J.M. Everaarts

Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee - NIOZ, Burg, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (38)72.89 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The flatfish dab (Limanda limanda) serves as an indicator species in pollution monitoring programmes in the North Sea. The present study investigated the induction response of the monooxygenase system and haematological changes in female dab after multiple administrations of a technical mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mature female dab were dosed with 1 mg of the PCB mixture Clophen A40 (Clo A40) in sunflower oil every 6 weeks, with a maximum of three doses per fish. In all PCB‐administered groups, levels of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein, measured with a semi‐quantitative ELISA method, and 7‐ethoxyresorufin O‐deethylase (EROD) activity showed a three‐ to ninefold induction 14 d after dosing compared with control groups, smaller but also significant increases were observed in total cytochrome P450 (Σ P450) levels. Although the PCB concentrations and the corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) value in muscle tissue still increased after administration of the second and third dose of Clo A40, maximum responses of the EROD activity were already reached after the first dose at a TEQ value for chlorinated biphenyls (CB‐TEQ) of 2 ng/g lipid. The PCB patterns of liver and muscle tissue of female dab from the central North Sea were found to be virtually identical. Hence, the use of PCB concentrations in muscle as a qualitative model for changes in the liver appears legitimate. Haemoglobin concentrations were elevated after the third dose of Clo A40, whereas haematocrit values and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) between treated and control groups did not differ.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10/2009; 14(4):679 - 687. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent surveys in the southern and central North Sea and the Dutch Wadden Sea revealed that the whelk Buccinun undarum L. can no longer be found in areas where whelks were abundant twenty or more years ago.The decline of whelk populations tends to coincide with areas of various, intense human activities, which may cause either pollution or physical damage. Potential causes for the decline of whelks from the southern North Sea and coastal areas are discussed and considered in view of North Sea ecology and protective policies for the North Sea.
    Marine Ecology 05/2008; 17(1‐3):333 - 343. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary hepatocytes of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), flounder (Platychthis flesus), dab (Limanda limanda) and lemon sole (Microstomus kitt) were exposed to 3,3'4,4'5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for two days. This resulted in a dose-dependent induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), or methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activity. In all species, a linear relationship was observed between EROD and MROD activities, suggesting that the same CYP1A enzyme metabolizes the two alkoxy-resorufin substrates. Exposures of hepatocytes of flounder or dab to TCDD, resulted in a 59-fold and 8.2-fold induction of EROD activity, respectively. This did not concur with a change in the in vitro testosterone hydroxylation profiles of both species. These and other in vitro data indicate that TCDD exposure does not influence monooxygenase activities involved in testosterone hydroxylation. Furthermore, CYP1A is of minor importance for testosterone hydroxylation in these fish species.
    Chemosphere 02/2002; 46(2):163-72. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant pollutants, and many PAHs are carcinogenic, but only after metabolic activation. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is among the most carcinogenic PAHs. The dose and time response of two enzymes involved in BaP metabolism and the amounts of BaP metabolites excreted into the bile were evaluated in an experiment with dab (Limanda limanda). Ninety dab were exposed orally to one of five doses of BaP (0, 0.08, 0.4, 2, or 10 mg/kg) and sampled at 3, 6, or 12 d after exposure. None of the doses studied caused significant induction of either microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). which reflects cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) activity, or cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activity (GST). Concentrations of biliary BaP metabolites significantly increased with dose and significantly decreased with time after exposure. It is concluded that biliary BaP metabolites provide a much more sensitive method than EROD (CYP1A) or GST activity to monitor recent exposure to PAHs in dab.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 09/2001; 20(8):1641-7. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During two North Sea field trips in March 1995 and September 1996 sea stars, Asterias rubens, were collected at various stations along pollution gradients in order to study the relation between biochemical markers and levels of accumulated contaminants. Biomarkers measured were: cytochrome P450 level, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and DNA integrity. Accumulation levels of heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the pyloric caeca of sea stars indicate different pollution gradients, influenced by rivers in The Netherlands, UK and Germany. For some contaminants, especially PAHs, relatively high levels were found in the central part of the North Sea (Dogger Bank). On the basis of multivariate statistics, stations near the mouth of the Elbe and the Rhine/Meuse were shown to have different patterns of biomarker responses. Sea stars from stations in coastal zones showed relatively high levels of cytochrome P450 and 'P418', another haemoprotein that is present in most marine invertebrates. The station nearest to the Elbe Estuary showed the lowest BPH and AChE activity. DNA integrity was lower especially in stations near the Dutch coast and in a station near the Tees/Tyne estuaries. Using these biomarkers as early warning signals of exposure and/or adverse effects, this type of monitoring can be used also in the future to study the spatial and temporal trends in the quality of coastal waters.
    Marine Environmental Research 06/2001; 51(4):365-87. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were performed to study the interaction between benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and the planar, dioxin-like PCB congener 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB 126) in the flatfish dab (Limanda limanda). The first experiment involved four groups. Group I was treated with 10 µg/kg CB 126, group II was treated with 2 mg/kg BaP, group III was first treated with 10 µg/kg CB 126 and exposed to 2 mg/kg BaP 6 days later, and group IV was a control group. The second experiment was similar, except that the BaP dosage level was increased to 50 mg/kg. Pre-treatment with 10 µg/kg of CB 126 always caused the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), as measured by significant increases of the model reaction 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in microsomal preparations. Treatment of dab with BaP caused a significant EROD induction at the 50 mg/kg, but not at the 2 mg/kg level. Concurrent with EROD induction by either CB 126 or 50 mg/kg BaP, was a significant change in the biliary metabolite pattern in favour of 1-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and towards a lower fraction of the procarcinogen BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol (7,8-DIOL). Pre-treatment with CB 126 did not cause an increase of hepatic BaP DNA adducts formed after treatment with either 2 or 50 mg/kg BaP. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities remained also unaffected by any of the treatments. The results of this study suggest that the pattern of BaP metabolites in bile depends on the level of CYP1A induction. Moreover, the concurrence of a potent CYP1A inducer and BaP does not necessarily lead to an increase in DNA adduct levels in liver tissue. The observation that the level of 7,8-DIOL is decreased despite a higher (CYP1A mediated) EROD activity explains, at least in part, the lack of induction of DNA adducts.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2000; 50(4):403-415. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were performed to study the interaction between 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB 126) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in dab (Limanda limanda). The first experiment involved four groups: a group pretreated with 10 μg/kg CB 126 which was exposed to 2 mg/kg BaP 6 days later, groups treated with CB 126 and BaP only and a control group. The second experiment was similar, except the BaP dosage level was 50 mg/kg. CB 126 caused a shift in the pattern of BaP metabolites in bile of dab treated with 2 mg/kg BaP, but no such shift could be observed in the dab treated with 50 mg/kg BaP. This correlated with ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction which occurred only after exposure to CB 126 or 50 mg/kg BaP. Further, pretreatment with CB 126 caused a decreased amount of BaP DNA adducts formed after treatment with 50 mg/kg BaP. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were not affected by any of the treatments. The results suggest that the pattern of metabolites in bile depends on cytochrome P450 induction status, whereas the amount of DNA adducts formed does not.
    Marine Environmental Research 07/2000; 50(1):78-79. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were performed to study the interaction between benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and the planar, dioxin-like PCB congener 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB 126) in the flatfish dab (Limanda limanda). The first experiment involved four groups. Group I was treated with 10 μg/kg CB 126, group II was treated with 2 mg/kg BaP, group III was first treated with 10 μg/kg CB 126 and exposed to 2 mg/kg BaP 6 days later, and group IV was a control group. The second experiment was similar, except that the BaP dosage level was increased to 50 mg/kg. Pre-treatment with 10 μg/kg of CB 126 always caused the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), as measured by significant increases of the model reaction 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in microsomal preparations. Treatment of dab with BaP caused a significant EROD induction at the 50 mg/kg, but not at the 2 mg/kg level. Concurrent with EROD induction by either CB 126 or 50 mg/kg BaP, was a significant change in the biliary metabolite pattern in favour of 1-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and towards a lower fraction of the procarcinogen BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol (7,8-DIOL). Pre-treatment with CB 126 did not cause an increase of hepatic BaP DNA adducts formed after treatment with either 2 or 50 mg/kg BaP. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities remained also unaffected by any of the treatments. The results of this study suggest that the pattern of BaP metabolites in bile depends on the level of CYP1A induction. Moreover, the concurrence of a potent CYP1A inducer and BaP does not necessarily lead to an increase in DNA adduct levels in liver tissue. The observation that the level of 7,8-DIOL is decreased despite a higher (CYP1A mediated) EROD activity explains, at least in part, the lack of induction of DNA adducts.
    Aquatic Toxicology. 01/2000;
  • R. F. Nolting, A. Ramkema, J. M. Everaarts
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    ABSTRACT: Trace and major elements were measured in sediment cores collected at the shelf and continental slope of the Banc d’Arguin (Mauritania). Most of the sediments have a calcium carbonate content >50% and as a consequence have a low aluminium (
    Continental Shelf Research 04/1999; 19(5):665-691. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In PLHC-1 hepatoma cells, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]) caused a maximum induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), after 4 to 8 h of exposure, depending on the B[a]P concentration. The decline of EROD activity at longer exposure times was probably caused by the rapid metabolism of B[a]P in this system. In subsequent experiments, PLHC-1 cells were preinduced with PCB 126 for 24 h and then received a dose of 10, 100, or 1,000 nM {sup 3}H-B[a]P. A 1-nM concentration of PCB 126 caused an 80-fold induction of CYP1A activity, resulting in an increase in B[a]P metabolism of less than 10%, except at the highest concentration of B[a]P where a 50% increase was observed. In another experiment, an 80-fold induction of CYP1A activity caused a 20% increase in the metabolism of B[a]P and RNA adduct formation was increased approximately twofold. These results indicate that, at exposure concentrations up to 100 nM B[a]P, CYP1A activity is not rate limiting for B[a]P metabolism. Furthermore, CYP1A seems to also be specifically involved in B[a]P activation in PLHC-1 cells. However, CYP1A induction causes only a relatively small increase in activation, probably because of the action of other enzymes involved in B[a]P activation and deactivation.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 03/1999; 18(3):474-480. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of -glutamylmethylamide(GMA), one of the components of green tea extract, on the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was investigated. The effect of glutamic acid and r-glutamylethylamide (theanine), which is structually similar to GMA, was also examined. When SHR were injected with glutamic acid (2000mg/kg), the blood pressure was not altered. The same dose of theanine decreased it significantly. GMA administration to SHR reduced the blood pressure significantly, and its degree of hypotensive action was more effective than that by theanine administration.
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 05/1998; 36(6):492-500. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seastars (Asterias rubens L.) were collecte d at sampling locations in different areas along transects radiating into the southern North Sea, representing areas impacted by contaminants to different degrees. Strand breakage in DNA isolated from tissue of the pyloric caeca was measured by the alkaline unwinding assay, modified to allow for the isolation of highly intact DNA. The interpretation of the results is based on the incidence of DNA strand breaks (expressed as the double:total DNA ratio or F value, indicating the degree of double-strandedness). The cytochrome P-450 concentration and the benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) hydroxylase activity were measured in microsomal fractions of the pyloric caeca. The chlorinated biphenyl (CB) congeners in tissue samples from the digestive gland were determined by temperature-programmed gas-chromatography, with a CPSil8 capillary column as the stationary phase, hydrogen as the carrier gas and 63Ni-electron capture detection. Areas where seastars showed different DNA integrity could be described. The highest integrity (0.75 < f="">< 0.85)="" was="" found="" in="" the="" off-shore="" reference="" sites="" of="" the="" dogger="" bank="" and="" southern="" bight.="" the="" mean="" f="" value="" in="" seastars="" from="" most="" sampling="" locations="" varied="" between="" 55="" and="" 75%.="" the="" lowest="" dna="" integrity="" (0.35="">< f="">< 0.55)="" was="" found="" in="" specimens="" obtained="" from="" sampling="" locations="" near="" the="" river="" rhine="" delta,="" along="" the="" dutch="" coast="" and="" at="" two="" expected="" uncontaminated="" offshore="" areas.="" the="" bap="" hydroxylase="" activity="" was="" relatively="" high="" near="" the="" mouth="" of="" the="" rivers="" rhine="" and="" scheldt,="" but="" also="" at="" a="" supposedly="" clean="" site="" near="" dogger="" bank.="" the="" concentration="" of="" cb="" congeners="" in="" the="" pyloric="" caeca="" of="" seastars="" decreased="" along="" transects="" radiating="" into="" the="" southern="" north="" sea="" from="" the="" coastal="" areas="" of="" the="" netherlands;="" the="" highest="" concentrations="" were="" in="" the="" nearby="" coastal="" areas="" and="" the="" lowest="" were="" in="" the="" open="" sea="" sampling="" locations.="" the="" data="" indicate="" that="" there="" might="" be="" a="" relationship="" between="" pollution="" from="" the="" rivers="" rhine,="" meuse="" and="" scheldt="" and="" the="" incidence="" of="" dna="" strand="" breaks="" and/or="" bap="" hydroxylase="">
    Ecotoxicology 01/1998; 7(2):69-79. · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • J. M. Everaarts
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the health status of the North Sea, DNA damage in seastar (Asterias rubens L.) was studied by establishing the level of integrity of DNA (strand breaks) isolated from pyloric caeca of these organisms, collected at 16 places in the southern half of the North Sea. On the basis of the fraction of intact double-stranded DNA (F-value) the sampling locations were classified into three clusters: cluster 1, an area (Dutch coastal zone and a deeper zone near the English coast) with a low DNA integrity (F < 0.50, which means that more than 50% of the DNA exhibited strand breaks); cluster 11, areas (coastal sites in the Southern and German Bights and the offshore region of the Dogger Bank) with intermediate integrity of DNA (0.50 < F < 0.75), and cluster 111, an area (central part of the southern North Sea, south of the Dogger Bank) with high DNA integrity (F > 0.75, indicating that less than 25% of the DNA exhibited strand breaks).
    Journal of Sea Research 05/1997; 37(1):123-129. · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • ORGANOHALOGEN COMPOUNDS. 01/1997; 34:226-230.
  • J M Everaarts, K SaralaDevi
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    ABSTRACT: In the central and southern North Sea, and in the Dutch coastal zone, total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in water are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 μg/L and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 μg/L, respectively Cadmium in the estuarine waters of the Dutch Wadden Sea varied from 0.3 {+-} 0.01 μg/L in the western part to 0.08 {+-} 0.03 μg/L in the eastern part. In whole sediment, the Cd background concentration for the Wadden Sea is 0.5 {+-} 0.01 μg/g dry weight (dw), whereas the reference concentration is 0.08 {+-} 0.02 μg/g dw. The concentrations of total-Cd in surface bulk sediments (0-2 cm) of the central North Sea (Oyster Grounds), and of intertidal mud-flats in the western Wadden Sea varied from 0.05 to 0.15 μg/g dw and from 0.13 to 0.46 μg dw, respectively (calculated from Kahn et al. 1992). These concentration ranges match the reference Cd concentration for Wadden Sea whole sediment (0.5 {+-} 0.01) μg/g dw. Cadmium concentrations in surface sediments of the Dutch coastal zone and estuaries are only slightly elevated compared to the 0.2 μg/g dw, considered as the background concentrations in pristine areas, but well below the level of 10 μg/g dw at heavily contaminated sites. This laboratory study reports on the distribution of cadmium in the sediment column, and the uptake in the blood/coelomic fluid, intestine and body-wall of lugworms at low cadmium concentration exposure. The aim was to determine possible interaction between the vertical distribution of sediment-bound cadmium and the bioturbating activity of lugworms. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12/1996; 57(5):771-8. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Common whelks (Buccinum undatum) from the open North Sea show imposex; the development of male sexual characteristics in female prosobranch gastropods. A correlation with shipping intensities has been established (Ten Hallers-Tjabbes et al., 1994) and tributyltin (TBT), the active biocide in anti-fouling paints, was expected to be the cause. To study the supposed cause—effect relationship, adult whelks were experimentally exposed to TBT. Juvenile B. undatum, produced by the experimental specimens, were also exposed in ovo or just after hatching during this experiment and developed male sexual characteristics (a penis and/or a vas deferens) in a dose-dependent manner already after 10 months more than 80% of the young B. Undatum exposed to nominal TBT concentrations 100 ng TBT/litre developed these male sexual organs. Adult females, however, showed no signs of imposex, although they were exposed for 9 months to the same TBT concentrations as their offspring. In adult females exposed to a dose of 1 μg TBT/litre, a TBT body burden of > 300 ng Sn/g dry weight was measured.
    Marine Environmental Research 06/1996; 42(1-4):151-154. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    J.M. Everaarts, A. Sarkar
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    ABSTRACT: The DNA damage in seastars (Asterias rubens) was studied by measuring the level of integrity of DNA isolated from pyloric caeca of the organisms in order to assess the state of pollution of the North Sea. The effect of various genotoxic chemicals on the integrity of DNA was determined by the level of double strandedness with respect to total DNA following time-dependent partial alkaline unwinding assay. On the basis of the level of integrity of DNA from seastars the study area was distinguished into three clusters: Cluster-I, the highly polluted area (coastal and estuarine zones) with low integrity of DNA (27-43% integrity), Cluster-II, the moderately polluted area (offshore region) with medium integrity of DNA (49-64% integrity) and Cluster-III, less polluted area (near Dogger bank region) with high integrity of DNA (70-87% integrity).
    Water Science & Technology 01/1996; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mature specimens (n = 686) of male dab (Limanda limanda) were collected at several stations from the southern North Sea during two surveys in 1991 and 1992. Levels of CYP1A protein and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured in liver and heart. Elevated CYP1A levels were observed in dab collected from off-shore stations with low bottom water temperatures due to stratification of the water column. Considerably lower CYP1A levels were observed at stations with higher water temperatures. Multiple regression analyses with PCB concentrations in fish and water temperature as independent variables influencing EROD activity or CYP1A protein levels demonstrated significant correlations with both parameters. The water temperature was inversely related to CYP1A levels, whereas PCB concentrations showed a positive relation with CYP1A levels. The effect of water temperature dominated over the effect of PCB contamination. The relationship between water temperature and CYP1A levels was also examined in a laboratory study, where dab were acclimated to 8, 12 and 16 °C for 4 weeks. A three-fold increase in EROD activity in the group acclimated to 8 °C compared to the group acclimated to 16 °C was observed, whereas no differences were observed for CYP1A protein levels. Multiple regression analyses with PCB concentrations and condition factor of fish as independent variables influencing CYP1A levels also demonstrated significant correlations in the field. Thus, differences in water temperature and nutritional status of dab between sampling locations obscured the effects of contamination with polyhalogenated aromatic compounds on CYP1A levels. The results indicate that these factors have to be taken into account when employing CYP1A responses in dab as biomarkers for environmental contamination in the North Sea.
    Aquatic Toxicology 06/1995; · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • J.M. Everaarts
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    ABSTRACT: DNA strand breaks in seastars and dab were measured by the time-dependent partial alkaline unwinding of DNA followed by the determination of the double-stranded to total DNA ratio (F-value). Highest DNA integrity (0.75 < F < 0.85) was found in seastars from offshore reference sites, whereas lowest integrity (0.35 < F < 0.55) was identified in specimens from the coastal zone and certain expected uncontaminated offshore areas. A significant correlation existed between the fraction of double-stranded DNA and the concentration of low chlorinated biphenyl congeners and with H atoms substituted in the meta and para position of the biphenyl skeleton. Over 90% of double-stranded DNA was measured in dab obtained from pristine areas, with an average F-value in specimens from most sampling stations varying from 0.75 to 0.85, during August/September 1991. Samples taken in May/June 1992 showed significantly lower DNA integrity (0.55 < F < 0.70 in most stations). A significant decrease of the integrity was established with increase in concentration of the congeners (tri to hepta chloro substituted and with or without a H atom substituted in the meta and para position).
    Environmental Pollution 04/1995; · 3.90 Impact Factor
  • J.M. Everaarts, J. Nieuwenhuize
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    ABSTRACT: In surface sediments, a statistically significant increase was measured in the concentration of copper and cadmium along all transects, and of zinc along only the most southern (Gazi) transect, radiating into the Indian Ocean perpendicular to the Kenyan coast. Mean copper and cadmium increased from 5 to 30 μg g−1 dry wt and from 0.01 to 0.34 μg g−1 dry wt in shallow coastal (±20 m depth) to deep-sea stations (±2000 m depth), respectively. These gradients were found both during the south-east monsoon and north-east monsoon period. The shallow estuarine zone of the Sabaki river mouth showed significantly enhanced levels of total organic carbon and nitrogen and all metals analysed, except cadmium.In crustaceans, the concentration of copper and particularly cadmium was significantly above baseline levels, varying from 45 to 90 μg g−1 dry wt and 1.0 to 8.5 μg g−1 dry wt, respectively. Zinc levels (49–102 μg g−1 dry wt) were at about baseline levels or a little elevated. On the contrary, lead showed very low concentrations, varying from 0.1 to 0.6 μg g−1 dry wt. Other species generally showed the same pattern.
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 04/1995; 31(4-12):281-289. · 2.79 Impact Factor