[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of current research on flavonoids as presented during a workshop entitled, "Flavonoids and Heart Health," held by the ILSI North America Project Committee on Flavonoids in Washington, DC, May 31 and June 1, 2005. Because a thorough knowledge and understanding about the science of flavonoids and their effects on health will aid in establishing dietary recommendations for bioactive components such as flavonoids, a systematic review of the science of select flavonoid classes (i.e., flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins) was presented. The objectives of the workshop were to 1) present and discuss current research on flavonoid intake and the relation between flavonoids and heart health; 2) develop information that could lead to expert consensus on the state-of-the-science of dietary intake of flavonoids on heart health; and 3) summarize and prioritize the research needed to establish the relations between specific flavonoids and heart health. Presentations included the basics of the biology of flavonoids, including the types and distribution in foods, analytical methodologies used to determine the amounts in foods, the bioavailability, the consumption patterns and potential biomarkers of intake, risk assessment and safety evaluation, structure/function claims, and the proposed mechanism(s) of the relation between certain flavonoids and heart health endpoints. Data presented support the concept that certain flavonoids in the diet can be associated with significant health benefits, including heart health. Research gaps were identified to help advance the science.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advancement in the understanding of the mechanisms of platelet activation, as well as the development of new techniques for studying platelet function, have led to the availability of new classes of platelet inhibiting drugs. Initially, characterization of arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets furthered an understanding of the utility of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, most notably aspirin. The discovery and characterization of platelet receptors such as the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa has been associated with the development of novel classes of anti-platelet drug, such as thienopyridine derivatives and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, respectively. Future development in receptor pathway inhibitors also includes glycoprotein Ib/IX as well as the potential use of platelet signaling pathway inhibitors.
Pharmacological Research 11/2001; 44(4):255-64. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of studies suggest that dietary intake of onions is of benefit to cardiovascular health. Onion juice inhibits in vitro human platelet aggregation. To study the in vivo effect of onion on platelet aggregation, 11 dogs were prepared with mechanically damaged and stenosed coronary arteries. Periodic platelet-mediated thrombus formation followed by embolization produced cyclic flow reductions (CFR). In five dogs, 0.09 +/- 0.01 mL/kg onion juice administered intravenously abolished CFR within 20 min. This was followed by a 60 +/- 14% (P = 0.002) reduction in collagen-induced ex vivo whole-blood platelet aggregation. Six dogs were given 2.0 g/kg raw onion homogenate intragastrically. CFR were eliminated within 2.5-3 h in five of the dogs. This was accompanied by a 44 +/- 24% (P = 0.04) reduction in ex vivo aggregation. These findings suggest that the consumption of raw onion may help prevent platelet-mediated cardiovascular disorders. However, in vitro incubations of onion juice demonstrated that the platelet inhibitory response was significantly greater in dog blood than in human blood.
Journal of Nutrition 11/2001; 131(10):2619-22. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Moderate red wine consumption is inversely associated with coronary ischemia, and both red wine and purple grape juice (PGJ) contain flavonoids with antioxidant and antiplatelet properties believed to be protective against cardiovascular events. Acute cardiac events are also associated with decreased platelet-derived nitric oxide (NO) release. In this study, the effects of PGJ and PGJ-derived flavonoids on platelet function and platelet NO production were determined.
Incubation of platelets with dilute PGJ led to inhibition of aggregation, enhanced release of platelet-derived NO, and decreased superoxide production. To confirm the in vivo relevance of these findings, 20 healthy subjects consumed 7 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) of PGJ for 14 days. Platelet aggregation was inhibited after PGJ supplementation, platelet-derived NO production increased from 3.5+/-1.2 to 6.0+/-1.5 pmol/10(8) platelets, and superoxide release decreased from 29.5+/-5.0 to 19.2+/-3.1 arbitrary units (P<0.007 and P<0.05, respectively). alpha-Tocopherol levels increased significantly after PGJ consumption (from 15.6+/-0.7 to 17.6+/-0.9 micromol/L; P<0.009), and the plasma protein-independent antioxidant activity increased by 50.0% (P<0.05). Last, incubation of platelets with select flavonoid fractions isolated from PGJ consistently attenuated superoxide levels but had variable effects on whole-blood aggregation, platelet aggregation, and NO release.
Both in vitro incubation and oral supplementation with PGJ decrease platelet aggregation, increase platelet-derived NO release, and decrease superoxide production. These findings may be a result of antioxidant-sparing and/or direct effects of select flavonoids found in PGJ. The suppression of platelet-mediated thrombosis represents a potential mechanism for the beneficial effects of purple grape products, independent of alcohol consumption, in cardiovascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was employed to characterize the polygalloyl polyflavan-3-ols (PGPF) in grape seed extracts. Masses corresponding to a series of PGPF units inclusive of nonamers were observed in the positive-ion reflectron mode. Masses of PGPF inclusive of undecamers were observed in the positive-ion linear mode, providing the first known evidence of PGPF of this size. Soluble PGPF of grape seed extracts were precipitated by complexation with Yb(3+). The PGPF were then recovered by dissolving the precipitate in water and removing the Yb(3+) by a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (Amberlite IRP-64). Comparisons of HPLC chromatograms of the crude grape seed extract prior to precipitation with Yb(3+) and after recovery of the PGPF indicated that 96% of the phenolic compounds were precipitated and 99% of the precipitated PGPF were recovered by cation-exchange resin. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is able to determine the mass distribution of complex mixtures of oligomeric PGPF and that precipitation of PGPF by Yb(3+) is useful for isolation and quantification.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2000; 48(5):1663-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease is responsible for much mortality and morbidity around the world. Platelets are involved in atherosclerotic disease development and the reduction of platelet activity by medications reduces the incidence and severity of disease. Red wine and grapes contain polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids, which can reduce platelet aggregation and have been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease. Citrus fruits contain different classes of polyphenolics that may not share the same properties. This study evaluated whether commercial grape, orange and grapefruit juices, taken daily, reduce ex vivo platelet activity. In a randomized cross-over design, ten healthy human subjects (ages 26-58 y, five of each gender) drank 5-7.5 mL/(kg. d) of purple grape juice, orange juice or grapefruit juice for 7-10 d each. Platelet aggregation (whole blood impedance aggregometry, Chronolog Model #590) at baseline was compared to results after consumption of each juice. Drinking purple grape juice for one week reduced the whole blood platelet aggregation response to 1 mg/L of collagen by 77% (from 17.9 +/- 2.3 to 4.0 +/- 6.8 ohms, P = 0.0002). Orange juice and grapefruit juice had no effect on platelet aggregation. The purple grape juice had approximately three times the total polyphenolic concentration of the citrus juices and was a potent platelet inhibitor in healthy subjects while the citrus juices showed no effect. The platelet inhibitory effect of the flavonoids in grape juice may decrease the risk of coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction.
Journal of Nutrition 01/2000; 130(1):53-6. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro, the flavonoid components of red wine and purple grape juice are powerful antioxidants that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation of vascular rings derived from rat aortas and human coronary arteries. Although improved endothelial function and inhibition of LDL oxidation may be potential mechanisms by which red wine and flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk, the in vivo effects of grape products on endothelial function and LDL oxidation have not been investigated. This study assessed the effects of ingesting purple grape juice on endothelial function and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Fifteen adults with angiographically documented CAD ingested 7.7+/-1.2 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) of purple grape juice for 14 days. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution brachial artery ultrasonography. Susceptibility of LDL particles to oxidation was determined from the rate of conjugated diene formation after exposure to copper chloride. At baseline, FMD was impaired (2.2+/-2. 9%). After ingestion of grape juice, FMD increased to 6.4+/-4.7% (P=0.003). In a linear regression model that included age, artery diameter, lipid values, and use of lipid-lowering and antioxidant therapies, the effect of grape juice on FMD remained significant (mean change 4.2+/-4.4%, P<0.001). After ingestion of grape juice, lag time increased by 34.5% (P=0.015).
Short-term ingestion of purple grape juice improves FMD and reduces LDL susceptibility to oxidation in CAD patients. Improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and prevention of LDL oxidation are potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in purple grape products may prevent cardiovascular events, independent of alcohol content.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the antithrombotic effect of coating glass, collagen and metal stent surfaces with bovine serum albumin (BSA) covalently modified to carry S-NO functional groups denoted (pS-NO-BSA).
Video-enhanced light microscopy was used to visualize canine blood platelet adhesion and aggregation in a parallel plate glass chamber. Platelet adhesion was observed for 60 min on glass, glass coated with BSA, glass coated with pS-NO-BSA, collagen I (CO) surface, CO coated with BSA and CO coated with pS-NO-BSA. We also coated Palmaz-Shatz (P-S) stents with pS-NO-BSA. Coated and uncoated stents were then immersed in porcine platelet-rich plasma for two min and the platelet cyclic GMP level was measured. In six anesthetized pigs, coated and uncoated stents were placed in the carotid arteries and [111In]-labeled platelets were circulated for 2 h. The stented arteries were then removed and placed in a gamma well counter.
There was significantly less platelet attachment, adhesion and aggregation on the pS-NO-BSA coated surfaces compared with the BSA coated and uncoated surfaces. The pS-NO-BSA coating increased the platelet cGMP levels to 5.9+/-0.7 pmoles/10(8) platelets compared with 2.7+/-0.9 pmoles/10(8) platelets for control (p < 0.01). The average gamma ray count from [111In]-labeled platelets that attached to the coated stents was 90,000+/-42,000/min and 435,000+/-290,000/min for the uncoated stents (p < 0.01).
The pS-NO-BSA coating of thrombogenic surfaces reduces platelet adhesion and aggregation, possibly by increasing the platelet cGMP. This inhibitory effect appears to be a consequence of the direct antiplatelet actions of NO combined with the antiadhesive properties of albumin.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/1999; 33(5):1408-14. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspirin is the most widely prescribed agent to reduce the platelet-mediated contributions to atherosclerosis, coronary thrombosis and restenosis after angioplasty. While aspirin treatment has led to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality in many clinical trials, there are several scenarios in which aspirin may fail to provide a full antithrombotic benefit. The cyclic flow model of experimental coronary thrombosis suggests that elevations of plasma catecholamines, high shear forces acting on the platelets in the stenosed lumen and the presence of multiple, input stimuli can activate platelets through different mechanisms that may lead to thrombosis despite aspirin therapy. Aspirin therapy is limited because it only blocks some of the input stimuli, leaving aspirin-independent pathways through which coronary thrombosis can be precipitated. These include thrombin and thrombogenic arterial wall substrates such as tissue factor. New agents that block the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor, or regulate platelet free cytosolic calcium, such as direct nitric oxide donors, may be more potent overall than aspirin. Agents that block the platelet integrin GPIIb-IIIa receptor inhibit the binding of fibrinogen to platelets regardless of which input stimuli activate the platelet and, thus, as demonstrated in the cyclic flow model, would be much more potent than aspirin as an antithrombotic agent. The cyclic flow model has been useful in predicting which agents are likely to be of benefit in clinical trials.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/1999; 33(2):295-303. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet aggregation (PA) contributes to both the development of atherosclerosis and acute platelet thrombus formation (APTF) followed by embolization producing cyclic flow reductions (CFR) in stenosed and damaged dog and human coronary arteries. In seven anesthetized dogs with coronary stenosis and medial damage, CFR occurred at 7 +/- 3/30 min and were abolished 127 +/- 18 min after gastric administration of 10 mL of purple grape juice/kg. Collagen-induced ex vivo whole blood PA decreased by 49 +/- 9% after the abolishment of CFR with grape juice. Ten mL of orange juice/kg (n = 5) and 10 mL of grapefruit juice/kg (n = 5) had no significant effect on the frequency of the CFR or on ex vivo PA. In vitro studies have suggested that flavonoids bind to platelet cell membranes and thus may have an accumulative or tissue-loading effect over time. To test this we fed 5 mL of grape juice/kg to 5 cynomologous monkeys for 7 d. Collagen-induced ex vivo PA decreased by 41 +/- 17% compared to control (pre-reatment) after 7 d of feeding. In the same 5 monkeys, neither 5 mL of orange juice/kg nor 5 mL of grapefruit juice/kg given orally for 7 d produced any significant change in PA. Grape juice contains the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, which are known inhibitors of PA in vitro. Orange juice and grapefruit juice, while containing less quercetin than grape juice, primarily contain the flavonoids naringin, luteolin and apigenin glucoside. The flavonoids in grapes were shown in vitro to be good inhibitors of PA, whereas the flavonoids in oranges and grapefruit to be poor inhibitors of PA. The consumption of grape juice, containing these inhibitors of PA, may have some of the protection offered by red wine against the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute occlusive thrombosis, whereas orange juice or grapefruit juice may be ineffective. Thus, grape juice may be a useful alternative dietary supplement to red wine without the concomitant alcohol intake.
Journal of Nutrition 01/1999; 128(12):2307-12. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease continues to be the leading cause of death for adults in the United States. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR) has the potential to dramatically impact the diagnosis of heart disease by noninvasively providing a wide range of anatomic and physiologic information. Previous research has shown that coronary flow, one component of a complete examination, can be accurately measured in the left anterior descending artery in vivo. The current work validates MR flow measurements in canine circumflex arteries using transit time ultrasound as a standard. The circumflex artery experiences greater in-plane motion and is a more stringent test for flow measurement accuracy. This work also compares two methods of processing MR velocity data, phase difference and complex difference techniques, and examines the sources of error present in the animal validation model. Phase difference processing with a 30% magnitude threshold best matched the mean ultrasound flow values (30% PD = 1.04 x US + 1.49, r = 0.94), but it was very sensitive to vessel boundary identification. The complex difference process was less sensitive to vessel boundary identification and correlated well with the transit time ultrasound despite systematic underestimations. The reasons for the discrepancies are shown to stem from a number of possible sources including variability of the ultrasound standard, low signal-to-noise ratios in the MR images, sensitivity of the MR technique to vessel boundary identification, and motion artifacts in the images.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 12/1998; 40(5):656-65. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the in vivo effect of percent stenosis, trans-stenotic pressure, and shear stress (SS) on platelet accumulation (PA) in canine mechanically injured and stenosed carotid arteries. In 10 dogs, intimal damage and controlled variations in stenosis were produced on the carotid artery. Blood flow through the stenosis, trans-stenotic pressure, and stenosis geometry were measured. A NaI gamma detector was collimated and placed over the stenosis to detect gamma rays emitted by autologous radiolabeled platelets as they accumulated inside the stenosis. The SS was obtained from the finite difference solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. As the flow declined during thrombus formation, the radioactive count accumulated in an inverse fashion. The rate of flow decline directly correlated with the rate of PA during thrombus formation (r(2) > 0.9). Compared with the undamaged and unstenosed artery, the PA increased by 52 +/- 34% due to mild stenosis (40-60%). PA increased by 94 +/- 66% due to severe stenosis (60-70%) and by 145 +/- 56% due to critical stenosis (70-80%; P > 0.01). The platelet accumulation produced totally occlusive thrombus formation at levels of stenosis higher than 70 +/- 5% (diameter narrowing), and for trans-stenotic pressure gradients higher than 50 +/- 5 mmHg producing SS greater than 100 +/- 10 Pa. The PA was maximum at the stenotic portion of the vessel where the level of SS is the highest (P < 0.001). In vivo platelet-mediated thrombosis increases with SS and occurs at the stenotic portion of the stenosis where the SS is the highest. Severe stenoses produce critical levels of SS that potentiate thrombosis and lead to life-threatening arterial occlusion.
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 07/1998; 5(3):231-238. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets are known to contribute to the initiation and progression of coronary artery narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques. Platelets also initiate periodic occlusive coronary arterial thrombosis that leads to unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Aspirin is the most widely used platelet inhibitor. However, if blood levels of epinephrine are elevated, some of the platelet inhibition produced by aspirin is diminished. Amlodipine, a second generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, was studied in a widely used dog model of experimental coronary artery thrombosis. Amlodipine 1 mg/kg alone or amlodipine 0.4 mg/kg with 5 mg/kg of aspirin I.V. completely abolished the experimental coronary thrombosis and prevented the exacerbation of coronary thrombosis by epinephrine 0.2 microg/kg/min. This protective effect did not appear until 60 minutes after the amlodipine was given, suggesting a delayed onset of action. Long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are used in patients with hypertension, angina, and coronary artery disease. They also may offer the patient some protection against fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction via their platelet-inhibiting effects.
International Journal of Cardiology 01/1998; 62 Suppl 2:S111-7. · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inotropic drugs are often used to treat acute, severe heart failure resulting from acute myocardial infarction and other unstable coronary artery syndromes. However, catecholamine inotropic agents may potentiate coronary thrombosis via a platelet alpha2-adrenergic mechanism, thus exacerbating the original problem. The present studies were designed to determine whether the nonadrenergic inotropic and vasodilator drug amrinone, which elevates platelet cAMP levels, would both inhibit human platelet Ca2+ mobilization and adhesion molecule expression ex vivo and protect against experimental coronary thrombosis in vivo in dogs.
Human platelets in suspension were preincubated with amrinone 2.5 to 15 microg/mL; stimulated with the agonists thrombin 0.1 U/mL, ADP 10(-6) mol/L, or arginine vasopressin 10(7) mol/L; and studied for Ca2+ mobilization, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation, and P-selectin expression by fluorescent flow cytometry methods. Experimental coronary thrombosis in vivo was studied in an open-chest dog model with critical coronary artery stenosis and deep vessel wall injury. Results showed that at the cellular level, amrinone inhibited agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization and had modest inhibitory effects on adhesion molecule expression. In vivo in dogs, intravenous amrinone 2 mg/kg plus infusion at 20 microg x kg(1) x min(-1) completely abolished coronary thrombosis.
The fact that amrinone inhibited human platelet activation at the cellular level and protected against experimental coronary thrombosis in vivo in dogs suggests a potentially advantageous antithrombotic action for this inotropic and vasodilator drug.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shear stress is one of the known platelet activating mechanisms that leads to thrombosis. Increased shear stress has also been postulated to reverse the antithrombotic effect of some drugs such as aspirin (ASA).
Experiments were conducted in five dogs to determine the minimal shear stress levels that produce acute platelet thrombus formation in mechanically stenosed arteries and the increase in shear required to reverse the antithrombotic effect of ASA. After intimal and medial damage, stenosis was produced in the circumflex coronary artery. We used the finite-difference numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation to determine the wall shear stresses in the area of stenosis. At 70+/-6% coronary diameter reduction, cyclic flow reductions (CFRs) caused by acute platelet thrombus formation were observed in the stenosed lumen. At this level of stenosis, the shear stress was 144+/-15 Pa. ASA given at a dose of 5 mg/kg IV inhibited in vivo acute platelet-mediated thrombus formation and abolished CFRs in all dogs. However, increasing the stenosis level to 80+/-5% caused the CFRs to return. The shear stress increased with the increased level of stenosis to 226+/-22 Pa. Thus, an average 10% increase in diameter narrowing caused a 56+/-20% increase in shear stress (P<.005) and renewed platelet activation and thrombus formation despite ASA pretreatment.
Individuals who take ASA daily to prevent coronary artery thrombus formation may not be well protected when a change in hemodynamics, such as an acute hypertensive episode, or an increase in stenosis severity due a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque causes an increase in shear stress.