Jan Šafář

Centre of Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research Crop Research Institute, Olmütz, Olomoucký, Czech Republic

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Publications (6)24.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage followed by inflorescence is a critical step in plant life; therefore, studies of the genes that influence flowering time have always been of great interest to scientists. Flowering is a process controlled by many genes interacting mutually in a genetic network, and several hypoth-esis and models of flowering have been suggested so far. Plants in temperate climatic conditions must respond mainly to changes in the day length (photoperiod) and unfavourable winter temperatures. To avoid flowering before winter, some plants exploit a specific mechanism called vernalization. This review summarises current achievements in the study of genes controlling flowering in the dicot model species thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), as well as in monocot model species rice (Oryza sativa) and temperate cereals such as barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The control of flowering in crops is an attractive target for modern plant breeding efforts aiming to prepare locally well-adapted cultivars. The recent progress in genomics revealed the importance of minor-effect genes (QTLs) and natural allelic variation of genes for fine-tuning flowering and better cultivar adaptation. We briefly describe the up-to-date technologies and approaches that scientists may employ and we also indicate how these modern biotechnological tools and "-omics" can expand our knowledge of flowering in agronomically important crops.
    Biotechnology Advances 10/2013; · 8.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage followed by inflorescence is a critical step in plant life; therefore, studies of the genes that influence flowering time have always been of great interest to scientists. Flowering is a process controlled by many genes interacting mutually in a genetic network, and several hypoth-esis and models of flowering have been suggested so far. Plants in temperate climatic conditions must respond mainly to changes in the day length (photoperiod) and unfavourable winter temperatures. To avoid flowering before winter, some plants exploit a specific mechanism called vernalization. This review summarises current achievements in the study of genes controlling flowering in the dicot model species thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), as well as in monocot model species rice (Oryza sativa) and temperate cereals such as barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The control of flowering in crops is an attractive target for modern plant breeding efforts aiming to prepare locally well-adapted cultivars. The recent progress in genomics revealed the importance of minor-effect genes (QTLs) and natural allelic variation of genes for fine-tuning flowering and better cultivar adaptation. We briefly describe the up-to-date technologies and approaches that scientists may employ and we also indicate how these modern biotechnological tools and "-omics" can expand our knowledge of flowering in agronomically important crops.
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    ABSTRACT: Genome size evolution is a complex process influenced by polyploidization, satellite DNA accumulation, and expansion of retroelements. How this process could be affected by different reproductive strategies is still poorly understood. We analyzed differences in the number and distribution of major repetitive DNA elements in two closely related species, Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris. Both species are diploid and possess the same chromosome number (2n = 24), but differ in their genome size and mode of reproduction. The dioecious S. latifolia (1C = 2.70 pg DNA) possesses sex chromosomes and its genome is 2.5× larger than that of the gynodioecious S. vulgaris (1C = 1.13 pg DNA), which does not possess sex chromosomes. We discovered that the genome of S. latifolia is larger mainly due to the expansion of Ogre retrotransposons. Surprisingly, the centromeric STAR-C and TR1 tandem repeats were found to be more abundant in S. vulgaris, the species with the smaller genome. We further examined the distribution of major repetitive sequences in related species in the Caryophyllaceae family. The results of FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) on mitotic chromosomes with the Retand element indicate that large rearrangements occurred during the evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family. Our data demonstrate that the evolution of genome size in the genus Silene is accompanied by the expansion of different repetitive elements with specific patterns in the dioecious species possessing the sex chromosomes.
    PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e31898. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031898 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops globally and a high priority for genetic improvement, but its large and complex genome has been seen as intractable to whole genome sequencing. Isolation of individual wheat chromosome arms has facilitated large-scale sequence analyses. However, so far there is no such survey of sequences from the A genome of wheat. Greater understanding of an A chromosome could facilitate wheat improvement and future sequencing of the entire genome. We have constructed BAC library from the long arm of T. aestivum chromosome 1A (1AL) and obtained BAC end sequences from 7,470 clones encompassing the arm. We obtained 13,445 (89.99%) useful sequences with a cumulative length of 7.57Mb, representing 1.43% of 1AL and about 0.14% of the entire A genome. The GC content of the sequences was 44.7%, and 90% of the chromosome was estimated to comprise repeat sequences, while just over 1% encoded expressed genes. From the sequence data, we identified a large number of sites suitable for development of molecular markers (362 SSR and 6,948 ISBP) which will have utility for mapping this chromosome and for marker assisted breeding. From 44 putative ISBP markers tested 23 (52.3%) were found to be useful. The BAC end sequence data also enabled the identification of genes and syntenic blocks specific to chromosome 1AL, suggesting regions of particular functional interest and targets for future research. KeywordsWheat–A genome–BAC end sequencing–Comparative genomics–Marker design
    Functional and Integrative Genomics 01/2012; 12(1):173-182. DOI:10.1007/s10142-011-0250-3 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Triticeae species are unique among the important agricultural crops in possessing massive genomes with a prevalence of dispersed DNA repeats. The highest level of complexity is observed in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat whose nuclear genomes comprise two and three homoeologous genomes, respectively. Polyploidy and the presence of repeats make gene cloning and genome sequencing in the Triticeae extremely difficult. Chromosome genomics simplifies these tasks by targeting single chromosomes and chromosome arms, which represent only a few percent of the nuclear genomes. The advantages of this strategy over a whole-genome approach include the avoidance of problems due to the presence of homoeologs in wheat, reduction of work to manageable portions, cost efficiency, and an opportunity to structure collaborative projects where individual laboratories work on particular chromosomes. In this chapter, we describe how chromosomes and chromosome arms can be isolated by flow cytometric sorting and we review development of flow cytogenetics in the Triticeae. We then discuss various applications of flow-sorted chromosomes and assess the potential of chromosome genomics in the Triticeae.
    12/2008: pages 285-316;
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