[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing number of intracellular autoantigenic polypeptides have been found to play a second biologic role when they are present in the extracellular medium. We undertook this study to determine whether the CENP-B nuclear autoantigen could be added to this set of bifunctional molecules.
Purified CENP-B or CENP-B released from apoptotic cells was tested for surface binding to a number of human cell types by cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and indirect immunofluorescence. The biologic effects of CENP-B on the migration, interleukin secretion, and signaling pathways of its specific target cells were evaluated.
CENP-B was found to bind specifically to the surface of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and not to fibroblasts or endothelial cells (ECs). Furthermore, CENP-B bound preferentially to SMCs of the contractile type rather than to SMCs of the synthetic type. Binding of CENP-B to SMCs stimulated their migration during in vitro wound healing assays, as well as their secretion of interleukins 6 and 8. The mechanism by which CENP-B mediated these effects involved the focal adhesion kinase, Src, ERK-1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, CENP-B released from apoptotic ECs was found to bind to SMCs, thus indicating a plausible in vivo source of extracellular CENP-B.
These novel biologic roles of the nuclear autoantigen CENP-B open up a new perspective for studying the pathogenic role of anti-CENP-B autoantibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis due to excessive and dysregulated collagen production by fibroblasts. Previously, we reported that anti-DNA topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) antibodies bound specifically to fibroblast surfaces; however, we had not identified their antigenic target. We undertook this study to characterize the target of anti-topo I antibodies on fibroblasts and the effects of their binding.
Purified topo I or topo I released from apoptotic cells was tested for surface binding to a number of human cell types by cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and indirect immunofluorescence. Antibodies purified from SSc patient and normal control sera were used to detect topo I binding. The consequences of topo I and anti-topo I binding to fibroblasts were assessed by coculture with THP-1 monocytes.
The autoantigen topo I itself was found to bind specifically to fibroblasts in a dose-dependent and saturable manner, where it was recognized by anti-topo I from SSc patients. The binding of anti-topo I subsequently stimulated adhesion and activation of cocultured monocytes. Topo I released from apoptotic endothelial cells was also found to bind specifically to fibroblasts.
The findings of this study thus confirm and extend the findings of our previous study by showing that topo I binding to fibroblast surfaces is both necessary and sufficient for anti-topo I binding. Second, topo I-anti-topo I complex binding can then trigger the adhesion and activation of monocytes, thus providing a plausible model for the amplification of the fibrogenic cascade in anti-topo I-positive SSc patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts play a crucial role in the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc), and antifibroblast antibodies (AFAs) capable of inducing a proinflammatory phenotype in fibroblasts have been detected in the sera of SSc patients. This study examined the prevalence of AFAs in SSc and other diseases and the possible correlation between AFAs and known antinuclear antibody specificities in SSc patients.
Sera from 99 patients with SSc, 123 patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune diseases, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were examined. AFA prevalence was assessed by flow cytometry and further characterized by indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoblotting. Anti-topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) from SSc sera were purified by affinity chromatography on topo I.
AFAs were more common in SSc patients (26.3%) than in any other disease groups studied. The presence of AFA was significantly associated with pulmonary involvement and death. AFA-positive sera from SSc patients bound to all human and rodent fibroblasts tested, but not to human primary endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells. All SSc AFAs strongly reacted with topo I by ELISA and immunoblotting. The binding intensity of SSc AFAs correlated strongly with reactivity against topo I on immunoblots of fibroblast extracts and with the immunofluorescence pattern typical of anti-topo I on permeabilized cells. Total IgG and affinity-purified anti-topo I from AFA-positive SSc sera were found to react with the surface of unpermeabilized fibroblasts by flow cytometry as well as by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy.
This is the first report establishing that AFAs in SSc are strongly correlated with anti-topo I and, furthermore, that anti-topo I antibodies themselves display AFA activity by reacting with determinants at the fibroblast surface.