capital social et humain. Dans cet article, nous examinons certains de ces problèmes et nous en trouvons beaucoup qui sont communs aux zones rurales de l’Union européenne et des États-Unis, comme par exemple la tendance vers une urbanisation inverse dans certaines zones. Nous présentons également des approches fondamentales et d’action publique intéressantes que les deux régions ont employées pour soutenir les agriculteurs et, dans certains cas, la population rurale plus généralement. Nous montrons que, par rapport à l’Union européenne, les États-Unis tardent à reconnaître la valeur du capital social et humain, mais qu’ils pourraient profiter de l’expérience européenne relative à des approches alternatives, selon les succès et les échecs de celles-ci. Traditionnellement, les politiques de développement du capital humain et de renforcement du capital social dans les zones rurales ne sont pas parvenues à attirer des fonds de développement rural sur une large échelle et à obtenir une priorité. Elles ont cependant gagné en crédibilité et en influence au sein du discours sur la politique ces dernières années. Nous suggérons qu’elles méritent un intérêt plus marqué au sein des politiques de développement rural compte tenu des évolutions et des défis à venir.Human- und Sozialkapital in der Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums – Perspektiven aus der EU und den USAHuman- und Sozialkapital spielen bei der Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums sowohl in den USA als auch in Europa maßgebliche Rollen. Die Entwicklung dieser Ressourcen auf individueller und kommunaler Ebene ist sowohl das oberste Ziel der nachhaltigen Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums (RD) als auch das entscheidende Hilfsmittel, um dieses Ziel zu erreichen. Ländliche Gebiete stehen vor einer ganzen Reihe besonderer Fragestellungen und Herausforderungen an das Human- und Sozialkapital, von denen einige in diesem Beitrag untersucht werden. Zahlreiche dieser Fragestellungen, denen die ländlichen Gebiete in Europa und den USA gegenüberstehen, weisen Ähnlichkeiten auf, wie z.B. die Tendenz zur Gegenurbanisierung in einigen Regionen. Darüber hinaus führen wir Beispiele für einige allem Anschein nach sinnvolle Politikmaßnahmen und Basisansätze in Europa und den USA an, mit deren Hilfe die Landwirte und in einigen Fällen ebenso die Landbevölkerung auf allgemeinerer Ebene unterstützt werden. Wir stellen fest, dass die EU im Gegensatz zu den USA erkannt hat, welchen Nutzen die Entwicklung des Sozialkapitals nach sich zieht. Die USA könnten jedoch aus den europäischen Erfahrungen hinsichtlich der alternativen Ansätze und deren Gelingen oder Scheitern lernen. Traditionell haben es Politikmaßnahmen mit dem Ziel, das Human- und Sozialkapital im ländlichen Raum aufzuwerten, bislang nicht geschafft, eine umfangreiche RD-Finanzierung oder einen hohen Bekanntheitsgrad zu erlangen. Sie haben jedoch in den vergangenen Jahren an Glaubwürdigkeit und Einfluss in der politischen Rhetorik gewonnen. Vor dem Hintergrund der wahrscheinlichen zukünftigen Tendenzen und Herausforderungen müsste ihnen unserer Meinung nach größere Beachtung im Hinblick auf die Politiken zur Entwicklung des ländlichen Raums geschenkt werden.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the level of overall diet quality, sociodemographic predictors of diet quality, and the association between diet quality and body weight status in a nationally representative sample of preschoolers.
Cross-sectional study using a sample of 2-5 years old with sociodemographic, dietary, and anthropometric data (n = 1,521) in the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Overall diet quality was determined using the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index. Sociodemographic predictors (age, sex, sociodemographic, ethnic group, household income, preschool attendance, federal food program participation) of diet quality were determined using multiple linear regression models in the total sample and stratified by household income for Food Stamp eligible (< 1.3 of the poverty income ratio) or Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children eligible (poverty income ratio < 1.85). Association between diet quality and prevalence of childhood obesity was assessed with Pearson chi-square tests. Statistical significance was assumed at p <or= 0.05. All analysis was conducted using complex survey design routines.
On average, preschooler consumed suboptimal levels of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy. Overall diet quality decreased with increasing age (beta-coefficient: -2.38, p < 0.001) but improved with increasing family income in the full sample (beta-coefficient: 1.22, p < 0.001) but not in the low-income subpopulations. Mexican American children had significantly better diet quality than non-Hispanic white children (beta-coefficient: 2.18, p < 0.033) especially in the low income group (beta-coefficient: 3.57, p < 0.006). Childhood obesity prevalence decreased significantly with increasing diet quality.
Preschooler's diet quality needs to be improved to support the prevention of childhood obesity early in life.
Jornal de Pediatria 01/2008; 84(1):26-34. · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood stunting among preschool-age children stands as a serious public health problem to be addressed in Nepal. Applying the multi-level modeling approach to nationally representative data, in the overall, we provide evidence that the negative influence of maternal own education to childhood stunting occurs especially for motherÂ’s higher level of education, but there exists substantial residential variations. Most interestingly, we provide new evidence of a strong negative community externality of maternal education on childhood stunting, even if mothers of children are uneducated. We also find motherÂ’s height is negatively related to childhood stunting, regardless of motherÂ’s educational attainment and place of residence, providing evidence of intergenerational transmission of maternal health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract We examine race and residential variation in the prevalence of female-headed households with children and how household composition is associated with several key economic well-being outcomes using data from the 2000 5% Public Use Microdata Sample of the U.S. Census. Special attention is paid to cohabiting female-headed households with children and those that are headed by a single grandmother caring for at least one grandchild, because these are becoming more common living arrangements among female-headed households with children. We find that in 2000: (1) cohabiting and grandmother female-headed households with children comprised over one-fourth of all female-headed households with children, (2) household poverty is highest for female-headed households with children that do not have other adult household earners, (3) earned income from other household members lifts many cohabiting and grandparental female-headed households out of poverty, as does retirement and Social Security income for grandmother headed households, and (4) poverty is highest among racial/ethnic minorities and for female-headed households with children in nonmetro compared to central cities and suburban areas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Farm households in developed countries are highly dependent on multiple job-holding and dual job-holding, with off-farm work being common and off-farm income comprising a significant portion of the income of most farm households. Using data from a national survey of farm women conducted by Penn State University in 2001, participation in off-farm work by women is shown to increase significantly over recent decades while rates among farmers are shown to be relatively stable around 50 percent. Regional rates, and particularly those for farm women, are shown to be surprisingly high in those regions where traditional agriculture is practiced and where population density is low. Since 1980, changes in off-farm participation to labor rates are shown to have occurred concomitantly with decreases in farm women’s participation in farm tasks oriented toward home consumption and with significant increases in farm women’s engagement in major farm decision-making. Given recent changes within farm households in the U.S. as well as in many developed countries, it is recognized that intra-household interactions are likely to be important. Using a household bargaining approach, the influence of intergenerational farm transfer patterns – through his family or though hers – is tested to determine whether farm asset control affects off-farm and farm participation à la main d’oeuvre and farm decision-making. The reason for this focus is that farm women in the United-States are now more likely to be the recipients of intergenerational transfers of farms than in the past. Results show that if the farm is transferred through his family, he is more likely to work on the farm and less likely to work off-farm, while she is less likely to work on the farm. Conversely, if the farm is transferred through her family, she is more likely to work off-farm, perhaps to provide financial support to continue the farm operation. Strong effects are observed relative to decision-making, with transfer through her family positively influencing her involvement in farm decision-making and transfer through his family strongly influencing her exclusion from farm decision-making.