[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much attention has been paid to the associative processes that are necessary to fuse together representations of the various components of an episodic memory. In the present study, we focus on the processes involved in the formation of lasting representations of the individual components that make up a fear-conditioning episode. In one-trial contextual fear conditioning experiments, weak conditioning to context occurs if the shock is delivered immediately following placement of the animal in a novel conditioning apparatus, a phenomenon known as the immediate shock deficit. We show that the immediate shock deficit in mice may be alleviated by pre-exposure to either the context or shock. In using this approach to temporally dissect a contextual fear-conditioning task into its constituent representational and associative processes, we are able to examine directly the processes that are important for formation of lasting representations of the context conditioned stimulus (CS) or unconditioned stimulus (US). Our data indicate that the formation of a lasting representation of the context or shock engages protein synthesis-dependent processes. Furthermore, genetic disruption of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor that regulates the synthesis of new proteins required for long-term memory, disrupts the formation of lasting context memories. We go on to show that the stress hormone epinephrine modulates the consolidation of a context memory, and reverses consolidation deficits in the CREB-deficient mice. Finally we show that disrupting either NMDA or calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) function impairs consolidation of context memories. Together, these data suggest that this approach is particularly suited for the characterization of molecular and cellular processes underlying the formation of stimulus representations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors is thought to be critical in memory formation. To define the role of CREB in distinct memory processes, we derived transgenic mice with an inducible and reversible CREB repressor by fusing CREBS133A to a tamoxifen (TAM)-dependent mutant of an estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain (LBD). We found that CREB is crucial for the consolidation of long-term conditioned fear memories, but not for encoding, storage or retrieval of these memories. Our studies also showed that CREB is required for the stability of reactivated or retrieved conditioned fear memories. Although the transcriptional processes necessary for the stability of initial and reactivated memories differ, CREB is required for both. The findings presented here delineate the memory processes that require CREB and demonstrate the power of LBD-inducible transgenic systems in the study of complex cognitive processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fear-potentiated startle was assessed in mice with a targeted disruption of the alpha and delta isoforms of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) 24 hr after 5 tone + shock training trials. Whereas wild-type mice showed fear-potentiated startle that persisted up to 45 days after training, CREBalphadelta-/- mice failed to show fear-potentiated startle. However, CREBalphadelta-/- and wild-type mice had similar startle amplitudes and similar magnitudes of prepulse inhibition of startle, suggesting that CREBalphadelta-/- mice have no obvious sensory or motor deficits. These results add to the literature indicating that CREB-activated transcription plays a critical role in the formation of long-term memory and illustrate the utility of the fear-potentiated startle paradigm for assessing cognition in genetically altered mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to learn and remember individuals is critical for the stability of social groups. Social recognition reflects the ability of mice to identify and remember conspecifics. Social recognition is assessed as a decrease in spontaneous investigation behaviors observed in a mouse reexposed to a familiar conspecific. Our results demonstrate that group-housed mice show social memory for a familiar juvenile when tested immediately, 30 min, 24 h, 3 days, and 7 days after a single 2-min-long interaction. Interestingly, chronic social isolation disrupts long-term, but not 30-min, social memory. Even a 24-h period of isolation disrupts long-term social memory, a result that may explain why previous investigators only observed short-term social memory in individually housed rodents. Although it has no obvious configural, relational, or spatial characteristics, here we show that social memory shares characteristics of other hippocampus-dependent memories. Ibotenic acid lesions of the hippocampus disrupt social recognition at 30 min, but not immediately after training. Furthermore, long-term, but not short-term social memory is dependent on protein synthesis and cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) function. These results outline behavioral, systems, and molecular determinants of social recognition in mice, and they suggest that it is a powerful paradigm to investigate hippocampal learning and memory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fear-potentiated startle was assessed in mice with a targeted disruption of the alpha and delta isoforms of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) 24 hr after 5 tone + shock training trials. Whereas wild-type mice showed fear-potentiated startle that persisted up to 45 days after training, CREBαΔ−/− mice failed to show fear-potentiated startle. However, CREBαΔ−/− and wild-type mice had similar startle amplitudes and similar magnitudes of prepulse inhibition of startle, suggesting that CREBαΔ−/− mice have no obvious sensory or motor deficits. These results add to the literature indicating that CREB-activated transcription plays a critical role in the formation of long-term memory and illustrate the utility of the fear-potentiated startle paradigm for assessing cognition in genetically altered mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Learning and remembering the location of food resources, predators, escape routes, and immediate kin is perhaps the most essential form of higher cognitive processing in mammals. Two of the most frequently studied forms of place learning are spatial learning and contextual conditioning. Spatial learning refers to an animal's capacity to learn the location of a reward, such as the escape platform in a water maze, while contextual conditioning taps into an animal's ability to associate specific places with aversive stimuli, such as an electric shock. Recently, transgenic and gene targeting techniques have been introduced to the study of place learning. In contrast with the abundant literature on the neuroanatomical substrates of place learning in rats, very little has been done in mice. Thus, in the first part of this article, we will review our studies on the involvement of the hippocampus in both spatial learning and contextual conditioning. Having demonstrated the importance of the hippocampus to place learning, we will then focus attention on the molecular and cellular substrates of place learning. We will show that just as in rats, mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells can show place specific firing. Then, we will review our evidence that hippocampal-dependent place learning involves a number of interacting physiological mechanisms with distinct functions. We will show that in addition to long-term potentiation, the hippocampus uses a number of other mechanisms, such as short-term-plasticity and changes in spiking, to process, store, and recall information. Much of the focus of this article is on genetic studies of learning and memory (L&M). However, there is no single experiment that can unambiguously connect any cellular or molecular mechanism with L&M. Instead, several different types of studies are required to determine whether any one mechanism is involved in L&M, including (i) the development of biologically based learning models that explain the involvement of a given mechanism in L&M, (ii) lesion experiments (genetics and pharmacology), (iii) direct observations during learning, and (iv) experiments where learning is triggered by turning on the candidate mechanism. We will show how genetic techniques will be key to unraveling the molecular and cellular basis of place learning.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 01/1998; 70(1-2):44-61. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear protein that modulates the transcription of genes with cAMP responsive elements in their promoters. Increases in the concentration of either calcium or cAMP can trigger the phosphorylation and activation of CREB. This transcription factor is a component of intracellular signaling events that regulate a wide range of biological functions, from spermatogenesis to circadian rhythms and memory. Here we review the key features of CREB-dependent transcription, as well as the involvement of CREB in memory formation. Evidence from Aplysia, Drosophila, mice, and rats shows that CREB-dependent transcription is required for the cellular events underlying long-term but not short-term memory. While the work in Aplysia and Drosophila only involved CREB function in very simple forms of conditioning, genetic and pharmacological studies in mice and rats demonstrate that CREB is required for a variety of complex forms of memory, including spatial and social learning, thus indicating that CREB may be a universal modulator of processes required for memory formation.
Annual Review of Neuroscience 01/1998; 21:127-48. · 20.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor the activity of which is modulated by increases in the intracellular levels of cAMP and calcium. Results from studies with Aplysia, Drosophila and mice indicate that CREB-activated transcription is required for long-term memory. Furthermore, a recent study found that long-term memory for olfactory conditioning can be induced with a single trial in transgenic Drosophila expressing a CREB activator, whereas in normal flies, with presumably lower CREB-mediated transcription levels, conditioning requires multiple spaced trials. This suggests that CREB-mediated transcription is important in determining the type of training required for long-term memory of olfactory conditioning in Drosophila. Interestingly, studies with cultured Aplysia neurons indicated that removing a CREB repressor promoted the formation of long-term facilitation, a cellular model of non-associative memory.
Here, we have confirmed that mice lacking the alpha and Delta CREB proteins (CREBalphaDelta-) have abnormal long-term, but not short-term, memory, as tested in an ethologically meaningful task. Importantly, additional spaced training can overcome the profound memory deficits of CREBalphaDelta- mutants. Increasing the intertrial interval from 1 to 60 minutes overcame the memory deficits of the CREBalphaDelta- mice in three distinct behavioral tasks: contextual fear conditioning, spatial learning and socially transmitted food preferences.
Previous findings and results presented here demonstrate that CREB mutant mice have profound long-term memory deficits. Importantly, our findings indicate that manipulations of CREB function can affect the number of trials and the intertrial interval required for committing information to long-term memory. Remarkably, this effect of CREB function is not restricted to simple conditioning tasks, but also affects complex behaviours such as spatial memory and memory for socially transmitted food preferences.
Current Biology 02/1997; 7(1):1-11. · 9.49 Impact Factor