ABSTRACT: A prospective study was conducted to probe into the relationship between arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and brain injury during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD).
Enrolled in the study were 45 cyanotic infants, who were less than three years old and underwent corrective cardiac surgery from August 1(st), 2010 to January 31(st), 2011 at Guangdong General Hospital. All the infants had a pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) lower than 85% and were randomly allocated into three groups by a specific computer program. In controlled group 1 (G1 group), PaO2 levels were controlled at 80 - 120 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) during CPB; in controlled group 2 (G2 group), PaO2 levels at 120 - 200 mm Hg during CPB; while in uncontrolled group (G3 group), PaO2 levels were at 200 - 400 mm Hg during CPB. Blood samples were collected just before starting CPB, at the end of CPB, and at 3 h, 5 h, and 24 h after CPB (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5) for the determination of serum concentrations of protein S100β, neuron specific enolase (NSE), and adrenomedulin (ADM) by ELISA.
Protein S100β rose significantly after starting CPB. In group G3, it reached a peak of (699 ± 139) ng/L by the end of CPB, significantly higher than those in groups G1 and G2 [(528 ± 163) ng/L and (585 ± 155) ng/L], and was positively correlated with PaO2 levels (r = 0.526, P < 0.01). NSE levels of group G1 were continuously rising after starting CPB and reached significantly high levels at 3 h or 5 h after CPB [(12.2 ± 3.4) µg/L and (12.3 ± 3.7) µg/L], while those of group G2 rose significantly during CPB [(10.9 ± 4.8) µg/L] and even higher at 3 h or 5 h after CPB [(12.6 ± 5.1) µg/L and (13.2 ± 5.4) µg/L]. NSE levels of group G3 rose significantly during CPB and maintained at a high level [(12.2 ± 5.7) µg/L] afterwards. There was no significant difference in serum ADM concentrations among different time points in each group and among these three groups. All the infants were discharged from the hospital without any obvious nervous symptom and sign.
High PaO2 during CPB in infants with CHD might cause an increase of serum protein S100β and NSE, indicating that brain injury might become worse with a higher PaO2 and might be positively correlated with PaO2 during CPB.
Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 02/2012; 50(2):121-5.
ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence shows that some cardiac defects may benefit from fetal interventions, including fetal cardiac surgery. We attempted to develop an in vivo animal model of fetal cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic arrest.
Operations were performed on 14 pregnant goats. The extracorporeal circulation circuit consisted of a centrifugal pump, silicone tubings with an inner diameter of 6 mm, a roller pump, and a reservoir. The placenta was the sole oxygenator. Cardiopulmonary bypass was maintained at a mean flow rate of 344 ± 68 mL/kg/min, including 30 minutes of cardiac arrest and 15 minutes of reperfusion. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Arterial blood samples were analyzed. The pulse index and resistance index of the fetal umbilical artery were monitored.
Experiments were completed in 11 cases (79%), with the fetuses weighing 0.65 to 1.8 kg. Fetal mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate remained stable throughout the experiments. A decrease in partial pressure of oxygen with concomitant increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure was noted, but trends were relatively stable. Metabolic acidosis was recognized during and after cardiac bypass. The pulse index and resistance index of the umbilical artery increased significantly after 2 hours off bypass.
We confirmed the technical feasibility of establishing an in vivo model of fetal cardiac bypass with cardioplegic arrest. This fetal goat model provides reproducible data and is suitable to study clinically relevant problems related to fetal cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial protection, and hemodynamics.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 07/2011; 142(6):1562-6. · 3.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the early and midterm outcomes of palliative arterial switch operation in which a ventricular septal defect was not closed or repaired with a fenestrated patch in patients with transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, and severe pulmonary vascular obstructive disease.
Between March 2000 and September 2009, the palliative arterial switch operation was performed in 21 patients with a mean age of 3.7 years (range, 0.5-15). Mean preoperative values for systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and systemic arterial oxygen saturation were 91 mm Hg and 69%, respectively. Eighty-one percent of the patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV preoperatively.
Early mortality was 14.3%. Mean follow-up was 4.0 years (maximum 9.5 years). Regression of pulmonary arterial pressure occurred in 8 patients (44% of the early survivors). Three of the 8 fenestrations were closed interventionally. Mean postoperative systemic arterial oxygen saturation increased significantly to 93% (P < .001). One late death occurred 3 months after surgery. All the long-term survivors (n = 17) were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II (P < .001).
The palliative arterial switch operation significantly improved the quality of life and possibly life expectancy in patients with transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, and severe pulmonary vascular obstructive disease. Postoperative pulmonary vascular resistance might be reversible in some patients. Closing the ventricular septal defect with a fenestrated patch, which can be easily closed nonsurgically later on, might contribute to a safer postoperative recovery.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 10/2010; 140(4):845-9. · 3.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To analyze 68 pediatric cases with functional univentricle heart who underwent bidirectional Glenn procedure during from April 1998 to December 2005.
There were 47 males and 21 females in this group, aged from 5 months to 14 years old and weighed from 6.7 to 30.0 kg. Among them, 39 cases were received bidirectional Glenn procedure on the right side, 13 cases on the left side and 16 cases on both sides. Three cases had the pulmonary artery banded; one case had the pulmonary artery ligated;one case had the original A-P shunt cut off; six cases had the PDA ligated; four cases had the MAPCAs cut off; one case had TAPVC corrected contemporarily; two cases of PAPVC were also corrected; four cases had the atrial-ventricular valve repaired.
Three cases died. The mortality was 4.4%. The mean post-operative pressure of super vena cava was (15.9 +/- 2.4) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa), higher than the pre-operative one (8.3 +/- 1.8) mm Hg (P < 0.01). The mean post operative SpO(2) was (89.3 +/- 4.2)%, higher than the pre-operative one (78.4 +/- 6.0)% (P < 0.01).
Bidirectional Glenn procedure is of satisfied effect on surgical treatment for functional univentricle heart. The persistent forward flow from pulmonary artery should be reserved in bidirectional Glenn procedure.
Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] 06/2007; 45(12):812-4.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical effects of treatment with oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery.
From September 2002 to January 2005, oral sildenafil was added to the treatment regime in 27 cases of severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery. All these cases were given general treatments including intravenous prostaglandin E1 and inhalation of nitric oxide before the use of sildenafil, which did not show obvious effects on decreasing pulmonary pressure. Then a combined treatment [general treatment plus oral sildenafil (1-2 mg/kg, q8h; Pfizer Ltd)] was instituted. Pulmonary artery pressure, systolic pulmonary artery pressure/systolic systemic blood pressure (Pp/Ps) were measured before and every hour after adding sildenafil.
One hour after adding sildenafil, the patients' pulmonary artery pressure decreased remarkably (P < 0.01) with no adverse effects on systematic artery pressure. SO(2) and PaO(2) of all cases improved respectively (P < 0.05). One or two days later, the patients' hemodynamics were stable and some patients stopped inhaling nitric oxide and the dosage of prostaglandin E1 decreased. 25 cases stopped use of ventilator and were discharged safely. 2 cases died of multiple organ dysfunction.
Sildenafil is a highly selective and effective pulmonary hypertension vasodilator, which can be given for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery.
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi [Chinese journal of cardiovascular diseases] 10/2005; 33(10):916-9.