[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Loss of subcutaneous (SAT) with sparing of visceral (VAT) adipose tissue (AT) has been documented in HIV + men and women. Intermuscular AT (IMAT) rivals VAT in independent associations with cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the size and distribution of IMAT differs in HIV+ vs. HIV- men and/or women. DESIGN: We used whole-body MRI to measure VAT, IMAT and four SAT compartments and compared them by HIV status using whole-body skeletal muscle (SM) or total AT (TAT) as co-variates in multi-ethnic groups of healthy HIV- (n=86) and stable HIV+ (n=76) men and women. RESULTS: The sizes of AT depots (adjusting for SM) did not differ by HIV status, except for smaller gluteal SAT (lower trunk, between L(4)-L(5) to greater trochanter) in both sexes (P<0.05). The AT distribution (adjusting for TAT) was significantly different, with larger VAT (P<0.05) and smaller gluteal and limb SAT (P<0.05) in both HIV+ sexes; IMAT increased more with TAT in HIV+ vs. HIV- men (P<0.05 for slope interaction) but there were no significant differences in women. There were significant race by HIV interactions in AT distribution with more pronounced VAT differences in non-Hispanic white men and larger trunk SAT in African Americans HIV+ vs. HIV-. CONCLUSION: The AT distribution differed markedly in HIV+ vs. HIV- with limb and lower body SAT representing a smaller proportion of TAT in HIV+ in both sexes and IMAT representing a larger proportion of TAT in HIV+ vs. HIV- men.
International journal of body composition research 01/2009; 7(2):73-78.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and total fatness on central obesity in four ethnic populations.
Cross-sectional analysis of study subjects enrolled from 1993 to 2005.
A multi-ethnic (Caucasian (CA), African-American (AA), Hispanic-American (HA) and Asian (As)) convenience sample of 604 men and 1192 women (aged 18-96 years, body mass index 15.93-45.80 kg/m(2)).
Total body fat (TBF) and truncal fat were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. General linear regression models were used to test for independent associations with log(10)-transformed truncal fat.
For all ethnicities, men had a lower percent body fat and more truncal fat than women. Log(10-)transformed truncal fat increased with TBF approximately as a square root function. At older ages, there was a greater amount of truncal fat in CA, HA and As men (approximately 0.20-0.25 kg/decade) with the effect more pronounced in AA men ( approximately 0.33 kg/decade). For women, the increment of truncal fat per decade was reduced in CA and AA women (approximately 0.07 kg) compared with As and HA women (approximately 0.33 kg). Adjusted for mean values of covariates in our sample, AA had less truncal fat than As.
The accumulation of truncal fat is strongly related to age, ethnicity and total fatness in both men and women.
International Journal of Obesity 10/2007; 31(9):1384-91. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human adenovirus-36 (Ad-36) increases adiposity and paradoxically lowers serum cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens, mice, and non-human primates. The role of Ad-36 in human obesity is unknown.
To determine the prevalence of Ad-36 antibodies in obese and nonobese humans. To evaluate the association of Ad-36 antibodies with body mass index (BMI) and serum lipids.
Cohort study. Volunteers from obesity treatment programs, communities, and a research study.
Obese and nonobese volunteers at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, and the Bowen Center, Naples, Florida. Obese and thin volunteer research subjects and 89 twin pairs at Columbia University, New York.
Study 1: 502 subjects; serum neutralization assay for antibodies to Ad-2, Ad-31, Ad-36, and Ad-37; serum cholesterol and triglycerides assays. Study 2: BMI and %body fat in 28 twin pairs discordant for Ad-36 antibodies.
Presence of antibodies to adenoviruses, BMI, serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels.
Significant (P < 0.001) association of obesity and positive Ad-36 antibody status, independent of age, sex, and collection site. Ad-36 antibodies in 30% of obese, 11% of nonobese. Lower serum cholesterol and triglycerides (P < 0.003) in Ad-36 antibody-positive vs -negative subjects. Twin pairs: antibody-positive twins had higher BMIs (24.5+/-5.2 vs 23.1+/-4.5 kg/m2, P < 0.03) and %body fat (29.6+/-9.5% vs 27.5+/-9.9%, P < 0.04). No association of Ad-2, Ad-31, or Ad-37 antibodies with BMI or serum lipids.
Ad-36 is associated with increased body weight and lower serum lipids in humans. Prospective studies are indicated to determine if Ad-36 plays a role in the etiology of human obesity.
International Journal of Obesity 04/2005; 29(3):281-6. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early reports suggested that resistin is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. However, subsequent studies have not supported these findings. To our knowledge, the present study is the first assessment in human subjects of serum resistin and insulin sensitivity by the insulin clamp technique. Thirty-eight nonobese subjects [age, 23 +/- 4 yr; body mass index (BMI), 25.4 +/- 4.3 kg/m(2)], 12 obese subjects (age, 54 +/- 8 yr; BMI, 33.0 +/- 2.5 kg/m(2)), and 22 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (age, 59 +/- 7 yr; BMI, 34.0 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2)) were studied. Serum resistin concentrations were not different among nonobese (4.1 +/- 1.7 ng/ml), obese (4.2 +/- 1.6 ng/ml), and obese diabetic subjects (3.7 +/- 1.2 ng/ml), and were not significantly correlated to glucose disposal rate during a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp across groups. Serum resistin was, however, inversely related to insulin sensitivity in nonobese subjects only (r = -0.35; P = 0.05), although this association was lost after adjusting for percent body fat. Serum resistin was not related to percent fat, BMI, or fat cell size. A strong correlation was observed between serum resistin and resistin mRNA expression from abdominal sc adipose tissue in a separate group of obese subjects (r = 0.62; P < 0.01; n = 56). Although the exact function of resistin is unknown, we demonstrated only a weak relationship between resistin and insulin sensitivity in nonobese subjects, indicating that resistin is unlikely to be a major link between obesity and insulin resistance in humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral obesity is associated with resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in vivo. We investigated whether subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipocytes from viscerally obese women exhibit insulin resistance in vitro. Subjects were obese black and white premenopausal nondiabetic women matched for visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adiposity, and age. Independently of race and adipocyte size, increased VAT was associated with decreased sensitivity to insulin's antilipolytic effect in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipocytes. Absolute lipolytic rates at physiologically relevant concentrations of insulin or the adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-(phenylisopropyl)adenosine were higher in subjects with the highest vs. lowest VAT area. Independently of cell size, abdominal adipocytes were less sensitive to the antilipolytic effect of insulin than gluteal adipocytes, which may partly explain increased nonesterified fatty acid fluxes in upper vs. lower body obese women. Moreover, increased VAT was associated with decreased responsiveness, but not decreased sensitivity, to insulin's stimulatory effect on glucose transport in abdominal adipocytes. These data suggest that insulin resistance of subcutaneous abdominal and, to a lesser extent, gluteal adipocytes may contribute to increased systemic lipolysis in both black and white viscerally obese women.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2001; 280(1):E40-9. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although independent associations of visceral fat with the insulin resistance syndrome were previously reported in obese women, the importance of truncal subcutaneous fat in this syndrome is controversial. The method by which the various fat depots are measured may be the reason for the underlying controversy. In the past five years, we have used various methods to measure visceral versus subcutaneous fat distribution in Caucasian (C) and African-American (AA) women and have related it to insulin sensitivity (SI) and to blood lipids, particularly fasting serum triglyceride levels (TG). Elevated TG levels in obese women were best predicted by an increased amount of visceral fat, whereas the amounts of truncal and peripheral subcutaneous fat did not have an impact on them. These results were confirmed, regardless of the method used to measure the fat depots. Insulin resistance (low SI) in obese women was predicted by both an increase of visceral and of upper-body (truncal) subcutaneous fat. However, measurements of the entire visceral and truncal subcutaneous fat volumes may be needed to confirm this latter association.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2000; 904:491-501. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation in systemic fat metabolism and to compare this in black and white women who differ in their manifestations of upper body obesity. Systemic glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) turnover rates (rates of appearance, Ra) were measured in the basal state and during a pancreatic euglycemic clamp in nondiabetic, premenopausal, obese black and white women with a wide range of VAT accumulation. The slopes of the regression equations predicting basal and insulin-suppressed RaGlycerol and RaFFA from VAT area, age, and fat mass or fat-free mass did not significantly differ between black and white women. VAT area was the best predictor of the %-suppressed RaGlycerol and RaFFA during the pancreatic clamp (partial r = 0.76, P < 0.0001 and partial r = 0.60, P < 0.05, respectively). Basal R(a)Glycerol, but not RaFFA, was lower in black than in white women (P < 0.05). During the clamp, black women showed greater insulin suppression of RaGlycerol than of RaFFA (P < 0.0001) and greater insulin suppression of RaGlycerol (P < 0. 05) but similar suppression of RaFFA compared with white women. These differences were independent of age, fat mass, or fat-free mass and were partly explained by a lower VAT in black women. Thus, in both races, VAT accumulation was associated with systemic resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin and, in obese black women, systemic lipolysis measured as glycerol turnover rate was more responsive to insulin suppression than were systemic FFA turnover rates.
The American journal of physiology 09/1999; 277(3 Pt 1):E551-60.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although independent associations of visceral fat with the insulin resistance syndrome were previously reported in obese women, the importance of truncal subcutaneous fat with regard to insulin sensitivity is still controversial. We measured the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), serum triglyceride (TG) level, and regional fat by two methods: (1) the sum of five truncal and four peripheral skinfolds (TrSUM and PerSUM) in 38 white and black obese nondiabetic premenopausal women, and (2) abdominal visceral (VFM) and subcutaneous fat mass (AbdSCFM) by a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of 26 of these women. After adjusting for the total body fat mass, TrSUM and VFM were independently and negatively related to S(I) (n = 38, P < .012 and n = 26, P < .035, respectively), whereas PerSUM and AbdSCFM were not related (P > .50). Based on multiple regression modeling, TrSUM significantly predicted S(I) independently of the VFM (n = 26, P < .001). Black women had lower S(I) at all levels of TrSUM (n = 38, P = .061 for the slope and P = .03 for the intercept of the regression lines). After adjusting for the total body fat mass, only VFM showed an independent positive relation to serum TG, and race did not affect this relationship (n = 26, P < .001). In conclusion, (1) we confirmed the independent association of the VFM with insulin resistance and elevated TG in obese women; (2) the AbdSCFM measured by a combination of MRI and DXA did not show an independent association with S(I) in obese women; and (3) the independent association of TrSUM with S(I) suggests that truncal subcutaneous fat depots contribute to insulin resistance in obese women independently of the degree of visceral fat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the measurement challenges faced and to evaluate the measurement quality obtained with massively obese individuals.
A cross-sectional analysis of 107 individuals with body mass indices (kg/m2) > or = 50 was conducted. Individuals had their body fat measured via bioimpedance analysis (BIA), their serum leptin levels measured via radioimmunoassay (RIA), and height and weight measured via both laboratory scales and self-report.
Serum leptin appeared to be measured accurately, provided the serum was diluted prior to conducting the RIA. Difficulties remained, however, in evaluating what was an unusual or expected value of leptin among individuals this large. Measures of impedance appeared to provide reasonable ordinal indications of body fatness. However, currently available equations for converting measures of impedance to estimates of percent body fat were highly inaccurate. Self-reported height and weight were reasonably good proxies of measured height and weight among individuals who reported their height and weight. However, a substantial proportion were unable to provide estimates.
The above results suggest there are substantial challenges when trying to obtain meaningful measurements regarding obesity-related variables among massively obese individuals. Other logistic challenges also are discussed. It is hoped future research is directed at overcoming some of these challenges.
International Journal of Eating Disorders 12/1998; 24(3):275-84. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous finding that a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) >0.85 was not associated with similar health risks in black, compared with white, obese premenopausal non-diabetic women of similar fatness is attributed to either 1) a different relationship between WHR and visceral adiposity or 2) differences in the relationship between visceral adiposity and the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. We measured visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) areas at midwaist in 25 black and 25 white obese nondiabetic pre-menopausal women with similar BMI, percentage body fat, and wide range of WHR (0.7-0.95 for black women and 0.7-0.9 for white women) and then compared insulin sensitivity index (SI), glucose and insulin areas under the 2-h curve (AUCs) during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and blood lipids in the two groups before and after adjustments for total body and visceral adiposity. After adjusting for total body fat mass (FM), obese black women had significantly less VAT (by 32 cm2) and lower VAT/SCAT for any given WHR. The regression equations predicting the SI the glucose and insulin AUCs, and the triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels from regional adipose tissue measurements (VAT, SCAT, or VAT/SCAT) and from total body fat (FM or percentage body fat) had slopes that were not significantly different for black and white women. LDL cholesterol levels were independently related to VAT in black but not in white women. The black women had a similar SI insulin AUC, and triglyceride levels but significantly lower glucose AUC and higher HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.001), after adjusting for VAT and FM. Regression analysis of the pooled data showed that high VAT and high VAT/SCAT, but not SCAT, predicted lower SI higher glucose and insulin AUCs during OGTT, and higher triglyceride levels, independent of total adiposity. We conclude that while increases in VAT and VAT/SCAT adversely affect metabolism in both black and white obese premenopausal women, similar levels of total body and visceral adiposity are associated with different metabolic risk factors in these groups.