John G McDonnell

National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, C, Ireland

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Publications (19)50.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We compared the Baska(®) mask with the single-use classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) in 150 females at low risk for difficult tracheal intubation in a randomised, controlled clinical trial. We found that median (IQR [range]) seal pressure was significantly higher with the Baska mask compared with the cLMA (40 (34-40 [16-40]) vs 22 (18-25 [14-40]) cmH2 O, respectively, p < 0.001), indicating a better seal. In contrast, the first time success rate for insertion of the Baska mask was lower than that seen with the cLMA (52/71 (73%) vs 77/99 (98%), respectively, p < 0.001). There were no differences in overall device insertion success rates (78/79 (99%) vs 68/71 (96%), respectively, p = 0.54). The Baska mask proved more difficult to insert, requiring more insertion attempts, taking longer to insert and had higher median (IQR [range]) insertion difficulty scores (1.6 (0.8-2.2 [0.1-5.6]) vs 0.5 (0.3-1.4 [0.1-4.0]), respectively, p < 0.001). There was also an increased rate of minor blood staining of the Baska mask after removal, but there were no differences in other complication rates, such as laryngospasm, or in the severity of throat discomfort. In conclusion, in clinical situations where the seal with the glottic aperture takes priority over ease of insertion, the Baska mask may provide a useful alternative to the cLMA.
    Anaesthesia 07/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Olivia Finnerty, John G McDonnell
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    ABSTRACT: Since the publication of original work on the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, the translation of the research into clinical practice has resulted in some 146 articles being published in peer-reviewed journals. However, there continues to be controversies over the best approach to be used. The introduction of ultrasound should have aided the development of this block, but in fact it has caused more questions to be asked. There are a number of reviews of the block already published, but were they published too early and what is our current understanding of the TAP block and its mechanisms of action? The TAP block continues to develop. We now understand that the TAP block is a multifaceted block, working with both localized field effects as well as distal effects due to a distant spread of local anesthetic. Recent research would suggest that the location of needle tip placement causes variation in the block characteristics obtained. The more anterior approaches adopted for use since the introduction of ultrasound might be better described as RAFI (regional abdominal field infiltration) blocks. The TAP block, in all its guises, is an effective analgesic tool, but what is the best approach? Randomized controlled trials comparing the TAP/RAFI blocks to epidural based analgesia are required.
    Current opinion in anaesthesiology 10/2012; 25(5):610-4.
  • J G McDonnell, O Finnerty, J G Laffey
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    ABSTRACT: We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.
    Anaesthesia 07/2011; 66(7):611-4. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Forty children undergoing appendectomy were randomized to undergo unilateral TAP block with ropivacaine (n = 19) versus placebo (n = 21) in addition to standard postoperative analgesia comprising IV morphine analgesia and regular diclofenac and acetaminophen. All patients received a standard general anesthetic, and after induction of anesthesia, a TAP block was performed using the landmark technique with 2.5 mg · kg(-1) ropivacaine 0.75% or an equal volume (0.3 mL · kg(-1)) of saline on the ipsilateral side to the incision. The TAP block with ropivacaine reduced mean (± SD) morphine requirements in the first 48 postoperative hours (10.3 ± 12.7 vs 22.3 ± 14.7 mg; P < 0.01) compared with placebo block. The TAP block also reduced postoperative visual analog scale pain scores at rest and on movement compared with placebo. Interval morphine consumption was reduced over the first 24 postoperative hours. There were no between-group differences in the incidence of sedation or nausea and vomiting. There were no complications attributable to the TAP block. Unilateral TAP block, as a component of a multimodal analgesic regimen, provided superior analgesia compared with placebo in the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy in children.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 10/2010; 111(4):998-1003. · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • O Finnerty, J Carney, J G McDonnell
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, we discuss the central non-neuraxial regional anaesthesia blocks of the abdomen, including intercostal and intrapleural blocks, rectus sheath and ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric blocks, transversus abdominis plane blocks and paravertebral blocks.
    Anaesthesia 04/2010; 65 Suppl 1:76-83. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy suffer significant postoperative pain. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently described approach to providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy via a transverse lower abdominal wall incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Fifty females undergoing elective total abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to undergo TAP block with ropivacaine (n = 24) versus placebo (n = 26) in addition to standard postoperative analgesia comprising patient-controlled IV morphine analgesia and regular diclofenac and acetaminophen. All patients received a general anesthetic and, before surgical incision, a bilateral TAP block was performed using 1.5 mg/kg ropivacaine (to a maximal dose of 150 mg) or saline on each side. Each patient was assessed postoperatively by a blinded investigator in the postanesthesia care unit and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 h postoperatively. The TAP block with ropivacaine reduced postoperative visual analog scale pain scores compared to placebo block. Mean (+/-SD) total morphine requirements in the first 48 postoperative hours were also reduced (55 +/- 17 mg vs 27 +/- 20 mg, P < 0.001). The incidence of sedation was reduced in patients undergoing TAP blockade. There were no complications attributable to the TAP block. The TAP block, as a component of a multimodal analgesic regimen, provided superior analgesia when compared to placebo block up to 48 postoperative hours after elective total abdominal hysterectomy.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 12/2008; 107(6):2056-60. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 08/2008; 33(5):e7. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. Fifty women undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomized to undergo TAP block with ropivacaine (n = 25) versus placebo (n = 25), in addition to standard postoperative analgesia comprising patient-controlled IV morphine analgesia and regular diclofenac and acetaminophen. All patients received a standard spinal anesthetic, and at the end of surgery, a bilateral TAP block was performed using 1.5 mg/kg ropivacaine (to a maximal dose of 150 mg) or saline on each side. Each patient was assessed postoperatively by a blinded investigator: in the postanesthesia care unit and at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h postoperatively. The TAP block with ropivacaine compared with placebo reduced postoperative visual analog scale pain scores. Mean (+/- sd) total morphine requirements in the first 48 postoperative hours were also reduced (66 +/- 26 vs 18 +/- 14 mg, P < 0.001), as was the 12-h interval morphine consumption up to 36 h postoperatively. The incidence of sedation was reduced in patients undergoing TAP blockade. There were no complications attributable to the TAP block. The TAP block, as a component of a multimodal analgesic regimen, provided superior analgesia when compared with placebo block up to 48 postoperative hours after elective cesarean delivery.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 01/2008; 106(1):186-91, table of contents. · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • J. Carney, J. McDonnell
    Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine - REGION ANESTH PAIN MED. 01/2008; 33(5).
  • C H Maharaj, J G McDonnell, B H Harte, J G Laffey
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    ABSTRACT: Direct laryngoscopic tracheal intubation using the Macintosh laryngoscope is taught to many healthcare professionals as it is a potentially life-saving procedure. However, it is a difficult skill to acquire and maintain. Several alternative intubation devices exist that may provide a better view of the glottis and require less skill to use. We conducted a prospective, randomised trial of four different laryngoscopes and the ILMA in 30 medical students who had no prior airway management experience. The devices were tested in both normal and cervical immobilisation laryngoscopy scenarios. Following brief didactic instruction, each participant took turns performing laryngoscopy and intubation using each device under direct supervision. Each student was allowed up to three intubation attempts with each device, in each scenario. The Airtraq, McCoy, and the ILMA each demonstrated advantages over the Macintosh laryngoscope. In both the easy and difficult airway scenarios, the Airtraq, McCoy, and the ILMA reduced the number of intubation attempts, and reduced the number of optimisation manoeuvres required. The Airtraq and ILMA reduced the severity of dental trauma in both scenarios. The performance of the other devices studied was more variable. Overall, participants found that only the Airtraq was less difficult to use and they were more confident using it compared to the Macinosh laryngoscope.
    Anaesthesia 12/2007; 62(11):1161-6. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • John G McDonnell, John G Laffey
    Anesthesia and analgesia 10/2007; 105(3):883. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 08/2007; 32(5). · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 08/2007; 32(5). · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the successful use of the Airtraq as a rescue device following failed direct laryngoscopy, in patients deemed at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation. In a series of seven patients, repeated attempts at direct laryngoscopy with the Macintosh blade, and the use of manoeuvres to aid intubation, such as the gum elastic bougie placement, were unsuccessful. In contrast, with the Airtraq device, each patient's trachea was successfully intubated on the first attempt. This report underlines the utility of the Airtraq device in these patients.
    Anaesthesia 07/2007; 62(6):598-601. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The abdominal wall is a significant source of pain after abdominal surgery. Anterior abdominal wall analgesia may assist in improving postoperative analgesia. We have recently described a novel approach to block the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit, which we have termed a transversus abdominis plane block. The clinical efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block has recently been demonstrated in a randomized controlled clinical trial of adults undergoing abdominal surgery. After institutional review board approval, anatomic studies were conducted to determine the deposition and spread of methylene blue injected into the transversus abdominis plane via the triangles of Petit. Computerized tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging studies were then conducted in volunteers to ascertain the deposition and time course of spread of solution within the transversus abdominis fascial plane in vivo. Cadaveric studies demonstrated that the injection of methylene blue via the triangle of Petit using the "double pop" technique results in reliable deposition into the transversus abdominis plane. In volunteers, the injection of local anesthetic and contrast produced a reliable sensory block, and demonstrated deposition throughout the transversus abdominis plane. The sensory block produced by lidocaine 0.5% extended from T7 to L1, and receded over 4 to 6 hours, and this finding was supported by magnetic resonance imaging studies that showed a gradual reduction in contrast in the transversus abdominis plane over time. These findings define the anatomic characteristics of the transversus abdominis plane block, and underline the clinical potential of this novel block.
    Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 01/2007; 32(5):399-404. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Thirty-two adults undergoing large bowel resection via a midline abdominal incision were randomized to receive standard care, including patient-controlled morphine analgesia and regular nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and acetaminophen (n = 16), or to undergo TAP block (n = 16) in addition to standard care (n = 16). After induction of anesthesia, 20 mL of 0.375% levobupivacaine was deposited into the transversus abdominis neuro-fascial plane via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. Each patient was assessed by a blinded investigator in the postanesthesia care unit and at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. The TAP block reduced visual analog scale pain scores (TAP versus control, mean +/- sd) on emergence (1 +/- 1.4 vs 6.6 +/- 2.8, P < 0.05), and at all postoperative time points, including at 24 h (1.7 +/- 1.7 vs 3.1 +/- 1.5, P < 0.05). Morphine requirements in the first 24 postoperative hours were also reduced (21.9 +/- 8.9 mg vs 80.4 +/- 19.2 mg, P < 0.05). There were no complications attributable to the TAP block. All TAP patients reported high levels of satisfaction with their postoperative analgesic regimen. The TAP block provided highly effective postoperative analgesia in the first 24 postoperative hours after major abdominal surgery.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 01/2007; 104(1):193-7. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 12/2005; 31(1):91. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary We report the successful use of the Airtraqas a rescue device following failed direct laryngoscopy, in patients deemed at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation. In a series of seven patients, repeated attempts at direct laryngoscopy with the Macintosh blade, and the use of manoeuvres to aid intubation, such as the gum elastic bougie placement, were unsuccessful. In contrast, with the Airtraqdevice, each patient's trachea was successfully intubated on the first attempt. This report underlines the utility of the Airtraq device in these patients. The Airtraq� (Prodol Meditec S.A., Vizcaya, Spain) is a new, single-use, indirect laryngoscope introduced into clinical practice in 2005. It is designed to facilitate tracheal intubation in patients with both normal and difficult airways. As a result of an exaggerated blade curvature, an internal arrangement of optical lenses and a mechanism to prevent fogging of the distal lens, a high quality view of the glottis is provided without the need to align the oral, pharyngeal and tracheal axes. The blade of the Airtraq�
  • Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 31(5):3.