Jesper Grarup

IT University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (24)239.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to describe the challenges, successes and patterns of enrolment in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study. START is a collaboration of many partners with central coordination provided by the protocol team, the statistical and data management centre (SDMC), the International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT) network leadership, international coordinating centres and site coordinating centres. The SDMC prepared reports on study accrual, baseline characteristics and site performance that allowed monitoring of enrolment and data quality and helped to ensure the successful enrolment of this large international trial. We describe the pattern of enrolment and challenges faced during the enrolment period of the trial. An initial pilot phase began in April 2009 and established feasibility of accrual at 101 sites. In August 2010, funding approval for an expanded definitive phase led to the successful accrual of 4688 participants from 215 sites in 35 countries by December 2013. Challenges to accrual included regulatory delays (e.g. national/local ethics approval and drug importation approval) and logistical obstacles (e.g. execution of contracts with pharmaceutical companies, setting up of a central drug repository and translation of participant materials). The personal engagement of investigators, strong central study coordination, and frequent and transparent communication with site investigators, community members and participants were key contributing factors to this success. Accrual into START was completed in a timely fashion despite multiple challenges. This success was attributable to the efforts of site investigators committed to maintaining study equipoise, transparent and responsive study coordination, and community involvement in problem-solving. © 2015 British HIV Association.
    HIV Medicine 04/2015; 16 Suppl 1(S1):14-23. DOI:10.1111/hiv.12229 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This observational study in antiretroviral treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected adults explored the efficacy of etravirine plus darunavir/ritonavir (DRV group; n = 999) vs. etravirine plus an alternative boosted protease inhibitor (other PI group; n = 116) using pooled European cohort data.Methods Two international (EuroSIDA; EUResist Network) and five national (France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and UK) cohorts provided data (collected in 2007–2012). Stratum-adjusted (for confounding factors) Mantel–Haenszel differences in virological responses (viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived.ResultsBaseline characteristics were balanced between groups except for previous use of antiretrovirals (≥ 10: 63% in the DRV group vs. 49% in the other PI group), including previous use of at least three PIs (64% vs. 53%, respectively) and mean number of PI resistance mutations (2.3 vs. 1.9, respectively). Week 24 responses were 73% vs. 75% (observed) and 49% vs. 43% (missing = failure), respectively. Week 48 responses were 75% vs. 73% and 32% vs. 30%, respectively. All 95% CIs around unadjusted and adjusted differences encompassed 0 (difference in responses) or 1 (ORs). While ORs by cohort indicated heterogeneity in response, for pooled data the difference between unadjusted and adjusted for cohort ORs was small.Conclusions These data do not indicate a difference in response between the DRV and other PI groups, although caution should be applied given the small size of the other PI group and the lack of randomization. This suggests that the efficacy and virology results from DUET can be extrapolated to a regimen of etravirine with a boosted PI other than darunavir/ritonavir.
    HIV Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/hiv.12218 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of antibiotics in critically ill patients may increase the risk of invasive Candida infection. The objective of this study was to determine whether increased exposure to antibiotics is associated with increased prevalence of invasive Candida infection. Substudy using data from a randomized controlled trial, the Procalcitonin And Survival Study 2006-2010. Nine multidisciplinary ICUs across Denmark. A total of 1,200 critically ill patients. Patients were randomly allocated to either a "high exposure" antibiotic therapy (intervention arm, n = 604) or a "standard exposure" guided by current guidelines (n = 596). Seventy-four patients met the endpoint, "invasive Candida infection," 40 in the high exposure arm and 34 in standard exposure arm (relative risk = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7-1.8; p = 0.52). Among medical patients in the high exposure arm, the use of ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam was 51% and 75% higher than in the standard exposure arm; no difference in antibiotic exposure was observed between the randomized arms in surgical patients. Among medical intensive care patients, invasive Candida infection was more frequent in the high exposure arm (6.2%; 27/437) than in standard exposure arm (3.3%; 14/424) (hazard ratio = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.6; p = 0.05). Ciprofloxacin used at study entry independently predicted invasive Candida infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.1 [1.1-4.1]); the risk gradually increased with duration of ciprofloxacin therapy: six of 384 in patients not exposed (1.6%), eight of 212 (3.8%) when used for 1-2 days (hazard ratio = 2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-7.3), and 31 of 493 (6.3%) when used for 3 days (hazard ratio = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.6-9.3; p = 0.002). Patients with any ciprofloxacin-containing antibiotic regimen the first 3 days in the trial had a higher risk of invasive Candida infection than did patients on any antibiotic regimen not containing ciprofloxacin (unadjusted hazard ratio = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.7; p = 0.003; adjusted hazard ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.4-8.0; p = 0.006). High exposure to antibiotics is associated to increased risk of invasive Candida infection in medical intensive care patients. Patients with ciprofloxacin-containing regimens had higher risk of invasive Candida infection. Other antibiotics, such as meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and cefuroxime, were not associated with such a risk.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among HIV-infected patients. Whether standard antiretroviral drug dosage is adequate in heavy individuals remains unresolved. We assessed the virological and immunological responses to initial efavirenz (EFV)-containing regimens in heavy compared to normal-weight HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Observational European cohort collaboration study. METHODS: Eligible patients were antiretroviral-naïve with documented weight prior to EFV start and follow-up viral loads after treatment initiation. Cox regression analyses evaluated the association between weight and time to first undetectable viral load (<50 copies/ml) after treatment initiation, and time to viral load rebound (two consecutive viral load >50 copies/ml) after initial suppression over 5 years of follow-up. Recovery of CD4 cell count was evaluated 6 and 12 months after EFV initiation. Analyses were stratified by weight (kg) group (I - <55; II - >55, <80 (reference); III - >80, <85; IV - >85, <90; V - >90, <95; VI - >95). RESULTS: The study included 19 968 patients, of whom 9.1, 68.3, 9.1, 5.8, 3.5, and 4.3% were in weight groups I-VI, respectively. Overall, 81.1% patients attained virological suppression, of whom 34.1% subsequently experienced viral load rebound. After multiple adjustments, no statistical difference was observed in time to undetectable viral load and virological rebound for heavier individuals compared to their normal-weight counterparts. Although heaviest individuals had significantly higher CD4 cell count at baseline, CD4 cell recovery at 6 and 12 months after EFV initiation was comparable to normal-weight individuals. CONCLUSION: Virological and immunological responses to initial EFV-containing regimens were not impaired in heavy individuals, suggesting that the standard 600 mg EFV dosage is appropriate across a wide weight range.
    AIDS 11/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000530 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NEAT001/ANRS143 was an open-label, randomized, non-inferiority study comparing raltegravir+darunavir/r(RGV+DRV/r) vs. tenofovir/emtricitabine+darunavir/r (TDF/FTC+DRV/r) in HIV-infected antiretroviral naïve adults. Primary efficacy outcome was a composite of virological and clinical events by week 96.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19572. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19572 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: CMV infection in transplant recipients is known to evolve rapidly, with a doubling time (DT) of 1.2-2 days, necessitating weekly intervals between screening with CMV PCR to diagnose emerging infections while viral load remains low. We investigated the reproducibility of the DT estimate in our large cohort of unselected transplant recipients. Methods: Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell (n=119) or solid organ transplant (n=74) with a first CMV infection within the first year after transplantation were included. CMV DT was calculated using viral loads over first week of infection as previously published (Emery et al, JEM 1999). We also estimated, using mathematical simulation of a theoretical cohort, the % with an undesirably high CMV viral load (see table) depending on CMV PCR screening intervals and variation in DT. Results: Among 193 first CMV infection episodes, the overall observed median DT was 4.3 days (IQR 2.5-7.8). This estimate persisted after stratifying for CMV-infection susceptibility (i.e. prior CMV immunity), and types of transplantation (p>0.4). In a simulated cohort, the % of emerging infections between two screening intervals diagnosed with an undesirably high viral load depended on the screening interval and the DT (table). Assuming a fixed DT of 31 or 36 hours, an unacceptably high rate of diagnoses at undesirably high viral load (16.7-33.3%) was observed if the screening interval was extended from 7 to 10 days (i.e. 30% fewer screening visits). Conversely, this % remained low (4.3%) when applying the varied DT observed in our cohort. Conclusion: The DT for post-transplant CMV infections in our cohort was twice as long as previously reported and with remarkable variation. No discernable risk factors associated with the variation in DT within our cohort and when compared to previously reported figures from other sites could be identified, although important possible contributors such as viral fitness or T-cell immunological competence were unavailable. Our findings suggest that in similar settings to ours, it is safe to extend the intervals between screening with CMV PCR from 7 to 10 days (i.e. a 30% reduction in screening visits and associated cost); a suggestion that should be prospectively validated.
    IDWeek 2014 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background Standard first-line antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection includes two nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), but these drugs have limitations. We assessed the 96 week efficacy and safety of an NtRTI-sparing regimen. Methods Between August, 2010, and September, 2011, we enrolled treatment-naive adults into this randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial in treatment-naive adults in 15 European countries. The composite primary outcome was change to randomised treatment before week 32 because of insufficient virological response, no virological response by week 32, HIV-1 RNA concentration 50 copies per mL or higher at any time after week 32; death from any cause; any new or recurrent AIDS event; or any serious non-AIDS event. Patients were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral treatment with 400 mg raltegravir twice daily plus 800 mg darunavir and 100 mg ritonavir once daily (NtRTI-sparing regimen) or tenofovir–emtricitabine in a 245 mg and 200 mg fixed-dose combination once daily, plus 800 mg darunavir and 100 mg ritonavir once daily (standard regimen). This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01066962. Findings Of 805 patients enrolled, 401 received the NtRTI-sparing regimen and 404 the standard regimen, with median follow-up of 123 weeks (IQR 112–133). Treatment failure was seen in 77 (19%) in the NtRTI-sparing group and 61 (15%) in the standard group. Kaplan-Meier estimated proportions of treatment failure by week 96 were 17·8% and 13·8%, respectively (difference 4·0%, 95% CI −0·8 to 8·8). The frequency of serious or treatment-modifying adverse events were similar (10·2 vs 8·3 per 100 person-years and 3·9 vs 4·2 per 100 person-years, respectively). Interpretation Our NtRTI-sparing regimen was non-inferior to standard treatment and represents a treatment option for patients with CD4 cell counts higher than 200 cells per μL. Funding European Union Sixth Framework Programme, Inserm-ANRS, Gilead Sciences, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Merck Laboratories.
    The Lancet 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61170-3 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ATRIPLA is licensed for use only in HIV-positive persons whose viral loads <50 for ≥3 months. We investigated the use of ATRIPLA as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in EuroSIDA using a web-based survey performed in Autumn 2012. 96/112 clinics (85.7 %) completed the survey. Recommendations when initiating first-line ART was TRUVADA plus efavirenz in 36 (37.5 %), ATRIPLA in 35 (36.5 %), a different first-line regimen in 12 clinics (12.5 %), and no recommendation in 7 clinics (7.3 %). ATRIPLA was commonest in Northern (15/21 clinics; 71.4 %), and least common in Eastern Europe (2/31 clinics; 6.5 %; p < 0.0001). Over one-third of the participating clinics in this survey were using ATRIPLA as first-line antiretroviral therapy, despite EMA recommendations.
    Infection 06/2014; 42(4). DOI:10.1007/s15010-014-0630-4 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals, viral load levels tend to increase and CD4þ cell counts decline over time. We sought to explore the rate of change and influence of other factors associated with these markers of HIV progression. Design: An observational cohort collaboration study. Methods: A total of 158 385 pairs of consecutive viral load and CD4þ cell count simultaneously measured from 34 384 ART-naive individuals in the COHERE database were analysed. Annual changes and factors associated with these changes were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Results: Viral load continued to rise at a mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] rate of 0.091 (0.086–0.096) log10 copies/ml per year. A faster rise in viral load was significantly associated with older age, such that for every 10 years older, it was a mean 0.022 log10 copies/ml per year greater. The mean (95% CI) CD4þ cell count change was �78.0 (�80.1 to �76.0) cell/ml per year and it was strongly associated with a higher current viral load: for every 1 log10 copies/ml higher, CD4þ cell count declined by an additional 37.6 cells/ml per year (P<0.001). Current viral load was a stronger predictor of CD4þ cell count depletion than baseline viral load. Neither sex, race nor transmission by injecting drug use was associated with change in either the viral load or CD4þ cell count. Discussion: We found that in ART-naive individuals, viral load continues to increase over time and more sharply in those who are older. Our results also suggest that higher current viral load is strongly associated with ongoing rate of CD4þ cell count depletion.
    AIDS 06/2014; 28:1351-1356. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000224 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Some HIV infected individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with low CD4 counts achieve viral suppression but not CD4 cell recovery. We aimed to identify (1) risk factors for failure to achieve CD4 count >200 cells/µL after three years of sustained viral suppression and (2) the association of achieved CD4 count with subsequent mortality. Methods. We included treated HIV infected adults from two large international HIV cohorts, who were virally suppressed (≤500 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml) for >3 years with CD4 count ≤200 cells/µL at start of the suppressed period. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for incomplete CD4 recovery (≤200 cells/µL) and Cox regression to identify associations with mortality. Results. Of 5550 eligible individuals, 835 (15%) did not reach CD4 count >200 cells/µL after three years of suppression. Increasing age, lower initial CD4 count, male heterosexual and injection drug use transmission, cART initiation after 1998 and longer time from initiation of cART to start of the virally suppressed period were risk factors for not achieving CD4 count >200 cells/µL. Individuals with CD4 ≤200 cells/µL after three years of viral suppression had substantially increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.60; 95% confidence interval 1.86-3.61) compared to those who achieved CD4 count >200 cells/µL. The increased mortality was seen across different patient groups and for all causes of death. Conclusions. Virally suppressed HIV positive individuals on cART who do not achieve CD4 count >200 cells/µL have substantially increased long-term mortality.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2014; · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies consider the incidence of individual AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) at higher CD4 counts, relevant on a population level for monitoring and resource allocation. METHODS: Individuals from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) aged ≥14 years with ≥1 CD4 count of ≥200 µL between 1998 and 2010 were included. Incidence rates (per 1000 person-years of follow-up [PYFU]) were calculated for each ADI within different CD4 strata; Poisson regression, using generalized estimating equations and robust standard errors, was used to model rates of ADIs with current CD4 ≥500/µL. RESULTS: A total of 12 135 ADIs occurred at a CD4 count of ≥200 cells/µL among 207 539 persons with 1 154 803 PYFU. Incidence rates declined from 20.5 per 1000 PYFU (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.0-21.1 per 1000 PYFU) with current CD4 200-349 cells/µL to 4.1 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 3.6-4.6 per 1000 PYFU) with current CD4 ≥ 1000 cells/µL. Persons with a current CD4 of 500-749 cells/µL had a significantly higher rate of ADIs (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.32), whereas those with a current CD4 of ≥1000 cells/µL had a similar rate (aIRR, 0.92; 95% CI, .79-1.07), compared to a current CD4 of 750-999 cells/µL. Results were consistent in persons with high or low viral load. Findings were stronger for malignant ADIs (aIRR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.86) than for nonmalignant ADIs (aIRR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25), comparing persons with a current CD4 of 500-749 cells/µL to 750-999 cells/µL. DISCUSSION: The incidence of ADIs was higher in individuals with a current CD4 count of 500-749 cells/µL compared to those with a CD4 count of 750-999 cells/µL, but did not decrease further at higher CD4 counts. Results were similar in patients virologically suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy, suggesting that immune reconstitution is not complete until the CD4 increases to >750 cells/µL.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2013; 57(7):1038-1047. · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Low CD4(+) T-cell counts are the main factor leading to clinical progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We aimed to investigate factors affecting CD4(+) T-cell counts after triple-class virological failure. METHODS: We included individuals from the COHERE database who started antiretroviral therapy from 1998 onward and who experienced triple-class virological failure. CD4(+) T-cell counts obtained after triple-class virologic failure were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: The analyses included 2424 individuals with a total of 23 922 CD4(+) T-cell count measurements. In adjusted models (excluding current viral load and year), CD4(+) T-cell counts were higher with regimens that included boosted protease inhibitors (increase, 22 cells/µL [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.9-41]; P = .017) or drugs from the new classes (increase, 39 cells/µL [95% CI, 15-62]; P = .001), compared with nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. These associations disappeared when current viral load and/or calendar year were included. Compared with viral levels of <2.5 log(10) copies/mL, levels of 2.5-3.5, 3.5-4.5, 4.5-5.5, and >5.5 log(10) copies/mL were associated with CD4(+) T-cell count decreases of 51, 84, 137, and 186 cells/µL, respectively (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The approximately linear inverse relationship between log(10) viral load and CD4(+) T-cell count indicates that there are likely immunologic benefits from lowering viral load even by modest amounts that do not lead to undetectable viral loads. This is important for patients with low CD4(+) T-cell counts and few drug options.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2013; 207(5):759-767. · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Low CD4 counts are the main factor leading to clinical progression in HIV-1 infection. We aimed to investigate factors affecting CD4 counts after triple-class virological failure (VF).Methods. We included individuals with triple-class VF who started ART since 1998 from the COHERE database. CD4 counts from triple-class VF onwards were analyzed using generalized estimating equations.Results. The analyses included 2424 individuals with a total of 23,922 CD4 values. In adjusted models (excluding current viral load and year), CD4 counts were higher with regimens which included boosted protease inhibitors (+22 cells/µL, 95% CI 3.9-41, p=0.017) or drugs from the new classes (+39; 15-62, p=0.001) when compared to NNRTI based regimens. These associations disappeared when current viral load and/or calendar year were included. Compared to viral load levels <2.5 log(10) copies/mL, levels from 2.5-3.5, 3.5-4.5, 4.5-5.5 and >5.5 log(10) copies/mL were associated with lower CD4 counts of 51, 84, 137 and 186 cells/µL, respectively(p<0.001).Conclusions. The approximately linear relationship between log viral load and CD4 indicates that there are likely immunologic benefits from lowering viral load even by modest amounts that do not lead to undetectable viral loads. This is important for patients with low CD4 counts and few drug options.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2012; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from a large European collaborative study, we aimed to identify the circumstances in which treated HIV-infected individuals will experience similar mortality rates to those of the general population. Adults were eligible if they initiated combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART) between 1998 and 2008 and had one prior CD4 measurement within 6 months. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and excess mortality rates compared with the general population were estimated using Poisson regression. Periods of follow-up were classified according to the current CD4 count. Of the 80 642 individuals, 70% were men, 16% were injecting drug users (IDUs), the median age was 37 years, median CD4 count 225/mm(3) at cART initiation and median follow-up was 3.5 years. The overall mortality rate was 1.2/100 person-years (PY) (men: 1.3, women: 0.9), 4.2 times as high as that in the general population (SMR for men: 3.8, for women: 7.4). Among 35 316 individuals with a CD4 count ≥500/mm(3), the mortality rate was 0.37/100 PY (SMR 1.5); mortality rates were similar to those of the general population in non-IDU men [SMR 0.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7-1.3] and, after 3 years, in women (SMR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7-1.7). Mortality rates in IDUs remained elevated, though a trend to decrease with longer durations with high CD4 count was seen. A prior AIDS diagnosis was associated with higher mortality. Mortality patterns in most non-IDU HIV-infected individuals with high CD4 counts on cART are similar to those in the general population. The persistent role of a prior AIDS diagnosis underlines the importance of early diagnosis of HIV infection.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 04/2012; 41(2):433-45. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyr164 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore whether a strategy of more intensive antibiotic therapy leads to emergence or prolongation of renal failure in intensive care patients. Secondary analysis from a randomised antibiotic strategy trial (the Procalcitonin And Survival Study). The randomised arms were conserved from the primary trial for the main analysis. Nine mixed surgical/medical intensive care units across Denmark. 1200 adult intensive care patients, 18+ years, expected to stay +24 h. Exclusion criteria: bilirubin >40 mg/dl, triglycerides >1000 mg/dl, increased risk from blood sampling, pregnant/breast feeding and psychiatric patients. Patients were randomised to guideline-based therapy ('standard-exposure' arm) or to guideline-based therapy supplemented with antibiotic escalation whenever procalcitonin increased on daily measurements ('high-exposure' arm). Primary end point: estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Secondary end points: (1) delta eGFR after starting/stopping a drug and (2) RIFLE criterion Risk 'R', Injury 'I' and Failure 'F'. Analysis was by intention to treat. 28-day mortality was 31.8% and comparable (Jensen et al, Crit Care Med 2011). A total of 3672/7634 (48.1%) study days during follow-up in the high-exposure versus 3016/6949 (43.4%) in the 'standard-exposure arm were spent with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p<0.001. In a multiple effects model, 3 piperacillin/tazobactam was identified as causing the lowest rate of renal recovery of all antibiotics used: 1.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/24 h while exposed to this drug (95% CI 0.7 to 1.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/24 h) vs meropenem: 2.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/24 h (2.5 to 3.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/24 h)); after discontinuing piperacillin/tazobactam, the renal recovery rate increased: 2.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/24 h (2.3 to 3.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) /24 h)). eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in the two groups at entry and at last day of follow-up was 57% versus 55% and 41% versus 39%, respectively. Piperacillin/tazobactam was identified as a cause of delayed renal recovery in critically ill patients. This nephrotoxicity was not observed when using other beta-lactam antibiotics. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00271752.
    BMJ Open 03/2012; 2(2):e000635. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000635 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited treatment options have been available for people with HIV who have had virological failure of the three original classes of HIV antiretroviral drugs-so-called triple-class virological failure (TCVF). However, introduction of new drugs and drug classes might have improved outcomes. We aimed to assess trends in virological and clinical outcomes for individuals with TCVF in 2000-09. In our cohort study, we analysed data for adults starting antiretroviral therapy from 1998 in cohorts participating in the PLATO II project, which is part of COHERE, a collaboration of European cohorts. TCVF was defined as virological failure to at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, and one ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, with virological failure of a drug defined as one viral-load measurement of greater than 500 copies per mL after at least 4 months of continuous use. We used multivariable generalised estimating equation logistic models and Poisson regression models to study trends in virological suppression and incidence of AIDS or death after TCVF. We adjusted for sex, transmission group, age, AIDS status, CD4 cell count, plasma viral loads at TCVF, achievement of virological response (<50 copies per mL), and number of drug failures before TCVF. 28 of 33 cohorts in COHERE contributed data to the PLATO II project, of which four had no participants eligible for inclusion in this study. 2476 (3%) of 91 764 participants from the remaining 24 cohorts had TCVF and at least one viral load measurement in 2000-09. The proportion of patients with virological response after TCVF increased from 19·5% in 2000 to 57·9% in 2009 (adjusted p<0·0001). Incidence of AIDS decreased from 7·7 per 100 person-years in 2000-02 to 2·3 in 2008 and 1·2 in 2009 (adjusted p<0·0001). Mortality decreased from 4·0 per 100 person-years between 2000 and 2002 to 1·9 in 2007 and 1·4 in 2008 (unadjusted p=0·023), but the trend was not significant after adjustment (p=0·22). A substantial improvement in viral load suppression and accompanying decrease in the rates of AIDS in people after extensive failure to drugs from the three original antiretroviral classes during 2000-09 was probably mainly driven by availability of newer drugs with better tolerability and ease of use and small cross-resistance profiles, suggesting the public health benefit of the introduction of new drugs.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 02/2012; 12(2):119-27. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70248-1 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), virologic failure of the 3 original classes [triple-class virologic failure, (TCVF)] still develops in a small minority of patients who started therapy in the triple combination ART era. Trends in the incidence and prevalence of TCVF over calendar time have not been fully characterised in recent years. Calendar time trends in the incidence and prevalence of TCVF from 2000 to 2009 were assessed in patients who started ART from January 1, 1998, and were followed within the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). Of 91,764 patients followed for a median (interquartile range) of 4.1 (2.0-7.1) years, 2722 (3.0%) developed TCVF. The incidence of TCVF increased from 3.9 per 1000 person-years of follow-up [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.7 to 4.1] in 2000 to 8.8 per 1000 person-years of follow-up (95% CI: 8.5 to 9.0) in 2005, but then declined to 5.8 per 1000 person-years of follow-up (95% CI: 5.6 to 6.1) by 2009. The prevalence of TCVF was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.27% to 0.42%) at December 31, 2000, and then increased to 2.4% (95% CI: 2.24% to 2.50%) by the end of 2005. However, since 2005, TCVF prevalence seems to have stabilized and has remained below 3%. The prevalence of TCVF in people who started ART after 1998 has stabilized since around 2005, which most likely results from the decline in incidence of TCVF from this date. The introduction of improved regimens and better overall HIV care is likely to have contributed to these trends. Despite this progress, calendar trends should continue to be monitored in the long term.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2011; 59(3):294-9. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31823fe66b · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For patients in intensive care units, sepsis is a common and potentially deadly complication and prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy improves prognosis. The objective of this trial was to determine whether a strategy of antimicrobial spectrum escalation, guided by daily measurements of the biomarker procalcitonin, could reduce the time to appropriate therapy, thus improving survival. Randomized controlled open-label trial. Nine multidisciplinary intensive care units across Denmark. A total of 1,200 critically ill patients were included after meeting the following eligibility requirements: expected intensive care unit stay of ≥ 24 hrs, nonpregnant, judged to not be harmed by blood sampling, bilirubin <40 mg/dL, and triglycerides <1000 mg/dL (not suspensive). : Patients were randomized either to the "standard-of-care-only arm," receiving treatment according to the current international guidelines and blinded to procalcitonin levels, or to the "procalcitonin arm," in which current guidelines were supplemented with a drug-escalation algorithm and intensified diagnostics based on daily procalcitonin measurements. The primary end point was death from any cause at day 28; this occurred for 31.5% (190 of 604) patients in the procalcitonin arm and for 32.0% (191 of 596) patients in the standard-of-care-only arm (absolute risk reduction, 0.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.7% to 5.9%). Length of stay in the intensive care unit was increased by one day (p = .004) in the procalcitonin arm, the rate of mechanical ventilation per day in the intensive care unit increased 4.9% (95% CI, 3.0-6.7%), and the relative risk of days with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m was 1.21 (95% CI, 1.15-1.27). Procalcitonin-guided antimicrobial escalation in the intensive care unit did not improve survival and did lead to organ-related harm and prolonged admission to the intensive care unit. The procalcitonin strategy like the one used in this trial cannot be recommended.
    Critical care medicine 05/2011; 39(9):2048-58. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31821e8791 · 6.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In adults with HIV treated with antiretroviral drug regimens from within the three original drug classes (nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs], non-NRTIs [NNRTIs], and protease inhibitors), virological failure occurs slowly, suggesting that long-term virological suppression can be achieved in most people, even in areas where access is restricted to drugs from these classes. It is unclear whether this is the case for children, the group who will need to maintain viral suppression for longest. We aimed to determine the rate and predictors of triple-class virological failure to the three original drugs classes in children. In the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe, the rate of triple-class virological failure was studied in children infected perinatally with HIV who were aged less than 16 years, starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with three or more drugs, between 1998 and 2008. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods to investigate the risk and predictors of triple-class virological failure after ART initiation. Of 1007 children followed up for a median of 4·2 (IQR 2·4-6·5) years, 237 (24%) were triple-class exposed and 105 (10%) had triple-class virological failure, of whom 29 never had a viral-load measurement less than 500 copies per mL. Incidence of triple-class virological failure after ART initiation increased with time, and risk by 5 years after ART initiation was 12·0% (95% CI 9·4-14·6). In multivariate analysis, older age at ART initiation was associated with increased risk of failure (p=0·02). Of 686 children starting ART with NRTIs and either a NNRTI or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, the rate of failure was higher than in adults with heterosexually transmitted HIV (hazard ratio 2·2 [95% CI 1·6-3·0, p<0·0001]). Findings highlight the challenges of attaining long-term viral suppression in children who will be taking life-long ART. Early identification of children not responding to ART, adherence support, particularly for children and adolescents aged 13 years or older starting ART, and ART simplification strategies are all needed to attain and sustain virological suppression. UK Medical Research Council award G0700832.
    The Lancet 05/2011; 377(9777):1580-7. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60208-0 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bacterial pneumonia still contributes to morbidity/mortality in HIV infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT), a trial of intermittent recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with cART vs. cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts ≥300cells/μL, offered the opportunity to explore associations between bacterial pneumonia and rIL-2, a cytokine that increases the risk of some bacterial infections. METHODS: Baseline and time-updated factors associated with first-episode pneumonia on study were analysed using multivariate proportional hazards regression models. Information on smoking/pneumococcal vaccination history was not collected. RESULTS: IL-2 cycling was most intense in years 1-2. Over ≈7 years, 93 IL-2 [rate 0.67/100 person-years (PY)] and 86 control (rate 0.63/100 PY) patients experienced a pneumonia event [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.42; P=0.68]. Median CD4 counts prior to pneumonia were 570cells/μL (IL-2 arm) and 463cells/μL (control arm). Baseline risks for bacterial pneumonia included older age, injecting drug use, detectable HIV viral load (VL) and previous recurrent pneumonia; Asian ethnicity was associated with decreased risk. Higher proximal VL (HR for 1 log(10) higher VL 1.28; 95% CI 1.11, 1.47; P<0.001) was associated with increased risk; higher CD4 count prior to the event (HR per 100 cells/μL higher 0.94; 95% CI 0.89, 1.0; P=0.04) decreased risk. Compared with controls, the hazard for a pneumonia event was higher if rIL-2 was received <180 days previously (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.07, 2.60; P=0.02) vs.≥180 days previously (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.70, 1.37; P=0.9). Compared with the control group, pneumonia risk in the IL-2 arm decreased over time, with HRs of 1.41, 1.71, 1.16, 0.62 and 0.84 in years 1, 2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial pneumonia rates in cART-treated adults with moderate immunodeficiency are high. The mechanism of the association between bacterial pneumonia and recent IL-2 receipt and/or detectable HIV viraemia warrants further exploration.
    HIV Medicine 04/2011; 12(4):219-227. · 3.45 Impact Factor