[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The most widespread underlying genetic deficiency is a heterozygous deficiency of the serine protease inhibitor C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh). In addition to low C4 levels, the most important laboratory parameter for correct diagnosis of HAE or angioedema due to acquired C1-Inh deficiency is reduced C1-Inh function (fC1-Inh). No direct recommendations about the assays for fC1-Inh or sample handling conditions are available, although this would prove especially useful when a laboratory first starts to offer assays on fC1-Inh for HAE diagnosis. In the present study we evaluated the performance of fC1-Inh assays in the 15 different laboratories that are specialised in HAE diagnostics and assessed inter-laboratory variation with each laboratory using their own assays and standards. A double-blind survey was conducted using plasma/serum samples from healthy donors and HAE patients and the uniformity of HAE diagnosis was evaluated. It can be concluded that the diagnosis of fC1-Inh deficiency was made correctly in most cases in this survey. We can recommend the chromogenic assay for the determination of fC1-Inh, while the complex ELISA needs further investigation.
Journal of Immunological Methods 09/2008; 338(1-2):14-20. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C1 inhibitor is a potent anti-inflammatory protein as it is the major inhibitor of proteases of the contact and the complement systems. C1-inhibitor administration is an effective therapy in the treatment of patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) who are genetically deficient in C1 inhibitor. Owing to its ability to modulate the contact and complement systems and the convincing safety profile, plasma-derived C1 inhibitor is an attractive therapeutic protein to treat inflammatory diseases other than HAE. In the present review we give an overview of the biology of C1 inhibitor and its use in HAE. Furthermore, we discuss C1 inhibitor as an experimental therapy in diseases such as sepsis and myocardial infarction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complement activation is a crucial early event in Wallerian degeneration. In this study we show that treatment of rats with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1), an inhibitor of all complement pathways, blocked both systemic and local complement activation after crush injury of the sciatic nerve. Deposition of membrane attack complex (MAC) in the nerve was inhibited, the nerve was protected from axonal and myelin breakdown at 3 days after injury, and macrophage infiltration and activation was strongly reduced. We show that both classical and alternative complement pathways are activated after acute nerve trauma. Inhibition of the classical pathway by C1 inhibitor (Cetor) diminished, but did not completely block, MAC deposition in the injured nerve, blocked myelin breakdown, inhibited macrophage infiltration, and prevented macrophage activation at 3 days after injury. However, in contrast to sCR1 treatment, early signs of axonal degradation were visible in the nerve, linking MAC deposition to axonal damage. We conclude that sCR1 protects the nerve from early axon loss after injury and propose complement inhibition as a potential therapy for the treatment of diseases in which axon loss is the main cause of disabilities.
American Journal Of Pathology 05/2008; 172(4):1043-52. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C1-INH belongs to the family of serpins. Structural studies have yielded a clear understanding of the biochemical principle underlying the functional activities of these proteins. Although the crystal structure of C1-INH has yet to be revealed, homology modeling has provided a three-dimensional model of the serpin part of C1-INH. This model has helped us understand the biochemical consequences of mutations of the C1-INH gene as they occur in patients who have HAE. The structure of the N-terminal domain of C1-INH remains unknown; however, this part of the molecule is unlikely to be important in the inhibitory activity of C1-INH toward its target proteases. Mutations in this part have not been described in patients who have HAE, except for a deletion containing two cysteine residues involved in the stabilization of the serpin domain. Recent studies suggest some anti-inflammatory functions for this N-terminal part, possibly explaining the effects of C1-INH in diseases other than HAE.
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America 12/2006; 26(4):615-32. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterozygous deficiency of Cl-inhibitor (C1-INH) leads to the clinical picture of hereditary angioedema (HAE). C1-INH is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin). C1-INH is unique among serpins in that it has a unique N-terminal domain, which has no homology with any known protein, in addition to its serpin domain. In this article the authors summarize current insights into the biochemical mechanism of serpins in general and discuss the structure and function of C1-INH in light of these insights. In addition, structural consequences of mutations in C1-INH as occurring in patients who have HAE are discussed. Finally, the possible functions of the unique N-terminal domain are reviewed
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - IMMUNOL ALLERGY CLIN N AMER. 01/2006; 26(4):615-632.