[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct Dark Matter detection with cryodetectors is briefly discussed, with
particular mention of the possibility of the identification of the recoil
nucleus. Preliminary results from the CREEST II Dark Matter search, with 730
kg-days of data, are presented. Major backgrounds and methods of identifying
and dealing with them are indicated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CRESST-II experiment is searching for Dark Matter particles in the form of WIMPs via their elastic scattering off nuclei in a target material. The CRESST target consists of scintillating CaWO4 crystals which are operated as cryogenic calorimeters at millikelvin temperatures and read out by transition edge sensors. Each interaction in CaWO4 produces a phonon signal in the target crystal and also a light signal that is measured by a secondary cryogenic calorimeter, allowing a very efficient discrimination between electron recoils from radioactive e/γ background and nuclear recoils. Moreover, to some extent, the different types of recoiling nuclei (O, Ca, W) can be distinguished.In the paper we present the latest results of the experiment, obtained from a net exposure of 730kg days acquired with 8 detectors between July 2009 and March 2011. The data has shown a considerable number of events in our signal region. Since this large number of events is not consistent with the known sources of background in our experiment, we discuss the compatibility of this excess of events with a possible WIMP-signal.
Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2012; 375(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CRESST-II cryogenic Dark Matter search, aiming at detection of WIMPs via
elastic scattering off nuclei in CaWO$_4$ crystals, completed 730 kg days of
data taking in 2011. We present the data collected with eight detector modules,
each with a two-channel readout; one for a phonon signal and the other for
coincidently produced scintillation light. The former provides a precise
measure of the energy deposited by an interaction, and the ratio of
scintillation light to deposited energy can be used to discriminate different
types of interacting particles and thus to distinguish possible signal events
from the dominant backgrounds. Sixty-seven events are found in the acceptance
region where a WIMP signal in the form of low energy nuclear recoils would be
expected. We estimate background contributions to this observation from four
sources: 1) "leakage" from the e/\gamma-band 2) "leakage" from the
\alpha-particle band 3) neutrons and 4) Pb-206 recoils from Po-210 decay. Using
a maximum likelihood analysis, we find, at a high statistical significance,
that these sources alone are not sufficient to explain the data. The addition
of a signal due to scattering of relatively light WIMPs could account for this
discrepancy, and we determine the associated WIMP parameters.
European Physical Journal C 09/2011; · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CRESST is a WIMP dark matter search using scintillating CaWO4 cryogenic detectors with active background suppression. First results obtained in the commissioning run are presented.
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 04/2011; 66(2):202-207. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current status of the direct Dark Matter experiments CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) and the planned EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is presented. Both experiments are aimed at the direct detection of WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), potential candidates for the Dark Matter in the universe. New design developments of the cryogenic detectors operated at mK temperatures are investigated to optimize detector performance and to simplify mass production. Thus, CRESST is also providing a basis for the EURECA project, aimed at a ton of cryogenic detectors with a multi-material target.
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics. 01/2010;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CRESST experiment aims for a detection of dark matter in the form of WIMPs. These particles are expected to scatter elastically off the nuclei of a target material, thereby depositing energy on the recoiling nucleus. CRESST uses scintillating CaWO4 crystals as such a target. The energy deposited by an interacting particle is primarily converted to phonons which are detected by transition edge sensors. In addition, a small fraction of the interaction energy is emitted from the crystals in the form of scintillation light which is measured in coincidence with the phonon signal by a separate cryogenic light detector for each target crystal. The ratio of light to phonon energy permits the discrimination between the nuclear recoils expected from WIMPs and events from radioactive backgrounds which primarily lead to electron recoils. CRESST has shown the success of this method in a commissioning run in 2007 and, since then, further investigated possibilities for an even better suppression of backgrounds. Here, we report on a new class of background events observed in the course of this work. The consequences of this observation are discussed and we present the current status of the experiment. Comment: Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Low Temperature Detectors, 4 pages, 3 figures
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CRESST-II, standing for Cryogenic Rare Events Search with Superconducting Thermometers phase II, is an experiment searching for Dark Matter. In the LNGS facility in Gran Sasso, Italy, a cryogenic detector setup is operated in order to detect WIMPs by elastic scattering off nuclei, generating phononic lattice excitations and scintillation light. The thermometers used in the experiment consist of a tungsten thin-film structure evaporated onto the CaWO4 absorber crystal. The process of evaporation causes a decrease in the scintillation light output. This, together with the need of a big-scale detector production for the upcoming EURECA experiment lead to investigations for producing thermometers on smaller crystals which are glued onto the absorber crystal. In our Run 31 we tested composite detectors for the first time in the Gran Sasso setup. They seem to produce higher light yields as hoped and could provide an additional time based discrimination mechanism for low light yield clamp events. Comment: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Workshop on Low Temperature Detectors 4 pages, 9 figures
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measure and explain scintillator non-proportionality and gamma quenching of CaWO4 at low energies and low temperatures. Phonons that are created following an interaction in the scintillating crystal at temperatures of 15mK are used for a calorimetric measurement of the deposited energy, and the scintillation light is measured with a separate cryogenic light detector. Making use of radioactivity intrinsic to the scintillating crystal, the scintillator non-proportionality is mapped out to electron energies <5keV. The observed behavior is in agreement with a simple model based on Birks' law and the stopping power dE/dx for electrons. We find for Birks' constant $k_B=(18.5\pm0.7)$nm/keV in CaWO4. Gamma lines allow a measurement of the reduced light yield of photons with respect to electrons, as expected in the presence of scintillator non-proportionality. In particular, we show that gamma-induced events in CaWO4 give only about 90 percent of the light yield of electrons, at energies between 40keV and 80keV. Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter
Array) is an astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect
galactic dark matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has
been selected as host laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites
CRESST, EDELWEISS and the Spanish-French experiment
ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort on cryogenic detector
research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will use a
target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon
scalar scattering cross sections in the region of 1e(-9) – 1e(-10) picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just
one target material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CRESST experiment monitors 300 g CaWO4 crystals as targets for particle interactions in an ultra low background environment. In this paper, we analyze the background spectra that are recorded by three detectors over many weeks of data taking. Understanding these spectra is mandatory if one wants to further reduce the background level, and allows us to cross-check the calibration of the detectors. We identify a variety of sources, such as intrinsic contaminations due to primordial radioisotopes and cosmogenic activation of the target material. In particular, we detect a 3.6 keV X-ray line from the decay of 41Ca with an activity of , corresponding to a ratio 41Ca/40Ca=(2.2±0.3)×10-16.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Workshop RPSCINT'2008 was organized in Kyiv (Ukraine) on 9th and 10th September 2008. The idea was to bring together physicists, chemists, crystal scintillator experts and manufacturers to discuss the requirements of low-count rate experiments, in particular the required radiopurity and scintillation properties; selection and screening of input materials; purification of materials; raw compound preparation; crystal growing, annealing and handling; test of crystals; search for and development of new scintillating materials. Some contributions to the RPSCINT 2008 workshop are presented in these proceedings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alpha decay of 210Po is a dangerous background to rare event searches. Here, we describe observations related to this alpha decay in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST). We find that lead nuclei show a scintillation light yield in our CaWO4 crystals of 0.0142±0.0013 relative to electrons of the same energy. We describe a way to discriminate this source of nuclear recoil background by means of a scintillating foil, and demonstrate its effectiveness. This leads to an observable difference in the pulse shape of the light detector, which can be used to tag these events. Differences in pulse shape of the phonon detector between lead and electron recoils are also extracted, opening the window to future additional background suppression techniques based on pulse shape discrimination in such experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CRESST cryogenic direct dark matter search at Gran Sasso, searching for WIMPs via nuclear recoil, has been upgraded to CRESST-II by several changes and improvements. The upgrade includes a new detector support structure capable of accommodating 33 modules, the associated multichannel readout with 66 SQUID channels, a neutron shield, a calibration source lift, and the installation of a muon veto. We present the results of a commissioning run carried out in 2007.The basic element of CRESST-II is a detector module consisting of a large crystal and a very sensitive smaller light detector to detect the scintillation light from the CaWO4. The large crystal gives an accurate total energy measurement. The light detector permits a determination of the light yield for an event, allowing an effective separation of nuclear recoils from electron–photon backgrounds. Furthermore, information from light-quenching factor studies allows the definition of a region of the energy-light yield plane which corresponds to tungsten recoils. A neutron test is reported which supports the principle of using the light yield to identify the recoiling nucleus.Data obtained with two detector modules for a total exposure of 48 kg-days are presented. Judging by the rate of events in the “all nuclear recoils” acceptance region the apparatus shows a factor ∼10 improvement with respect to previous results, which we attribute principally to the presence of the neutron shield. In the “tungsten recoils” acceptance region three events are found, corresponding to a rate of 0.063 per kg-day. Standard assumptions on the dark matter flux, coherent or spin independent interactions, then yield a limit for WIMP-nucleon scattering of , at .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work reports on the development of the first phonon detectors based on CaMoO4 and ZnWO4 scintillating crystals for the CRESST-II experiment. In particular, a novel technique for the production of the ZnWO4 phonon detector with a separate thermometer carrier was investigated. The influence of the thermal and mechanical treatment on the scintillation light output of CaMoO4 and ZnWO4 crystals at room temperature is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array (EURECA) will be an astro-particle
physics facility in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the Spanish-French
experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort on cryogenic detector research
in Europe into a single facility. The aim is to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar cross sections in
the 1(-9) – 1(-10) picobarn region with a target mass of up to one ton. A major advantage of
EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target material (multi target experiment for
Identification of Dark Matter 2008 (IDM2008); 12/2008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers Phase II (CRESST-II) at the L.N.G.S in Italy is searching for Dark Matter using low-temperature calorimeters. These detectors allow to discriminate different particles by simultaneous measurement of phonons and scintillation light. The sensors used consist of superconducting tungsten thin-film thermometers, which measure the thermal effect of the phonons created in an attached absorber crystal. It has been observed that the scintillation of the CaWO4 absorber degrades during the process of depositing the tungsten film. In order to prevent this, a new technique for producing the detectors was investigated. This technique might also be valuable by expanding the range of scintillator materials suitable for producing a Dark Matter detector. Comment: To appear in the proceedings of CryoScint08 (http://cryoscint08.in2p3.fr), Univ. Lyon 1, France, June 6th 2008, P. Di Stefano (IPN Lyon) and F. Petricca (MPP Munich) eds. 6 pages, 10 figures Version 2: Added I. Bavykina to the authors list
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high light yield at low temperatures is one of the key criteria in the choice of scintillating target crystals for the CRESST-II dark matter search. We perform a feasibility study on ZnWO<sub>4</sub> crystals as scintillating targets for the CRESST-II experiment. The light yield and the quenching factors of at mK temperatures are given for the first time.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 07/2008; · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We observe that the pattern of the quenching factor for scintillation light from various ions, recently studied in CaWO4 in connection with dark matter detectors, can be understood as a saturation phenomenon in which the light output is simply proportional to track length, independent of the ion and its energy. This observation is in accord with the high dE/dx limit of Birks’ law. It suggests a simple model for the intrinsic resolution of light detectors for low energy ions, which we briefly discuss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is a new project, searching for dark matter, with largely the present groups of the CRESST and EDELWEISS experiments and already a few new groups. The aim is to explore scalar cross sections in the 10−9–10−10 picobarn region with a target mass of up to one tonne. A major advantage of EURECA is our planned use of more that just one target material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification). In preparation for this large-scale experiment, R&D for EURECA is provided through the current phases of CRESST and EDELWEISS.
Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements. 01/2007;