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ABSTRACT: The present study was a prospective, parallel group, open-labeled, comparative, multicentric, active controlled study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and benefits of fixed dose combination of acarbose and metformin versus metformin alone in type 2 diabetic patients.
A total of 229 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled at 5 medical centers across India. They received either acarbose (50 mg) + metformin (500 mg) bid/tid (n=115) or metformin monotherapy (500 mg) bid/ tid (n=114) for 12 weeks. Primary objective was to evaluate safety and tolerability based on the adverse events reported. Secondary objective was efficacy assessment based on changes in fasting, post prandial blood glucose and HbA1c values.
In the acarbose + metformin group 10 patients reported 14 adverse events while in metformin group 9 patients reported 10 adverse events. No patient reported any serious adverse event or was withdraw from study because of adverse events. In the acarbose plus metformin group fasting blood glucose (FBG) decreased from a baseline of 158.85 +/- 18.14 mg/dl to 113.55 +/- 19.38 mg/dl (p < 0.0001) (decrease of 45.30 +/- 15.30 mg/dl) at 12 weeks, while in the metformin group fasting blood glucose decreased from a baseline of 158.31 +/- 26.53 mg/dl to 130.55 +/- 28.31 mg/dl (p < 0.0001) (decrease of 27.76 +/- 22.91 mg/dl) at 12 weeks. In the acarbose plus metformin group postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) decreased from a baseline of 264.65 +/- 34.03 mg/dl to 173.22 +/- 31.40 mg/dl (p < 0.0001) (decrease of 91.43 +/- 28.65 mg/dl) at 12 weeks, while in the metformin group PPBG decreased from a baseline of 253.56 +/- 36.28 mg/dl to 205.36 +/- 39.49 mg/dl (p < 0.0001) (decrease of 48.20 +/- 32.72 mg/dl) at 12 weeks. In the acarbose plus metformin group glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased from a baseline of 9.47 +/- 0.69% to 7.71 +/- 0.85% (p < 0.0001) (% decrease of 1.76 +/- 1.11) at 12 weeks, while in the metformin group HbAlc decreased from a baseline of 9.32 +/- 0.65% to 8.26 +/- 0.68% (p < 0.0001) (% decrease of 1.06 +/- 0.66) at 12 weeks. The combination of acarbose and metformin was found to be significantly superior in lowering the FBC (p < 0.0001), PPBG (p < 0.0001) and HbA1c (p < 0.0001) at 12 weeks as compared to metformin monotherapy.
Fixed dose combination of acarbose and metformin was well tolerated and it was superior to metformin monotherapy in controlling FBG, PPBG and HbA(1C) levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.
The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 11/2010; 58:679-82, 687.
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a marked increase in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke (by a factor of two to three compared with non-diabetic patients), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for the majority of deaths among patients with diabetes. A new fixed dose combination containing atorvastatin 10 mg + metformin SR 500 mg is being introduced in the Indian market for the treatment of dyslipidaemia in diabetic patients. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess efficacy, safety and tolerability of a fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10mg + metformin SR 500mg in adult Indian patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia. The final protocol was approved by relevant ethics committee before the initiation of study. Informed consent was obtained from all the patients prior to enrollment in study. The total duration of study was 14 weeks including two weeks dietary run in period. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria received a single oral tablet of fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10mg + metformin SR 500mg once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy parameters were assessed by evaluating reduction in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose concentration levels at baseline and thereafter at each follow up visit at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and plasma lipid profile and glycosylated Hb levels at baseline and end of study. The secondary efficacy parameters were assessed by evaluating percentage change from baseline at the end of the study (week 12) in the plasma concentration of the various lipid parameters such as total, HDL-, LDL- and very low density (VLDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo B, Apo A1, TC/LDL ratio, LDL/ HDL ratio, and percentage of patients achieving LDL-cholesterol goals as per NCEP ATP III guidelines. A total of 213 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these seven patients were lost to follow-up and considered as drop-outs. Therapy with the fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10 mg + metformin SR 500 mg resulted in a significant reduction in the mean plasma fasting and postprandial glucose levels (35 and 38.8% respectively). There was a steep fall in the HbA1c levels from baseline levels of 8.76% to 6.74% (23.1%). There was also a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in mean total cholesterol (31.2%), LDL cholesterol (35.4%), VLDL-cholesterol (19.6%) and a significant increase HDL-cholesterol (9.5%). Thus there appeared to be trend towards reducing atherosclerosis following therapy with the fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10 mg + metformin SR 500 mg. Mean body mass index was significantly reduced in the patients in the present study following therapy with the study drugs. The fixed dose combination of atorvastatin with metformin was well tolerated with mostly gastro-intestinal adverse events being reported in the current study. Moreover, most of the adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and disappeared with continued treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that, the fixed dose combination of atorvastatin 10 mg + metformin SR 500 mg is efficacious and well tolerated therapeutic modality in patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia. Furthermore this combination offers dosage convenience to the patient and by virtue of its dual mode of action is a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association 07/2008; 106(7):464-7.
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ABSTRACT: Postprandial hyperglycaemia and spikes have deleterious effects on Insulin secretion and sensitivity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of miglitol 50 mg three times daily for 12 weeks in 129 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, inadequately managed with diet and exercise therapy alone for 3 months after obtaining their written informed consent. The primary efficacy variables were per cent change from baseline at week 12 in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1C)) levels. After treatment at the end of 12 weeks mean reduction in fasting plasma glucose levels was 35.7% and 44.33% in postprandial plasma glucose levels while the mean HbA(1C) was significantly reduced by 0.88% (p<0.05). Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and TC/HDL ratio did not showed any significant change but a non-significant reduction in triglyceride levels was observed in some patients. The mean body mass index was reduced non-significantly by 8% from baseline values. A total 19.5% patients treated with miglitol reported adverse events like flatulence, abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and dyspepsia. Only one patient reported hypoglycaemia. The results of the present study indicate that miglitol reduces fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, Improving glycaemic control, which is reflected in a reduced HbA(1C) level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It could be a useful first-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled by diet alone and as adjuvant therapy in patients who are inadequately controlled with diet and sulfonylureas.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association 07/2007; 105(6):344, 346, 350.