[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biofilm-related and carnosine-hydrolyzing aminoacylhistidine dipeptidase (pepD) gene from Vibrio alginolyticus was cloned and sequenced. The recombinant PepD protein was produced and biochemically characterized and the putative active-site residues responsible for metal binding and catalysis were identified. The recombinant enzyme, which was identified as a homodimeric dipeptidase in solution, exhibited broad substrate specificity for Xaa-His and His-Xaa dipeptides, with the highest activity for the His-His dipeptide. Sequence and structural homologies suggest that the enzyme is a member of the metal-dependent metallopeptidase family. Indeed, the purified enzyme contains two zinc ions per monomer. Reconstitution of His.Tag-cleaved native apo-PepD with various metal ions indicated that enzymatic activity could be optimally restored when Zn2+ was replaced with other divalent metal ions, including Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+, and partially restored when Zn2+ was replaced with Mg2+. Structural homology modeling of PepD also revealed a 'catalytic domain' and a 'lid domain' similar to those of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii PepV protein. Mutational analysis of the putative active-site residues supported the involvement of His80, Asp119, Glu150, Asp173 and His461 in metal binding and Asp82 and Glu149 in catalysis. In addition, individual substitution of Glu149 and Glu150 with aspartic acid resulted in the partial retention of enzymatic activity, indicating a functional role for these residues on the catalysis and zinc ions, respectively. These effects may be necessary either for the activation of the catalytic water molecule or for the stabilization of the substrate-enzyme tetrahedral intermediate. Taken together, these results may facilitate the design of PepD inhibitors for application in antimicrobial treatment and antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe purification and characterization of an oligopeptide permease protein (Hly-OppA) from Vibrio furnissii that has multifaceted functions in solute binding, in in vitro hemolysis, in antibiotic resistance, and as a virulence factor in bacterial pathogenesis. The solute-binding function was revealed by N-terminal and internal peptide sequences of the purified protein and was confirmed by discernible effects on oligopeptide binding, by accumulation of fluorescent substrates, and by fluorescent substrate-antibiotic competition assay experiments. The purified protein exhibited host-specific in vitro hemolytic activity against various mammalian erythrocytes and apparent cytotoxicity in CHO-K1 cells. Recombinant Hly-OppA protein and an anti-Hly-OppA monoclonal antibody exhibited and neutralized the in vitro hemolytic activity, respectively, which further confirmed the hemolytic activity of the gene product. In addition, a V. furnissii hly-oppA knockout mutant caused less mortality than the wild-type strain when it was inoculated into BALB/c mice, indicating the virulence function of this protein. Finally, the in vitro hemolytic activity was also confirmed with homologous ATP-binding cassette-type transporter proteins from other Vibrio species.
Journal of bacteriology 12/2007; 189(22):8215-23. · 3.94 Impact Factor