[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two expert research microscopists, each blinded to the other's reports, diagnosed single-species malaria infections in 2,141 adults presenting at outpatient malaria clinics in Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, in May-August 1998, May-July 1999, and May-June 2001. Plasmodium vivax patients with gametocytemia had higher fever and higher parasitemia than those without gametocytemia; temperature correlated with parasitemia in the patients with gametocytemia. Plasmodium falciparum patients with gametocytemia had lower fever than those without gametocytemia, but similar parasitemia; temperature correlated with parasitemia in the patients without gametocytemia. Hematologic data in Thailand in 2001 showed lower platelet counts in P. vivax patients with gametocytemia than in the P. vivax patients without gametocytemia, whereas P. falciparum patients with gametocytemia had similar platelet counts but lower red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit levels, and higher lymphocyte counts than patients without gametocytemia.
Journal of Parasitology 01/2007; 92(6):1281-5. DOI:10.1645/GE-911R.1 · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical symptoms of mixed-species malaria infections have been variously reported as both less severe and more severe than those of single-species infections.
Oral temperatures were taken from and blood slides were prepared for 2308 adults who presented at outpatient malaria clinics in Tak Province (Thailand) during May-August 1998, May-July 1999, and May-June 2001 with malaria infections diagnosed by 2 expert research microscopists, each of whom was blinded to the other's reports.
In each year, temperatures of patients with mixed Plasmodium vivax-Plasmodium falciparum infections were higher than temperatures of patients with P. vivax or P. falciparum infections. In every mixed-species case, P. falciparum parasitemia was higher than P. vivax parasitemia, but patient temperature was not correlated with the parasitemia of either species or with the total parasitemia.
Among adults who self-report to malaria clinics in western Thailand, patients with mixed P. vivax-P. falciparum infections have higher fevers than patients with single-species infections, a distinction that cannot be attributed to differences in parasitemia. This observation warrants more detailed investigations, spanning wider ranges of ages and transmission environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enumeration of parasites by microscopic examination of blood smears is the only method available for quantifying parasitemia in infected blood. However, the sources and scale of error inherent in this technique have not been systematically investigated. Here we use data collected in outpatient clinics in Peru and Thailand to elucidate important sources of variation in parasite density measurements. We show that discrepancies between readings from two independent microscopists and multiple readings from a single microscopist are inversely related to the density of the infection. We present an example of how differences in reader technique, specifically the number of white blood cells counted, can contribute to the differences between readings. We discuss the implications of this analysis for field studies and clinical trials.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 10/2005; 73(3):593-8. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999. At each site and in each year, WBC counts in the Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients were lower than those in the Plasmodium vivax-infected patients, which, in turn, were lower than those in the uninfected patients. In Thailand, one-sixth of the P. falciparum-infected patients had WBC counts of <4000 cells/microL. Leukopenia may confound population studies that estimate parasite densities on the basis of an assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/microL. For instance, in the present study, use of this conventional approach would have overestimated average asexual parasite densities in the P. falciparum-infected patients in Thailand by nearly one-third.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2005; 192(2):323-30. DOI:10.1086/431152 · 5.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NOW ICT Malaria P.f./P.v. for Whole Blood (Binax, Inc., Portland, ME) is a new malaria rapid diagnostic device that represents a technical advance over previous assays, such as ICT Malaria P.f./P.v. and ICT Malaria P.f.. We evaluated this device in March 2001 in symptomatic patients at malaria clinics in Maesod, Thailand. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears was the reference standard. In 246 patients, microscopy showed 32 (13.0%) infected with Plasmodium falciparum, 63 (25.6%) with P. vivax, 6 (2.4%) with mixed infections of P. falciparum and P. vivax, 5 (2.0%) with P. malariae, and 140 (56.9%) negative. Sensitivity for P. falciparum was 100% and specificity was 96.2% (200 of 208; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 92-98). For P. vivax, sensitivity was 87.3% (55 of 63; 95% CI = 77-93) and specificity was 97.7% (173 of 177; 95% CI = 95-99), but all the four false-positive results were microscopically positive for P. malariae; thus, specificity for non-falciparum Plasmodium was 100%. These results suggest improved performance over NOW ICT predecessors.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 08/2003; 69(1):26-30. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ParaSight F test was developed as a pioneer industry effort in the large-scale, process-controlled production of a device for the rapid diagnosis of malaria. This device performed well in field settings but was limited to the detection of a single malaria species, Plasmodium falciparum. The ParaSight F+V assay advanced upon the ParaSight F test format by incorporating a monoclonal antibody directed against a proprietary Plasmodium vivax-specific antigen, in addition to the antibody directed against P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2, which was used in the ParaSight F assay. The modified assay was developed to add the capability to detect P. falciparum and P. vivax in a single-test-strip format. The present study evaluated three distinct ParaSight F+V prototypes with samples from symptomatic patients in regions of Thailand and Peru where malaria is endemic. Over a 2-year enrollment period (1998 and 1999), a total of 4,894 patients consented to participation in the study. Compared with the results for duplicate microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained blood smears as the reference diagnostic standard, each successive prototype showed substantial improvement in performance. The final ParaSight F+V prototype, evaluated in 1999, had an overall sensitivity for detection of asexual P. falciparum parasites of 98%. The sensitivity of the device was 100% for P. falciparum densities of >500 parasites/ micro l, with a sensitivity of 83% for parasite densities of </=500/ micro l. The specificity for the exclusion of P. falciparum was 93%. For P. vivax, the overall sensitivity was 87% for the final 1999 prototype. The sensitivities calculated for different levels of P. vivax parasitemia were 99% for parasite densities of >5,000/ micro l, 92% for parasite densities of 1,001 to 5,000/ micro l, 94% for parasite densities of 501 to 1,000/ micro l, and 55% for parasite densities of 1 to 500/ micro l. The specificity for the exclusion of P. vivax was 87%. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the diagnostic performance of the assay for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax were 0.8907 and 0.8522, respectively. These findings indicate that assays for rapid diagnosis have the potential to enhance diagnostic capabilities in those instances in which skilled microscopy is not readily available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microscopic detection of parasites has been the reference standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. However, difficulty in maintaining required technical skills and infrastructure has spurred the development of several nonmicroscopic malaria rapid diagnostic devices based on the detection of malaria parasite antigen in whole blood. The ParaSight F test is one such device. It detects the presence of Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 by using an antigen-capture immunochromatographic strip format. The present study was conducted at outpatient malaria clinics in Iquitos, Peru, and Maesod, Thailand. Duplicate, blinded, expert microscopy was employed as the reference standard for evaluating device performance. Of 2,988 eligible patients, microscopy showed that 547 (18%) had P. falciparum, 658 (22%) had P. vivax, 2 (0.07%) had P. malariae, and 1,750 (59%) were negative for Plasmodium. Mixed infections (P. falciparum and P. vivax) were identified in 31 patients (1%). The overall sensitivity of ParaSight F for P. falciparum was 95%. When stratified by magnitude of parasitemia (no. of asexual parasites per microliter of whole blood), sensitivities were 83% (>0 to 500 parasites/microl), 87% (501 to 1,000/microl), 98% (1,001 to 5,000/microl), and 98% (>5,000/microl). Device specificity was 86%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared two collection devices, IsoCode and FTA, with whole blood for the diagnosis of malaria by PCR (n = 100). Using whole blood as the reference standard, both devices were sensitive for the detection of single-species malaria infections by PCR (> or =96%). However, the detection of mixed infections was suboptimal (IsoCode was 42% sensitive, and FTA was 63% sensitive).