Ildikó Bácskay

University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hajdu-Bihar, Hungary

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Publications (15)47.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Titanate nanotubes can be used as drug delivery systems, but limited information is available on their interactions with intestinal cells. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of titanate nanotubes on Caco-2 monolayers and found that up to 5 mg/ml concentration, these nanotubes are not cytotoxic and not able to permeate through the intestinal cell layer. Transmission electron microscopic experiments showed that titanate nanotubes are not taken up by cells, only caused a high-density granulation on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. According to these results, titanate nanotubes are suitable systems for intestinal drug delivery.
    AAPS PharmSciTech 04/2014; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop and examine novel drug delivery systems upon the cytotoxic behaviour of their tenside components. Different self-emulsifying combinations have been formulated by water dilution and oil dilution method with various previously tested tensides and co-tensides. The visual properties registered against the increment of the applied tenside component in Ternary triangular diagrams. Cartesian coordinate calculation was applied to select the adequate compositions. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems are wildly used for enhanced bioavailabilty of oraly administrated pharmacons. Full particulars of topical application of these systems have not been evaluated yet. In our study the cellular effects of the applied amphiphilic tensides on human Caco-2 and HeLa cell monolayers as dependent upon their chemical structures and physicochemical properties have been evaluated. Cytotoxicity investigation was performed on Caco-2 and HeLa cells by MTT method. HeLa cells as in vitro model of cervix and Caco-2 cell monolayers as convenient and reliable in vitro models of the gastrointestinal tract have been chosen. According to the results of the formulation procedures it can be determined that each developed SMEDD mixtures belong to type IIIa or IIIb in the lipid formulation classification system (LFCS) proposed by Pouton. All of the formulated systems were immediately emulsified within the first second of contact with distilled water as dispersion medium and no evidence of phase separation or any instability problem have been observed for at least 72 h. The droplet diameter of dispersed self emulsifying compositions has been evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering device. We concluded that the increased Transcutol HP concentrations lead to an obvious improvement in the optical clarity, which correlates with the determined particle size of the corresponding dispersion. In cytotoxicity test the toxic properties of the applied tensides have not been found as additive parameter. The most toxic component determined the cytotoxicitxy of the SMEDDS. Our results might ensure useful data for formulation of suitable SMEDDS with lower active ingredient necessity. Developed SMEDDS might be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability, minimized side effect, and hence the patient compliance.
    Acta pharmaceutica Hungarica 01/2014; 84(2):69-76.
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclodextrins are widely used excipients for increasing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Their effect on drug absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is explained by their solubility- and permeability-enhancement. The aims of this study were to investigate penetration properties of fluorescently labeled randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrin (FITC-RAMEB) on Caco-2 cell layer and examine the cellular entry of cyclodextrins on intestinal cells. The permeability of FITC-RAMEB through Caco-2 monolayers was very limited. Using this compound in 0.05 mM concentration the permeability coefficient was 3.35±1.29×10(-8) cm/s and its permeability did not change in the presence of 5 mM randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrin. Despite of the low permeability, cellular accumulation of FITC-RAMEB in cytoplasmic vesicles was significant and showed strong time and concentration dependence, similar to the characteristics of the macropinocytosis marker Lucifer Yellow. The internalization process was fully inhibited at 0°C and it was drastically reduced at 37°C applying rottlerin, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Notably, FITC-RAMEB colocalized with the early endosome organizer Rab5a. These results have revealed that FITC-RAMEB is able to enter intestinal epithelial cells by fluid-phase endocytosis from the apical side. This mechanism can be an additional process which helps to overcome the intestinal barrier and contributes to the bioavailability enhancement of cyclodextrins.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84856. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the cellular effects of two nonionic amphiphilic tenside groups and their mixtures on human Caco-2 cell monolayers as dependent upon their chemical structures and physicochemical properties. The first group of polyethylene glycol esters is represented by Polysorbates and Labrasol alone and in blends, while the members of the second group:Capryol 90, Capryol PGMC, Lauroglycol 90 and Lauroglycol FCC were used as propylene glycol esters. They are increasingly used in SMEDDS as recent tensides or co-tensides to increase the solubility of hydrophobic drug. Critical micelle concentration was measured by determination of surface tension. CMC refers to the ability of solubilization of surfactants. Cytotoxicity tests were performed on Caco-2 cell monolayers by MTT and LDH methods. Caco-2 cell monolayers are convenient and reliable in vitro models of the gastrointestinal tract. Paracellular permeability was examined with Lucifer yellow assays. The integrity of cell monolayers was observed by TransEpithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) measurements. Tight junction alterations effected by the surfactants were also characterized as evidence for paracellular pathway. Changes in sub cellular localization of the tight junction proteins: ZO-1, Claudin-land beta-cathenin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy.The results of cytotoxicity assays were in agreement and showed significant differences among the cytotoxic properties of surfactants in a concentration-dependent manner. Polysorbates 20, 60, 80 are the most toxic compounds. In the case of Labrasol, the degree of esterification and lack of sorbit component decreased cytotoxicity. If the hydrophyl head was changed from polyethylene glycol to propylene glycol, the main determined factor of cytotoxicity was the monoester content and the length of carbon chain. In our CMC experiments, we found that only Labrasol showed expressed cytotoxicity above the CMC. It refers to good ability of micelle solubilization of Labrasol. In our paracellular transport experiments each of polyethylene glycol surfactants (Polysorbates and Labrasol) altered TEER values but propylene glycol esters did not modify the monolayer integrity. Polyethylene glycol esters alone and in blends (0.05% Labrasol--0.001% Polysorbates 20, 60, 80) were able to increase Lucifer yellow permeability significantly below the IC50 concentration. On the other hand Labrasol and Polysorbates 20 have expressed effect on tight junctions of Caco-2 monolayer. It could be concluded that polyethylene glycol ester-type tensides were able to enhance the paracellular permeability by the redistribution of junctional proteins. Our results might ensure useful data for selection of suitable tensides, co-tensides and tenside mixtures for SMEDDS formulations.
    Acta pharmaceutica Hungarica 01/2013; 83(1):3-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the cellular effects of the members of two non-ionic amphiphilic tenside groups and their mixtures on human Caco-2 cell monolayers as dependent upon their chemical structures and physicochemical properties. The first group of polyethylene glycol esters is represented by Polysorbates and Labrasol alone and in blends, while the members of the second group. Capryol 90, Capryol PGMC, Lauroglycol 90 and Lauroglycol FCC were used as propylene glycol esters. They are increasingly used in SMEDDS as recent tensides or co-tensides to increase hydrophobic bioavailability of a drug. Critical micelle concentration was measured by determination of surface tension. CMC refers to the ability of solubilization of surfactants. Cytotoxicity tests were performed on Caco-2 cell monolayers by MTT and LDH methods. Paracellular permeability as a marker of the integrity of cell monolayers, was examined with Lucifer yellow assays combined with TransEpithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) measurements. The effect of these surfactants on tight junctions as evidence for paracellular pathway was also characterized. The results of cytotoxicity assays were in agreement, and showed significant differences among the cytotoxic properties of surfactants in a concentration-dependent manner. Polysorbates 20, 60, 80 are the most toxic compounds. In the case of Labrasol, the degree of esterification and lack of sorbit component decreased cytotoxicity. If the hydrophyl head was changed from polyethylene glycol to propylene glycol the main determined factor of cytotoxicity was the monoester content and the length of carbon chain. In our CMC experiments, we found that only Labrasol showed expressed cytotoxicity above the CMC. It refers to good ability of micelle solubilization of Labrasol. In our paracellular transport experiments each of polyethylene glycol surfactants (Polysorbates and Labrasol) altered TEER values, but propylene glycol esters did not modify the monolayer integrity. Polyethylene glycol esters alone and in blends (0.05% Labrasol - 0.001% Polysorbates 20, 60, 80) were able to increase Lucifer yellow permeability significantly below the IC(50) concentration. On the other hand Labrasol and Polysorbates 20 have expressed effect on tight junctions of Caco-2 monolayer. It could be concluded that polyethylene glycol ester-type tensides were able to enhance the paracellular permeability by the redistribution of junctional proteins. Our results might ensure useful data for selection of suitable tensides, co-tensides and tenside mixtures for SMEDDS formulations.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 07/2012; 47(3):564-73. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal absorption and bioavailability of taxol are limited by its low solubility and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) activity. Methylated β-cyclodextrins (CDs) effectively form complexes with paclitaxel but randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) is cytotoxic in high concentrations. Second-generation derivatives containing monoamino (MaRAMEB) and succinylated (SuRAMEB) ionic substituents with similar inclusion capacity but less toxicity could be promising alternatives of RAMEB. Our aim was to examine and compare the efficacy of MaRAMEB and SuRAMEB with the parental RAMEB on taxol bidirectional permeability using the Caco-2 model. Taxol permeability was not changed by 30-min pretreatment with CDs. In co-treatment with β-cyclodextrins, the apical to basolateral taxol flux was 4 to 6 times greater than in untreated monolayers and it was also higher than in cells treated with Pgp inhibitor cyclosporin A. No decrease in basolateral to apical taxol flux was observed in pretreatment or co-treatment with CDs, suggesting no Pgp inhibition. All three CDs showed similar effects on taxol permeability but RAMEB altered tight junction protein distribution and significantly decreased transepithelial electrical resistance. None of the CDs modified paracellular permeability to mannitol and polyethylene glycol 4000. In conclusion, second-generation derivatives of methyl-β-cyclodextrin, especially MaRAMEB, enhanced taxol permeability across Caco-2 cells with less toxicity and similar effectiveness as RAMEB.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2011; 100(11):4734-44. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently found that dopamine (DA) released from terminals of the hypothalamic neuroendocrine dopamine (NEDA) neurons plays a role not only in prolactin (PRL), but also in adrenocorticotrop hormone (ACTH) secretion, without having any influence on alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) release in lactating dams. The aim of our present studies was to further investigate this DAerg regulation of ACTH using consecutively applied physiological stimulation (suckling) and pharmacological inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme of DA synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MpT) that acutely affect secretion of these pituitary hormones during lactation. Following 4h separation period, two experimental groups were formed. In the first group, lactating rats were assembled with their litters for 60 min prior to alpha-MpT. In the second group, the alpha-MpT was injected first and 60 min later suckling stimulus was applied. Plasma samples were taken in every 15 min during the 90 min experimental period. Concentrations of plasma PRL, ACTH and alpha-MSH were measured by specific RIAs. Both stimuli applied in the first sequence, significantly elevated plasma PRL and ACTH levels in separated lactating dams, without having any effect on alpha-MSH secretion. Suckling applied in the first sequence was able to block the alpha-MpT-induced elevation of ACTH secretion, while PRL response was also significantly attenuated. alpha-MpT pretreatment prevented both PRL and ACTH responses to suckling stimulus. Investigating the dephosphorylation/inactivation of TH in the arcuate nucleus-ME (TIDA) regions, no pTH-immunoreactive perikarya or terminals can be found in continuously suckled dams. In contrast, after 4h separation of the mothers from their litters, pTH-immunoreactivity can be clearly visualized in the external zone of ME. In alpha-MpT pretreated mothers following 4h separation no pTH positive terminals are visible. No changes in the TH immunostaining can be observed in any of these experimental groups. In conclusion, dephosphorylation/inactivation of TH (the rate-limiting enzyme of the DA biosynthesis) in NEDA neurons is required for suckling-induced PRL and ACTH responses.
    Brain research bulletin 02/2010; 82(1-2):141-5. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is processed to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-lipotropin in corticotropes of the anterior lobe, and to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and beta-endorphin in melanotropes of the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary gland. While ACTH secretion is predominantly under the stimulatory influence of the hypothalamic factors, hormone secretion of the IL is tonically inhibited by neuroendocrine dopamine (NEDA) neurons. Lobe-specific POMC processing is not absolute. For example, D(2) type DA receptor (D2R)-deficient mice have elevated plasma ACTH levels, although it is known that corticotropes do not express D2R(s). Moreover, observations that suckling does not influence alpha-MSH release, while it induces an increase in plasma ACTH is unexplained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the NEDA system in the regulation of ACTH secretion and the participation of the IL in ACTH production in lactating rats. Untreated and estradiol (E(2))-substituted ovariectomized (OVX) females were also studied. The concentration of ACTH in the IL was higher in lactating rats than in OVX rats, while the opposite change in alpha-MSH level of the IL was observed. DA levels in the IL and the neural lobe were lower in lactating rats than in OVX rats. Suckling-induced ACTH response was eliminated by pretreatment with the DA receptor agonist, bromocriptine (BRC). Inhibition of DA biosynthesis by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alphaMpT) and blockade of D2R by domperidone (DOM) elevated plasma ACTH levels, but did not influence plasma alpha-MSH levels in lactating rats. The same drugs had opposite effects in OVX and OVX + E(2) animals. In lactating mothers, BRC was able to block ACTH responses induced by both alphaMpT and DOM. Surgical denervation of the IL elevated basal plasma levels of ACTH. Taken together, these data indicate that melanotropes synthesize ACTH during lactation and its release from these cells is regulated by NEDA neurons.
    Neuroendocrinology 08/2009; 90(4):391-401. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a transmembrane protein that actively exports lipophilic chemotherapeutics from the cells causing multidrug resistance. Pgp molecules are partially localized in TX-100-resistant rafts, and the activity of the transporter is highly sensitive to the presence of cholesterol. To better understand these relationships, the influence of membrane cholesterol content on Pgp function, as measured via calcein accumulation, was studied in correlation with changes elicited in membrane structure. Membrane cholesterol was modulated by heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) and the cholesterol inclusion complex of DIMEB (Chol-DIMEB). Changes in membrane cholesterol level were reflected by alterations in the overall lipid packing as measured by Merocyanine 540 (MC540) staining and were also accompanied by changes in the raft association of the pump. DIMEB and Chol-DIMEB treatments have also lead to increased permeability of the cell membrane in both directions, raising the possibility that the effects on pumping efficiency reflect leakage of ATP also from the non-permeabilized cells. However, the treatments did not influence the intracellular ATP levels of the non-permeabilized cells. Our data suggest that Pgp inhibition by cyclodextrin treatments arises through modulation of its membrane microenvironment, rather than as a result of concomitant cytotoxicity.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2008; 34(4-5):236-42. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence corroborating a protective role of carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) in injured tissues. Carbon monoxide (CO) carriers have been recently developed as a pharmacological tool to simulate the effect of heme oxygenase-1-derived CO. The effects of CORM-3, a water-soluble CO releaser, on the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) were studied in isolated rat hearts. Hearts were treated with different doses of CORM-3 before the induction of 30 min global ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. We found that at concentrations of 25 microM and 50 microM of CORM-3 promoted a significant reduction in the incidence of VF and VT. Thus, the incidence of VF was reduced by 67% (p<0.05) and 92% (p<0.05) with 25 microM and 50 microM of CORM-3, respectively. The protective effect of CORM-3 on the incidence of VT followed the same pattern. The antiarrhythmic protection was associated with a marked attenuation in infarct size, significant decreases in cellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) gains and K(+) loss. Consequently, the recovery of post-ischemic function was significantly improved. In conclusion, CORM-3 exerts beneficial effects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury through its abilities to release CO which mediates a cardioprotective action by regulating tissue Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) levels.
    Life Sciences 04/2007; 80(17):1619-26. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 10/2006; 291(3):H1329-36. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple synthesis of 1,2-dithiolan-3-ones from alpha,beta-unsaturated thiophenyl esters is reported. Introduction of the biologically active 1,2-dithiolan-3-one-1-oxide moiety of leinamycin into aldehydo-d-arabinose 11, the uridine derivative 16, and the deoxythymidine 21 was established. An extended bioactive part of leinamycin carrying a carbon-carbon triple bond was also synthesized. All of these analogues of leinamycin showed cytotoxic activity against HeLa3 tumor cells. Interestingly, the lipophilic, silyl group-containing derivatives proved to be more active than the hydrophilic counterparts.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2006; 49(18):5626-30. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of various cycles of preconditioning (PC) (one cycle, 1 x PC; two cycles, 2 x PC; three cycles, 3 x PC; and four cycles, 4 x PC) on cardiac function, infarct size, and the incidence of reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in isolated hearts obtained from rabbits with hypercholesterolemia. After 8 weeks of hypercholesterolemia, hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Various cycles of PC resulted in a "cycle-dependent" reduction in infarct size in the age-matched nonhypercholesterolemic group. In the 8-week hypercholesterolemic group, increasing cycles of PC resulted in a significant increase in infarct size from their nonpreconditioned ischemic/reperfused control value of 44 +/- 5% to 45 +/- 6%, 49 +/- 5%, 59 +/- 6% (p < 0.05), and 58 +/- 5% (p < 0.05), respectively. PC increased the vulnerability of the myocardium to reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in hypercholesterolemics indicating that PC may be an "intact heart" phenomenon. The effects of PC appear currently to be a dilemma in laboratories and clinics. The solution to the problem of PC in intact and diseased myocardium requires further data from two different sources: (a) previously "diseased" animals, and (b) diseased human myocardium from clinics. Once these data are available, then the effects under which PC will be beneficial rather than harmful could be established and the dilemma solved.
    Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 04/2004; 6(2):325-33. · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-dependent carbon monoxide (CO) production related to reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) was studied in HO-1 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and homozygous (-/-) isolated ischemic/reperfused mouse heart. In HO-1 homozygous myocardium, under aerobic conditions, HO-1 enzyme activity, HO-1 mRNA, and protein expression were not detected in comparison with aerobically perfused wild-type and heterozygous myocardium. In wild-type, HO-1 hetero- and homozygous hearts subjected to 20 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, the expression of HO-1 mRNA, protein, and HO-1 enzyme activity was detected in various degrees. A reduction in the expression of HO-1 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in fibrillated wild-type and heterozygous myocardium was observed. In reperfused/nonfibrillated wild-type and heterozygous hearts, a reduction in HO-1 mRNA, protein expression, and HO-1 enzyme activity was not observed, indicating that changes in HO-1 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity could be related to the development of VF. These changes were reflected in the HO-1-related endogenous CO production measured by gas chromatography. In HO-1 knockout ischemic/reperfused myocardium, all hearts showed VF, and no detection in HO-1 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity was observed. Thus, interventions that are able to increase endogenous CO may prevent the development of VF.
    The FASEB Journal 12/2003; 17(14):2133-5. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) treatment, an active fragment of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), to the recovery of postischemic cardiac function, infarct size, the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation and apoptotic cell death was studied in ischemic/reperfused isolated rat hearts. Rats were subcutaneously injected with 40, 200 and 400 microg/kg of alpha-MSH, and 12 h later, hearts were isolated, perfused and subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Thus, after 120 min of reperfusion, with the concentration of 200 microg/kg alpha-MSH, coronary flow, aortic flow and left ventricular developed pressure were significantly improved from their control values of 14.6+/-0.6 ml/min, 7.5+/-0.5 ml/min and 9.1+/-0.4 kPa to 20.2+/-0.4 ml/min (p<0.05), 31.5+/-0.9 ml/min (p<0.05) and 15.9+/-0.6 (p<0.05) kPa, respectively. With the doses of 40, 200 and 400 microg/kg of alpha-MSH, infarct size was reduced from its control value of 38+/-5% to 33+/-6% (NS), 17+/-3% (p<0.05) and 19+/-4% (p<0.05), respectively. The reduction in the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation followed the same pattern. It is reasonable to assume that a reduction in infarct size, in the alpha-MSH-treated myocardium, resulted in a reduction as well in apoptotic cell death. Although we did not specifically study the exact mechanism(s) of alpha-MSH-afforded postischemic protection, we assume that this protection may be related to alpha-MSH-induced corticosterone release and corticosterone-induced de novo protein synthesis, which reflected in the recovery of postischemic cardiac function in isolated hearts. Thus, interventions that are able to increase plasma corticosterone or glucocorticoid release may prevent the development of ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 06/2003; 470(3):177-83. · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

160 Citations
47.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2012
    • University of Debrecen
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Debrecen, Hajdu-Bihar, Hungary
  • 2009
    • Semmelweis University
      • Department of Human Morphology and Developmental Biology
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary