I. M. Milyukova

Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moskva, Moscow, Russia

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Publications (11)25.97 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photosynthetic activities of common spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr) Rupr ex Kuzen) were analyzed on the basis of datasets obtained for 110- to 130-year-old forest stands in Middle Russia and East Siberia. Using a Li-Cor 6200 gas analyzer, photosynthesis was measured in parallel with transpiration, stomatal conductance, CO2 concentrations in ambient air and intercellular spaces, the photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, and air humidity. The data were examined within the framework of a biochemical model of photosynthesis of Farquhar et al. [1] in combination with the stomatal conductance model proposed by Jarvis [2]. The species-specific differences in carbon assimilation rates were discovered, and dependences of photosynthesis on the needle age, light regime, and growth conditions were revealed. The model parameters obtained were used to simulate the photosynthetic rates in spruce and larch trees at various weather conditions.
    Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 04/2004; 51(3):302-315. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamics of moisture reserves in the 0-0.2-cm layer of soils in three types of southern taiga spruce forests related to regional changes in air temperature and precipitation for the last 30 years of the twentieth century is discussed. Based on the observations carried out, there were distinguished four main types of growing periods with different changes in air temperature and precipitation and three periods with different trends in changes of soil moisture reserves for the May-September period. Within a vegetative period, two subtypes of soil moistening regime were defined, and the influence of climatic factors on their formation was shown. The selection of climatic predictors was substantiated, and variants of statistical models were proposed. These models describe the dynamics of mean (for May-September period), minimal, and seasonal amplitudes of moisture reserves in the 0-0.2-cm layer depending on climatic predictors. Changes of these predictors in various spruce forests of the southern taiga are described. When forecasting the soil moisture in these forests of the European southern taiga, precipitation and April temperature should be taken into account along with summer precipitation and the highest mean monthly temperature. The annual rate of spruce dieback is closely related to amplitudes of changes in moisture reserves in the upper root-dwelling layer of soils.
    Lesovedenie. 01/2004; 1:3-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Energy and latent heat fluxes lambdaE were measured over ombrotrophic bogs in European Russia (Fyodorovskoye) and in central Siberia (Zotino) using the eddy covariance technique, as part of the EuroSiberian Carbonflux Project. The study covered most of the snowfree periods in 1998, 1999 and 2000; in addition some data were also collected under snow in early spring and late autumn 1999 and 2000. The snowfree period in Europian Russia exceeds the snowfree period in central Siberia by nearly 10 weeks. Marked seasonal and interannual differences in temperatures and precipitation, and hence energy partitioning, were observed at both sites. At both bogs latent heat fluxes (lambdaE) exceeded sensible heat fluxes (H) during most of the snowfree period: maximum lambdaE were between 10 and 12 MJ m(-2) d(-1) while maximum H were between 3 and 5 MJ m(-2) d(-1). There was a tendency towards higher Bowen ratios at Fyodorovskoye. Net radiation was the most influential variable that regulated daily evaporation rates, with no obvious effects due to surface dryness during years with exceptionally dry summers. Total snowfree evaporation at Fyodorovskoye (320 mm) exceeded totals at Zotino (280 mm) by 15%. At the former site, evaporation was equal to or less than precipitation, contrasting the Zotino observations, where summer evaporation was distinctly higher than precipitation. During the entire observation period evaporation rates were less than 50% of their potential rate. These data suggest a strong 'mulching' effect of a rapidly drying peat surface on total evaporation, despite the substantial area of free water surfaces during parts of the year. This effect of surface dryness was also observed as close atmospheric coupling.
    Tellus B 10/2002; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temporal patterns of stem and needle production and total aboveground net primary production (ANPP) were studied at the tree and stand level along four chronosequences of Siberian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests differing in site quality (poor lichen type or the more fertile Vaccinium type) and in frequency of surface fires (unburned, moderately burned (fire return interval of approximately 40 years), or heavily burned (fire return interval of approximately 25 years)). The maximum range of variability in aboveground production was quantified for: (1) possible long-term changes in site quality; (2) stand age; (3) non-stand-replacing, recurring surface fires; and (4) interannual climate variability. For (1) and (2), total ANPP was low in the lichen-type chronosequence, reached a maximum of 170 g C m(-2) year(-1) after 100 years and decreased to 100 g C m(-2) year(-1) in older stands. Maximum ANPP in the Vaccinium-type chronosequence was 340 g C m(-2) year(-1) and occurred earlier in the 53-year-old stand than in the other stands. Along the lichen-type chronosequences, peak ANPP was paralleled by maximum carbon allocation to stem growth. (3) In mature trees, damage by recurrent surface fires decreased stem growth by 17 +/- 19% over a 10-year period relative to pre-fire values. At longer timescales, ANPP was hardly affected by fire-related differences in mortality. (4) Needle- plus stem-NPP, reconstructed for a 3-year period, varied within a range of 15 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the lichen-type stands and 35 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the Vaccinium-type stands. For the same period, the coefficient of variance was higher for needle-NPP (20 +/- 10%) than for stem-NPP (12 +/- 7%). Needle- and stem-NPP did not covary in time. Most 30-year time series of stem-NPP at the tree level exhibited strong autocorrelation. In older trees, stem-NPP was positively correlated with growing season precipitation. Thus, the factors driving variability in ANPP ranked according to their maximum influence as: stand age (controlled by the frequency of stand-replacing fires) > site quality > growth depression because of surface fire damage approximately equal age-related reduction in ANPP > interannual variability approximately equal long-term effects of fire (stand density reduction). In lichen-type forests, we found that ANPP at the landscape level declined sharply when the interval between stand-replacing fires was less than 120 years, illustrating that fire strongly influences ANPP of boreal Scots pine forests.
    Tree Physiology 06/2002; 22(8):537-52. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and a forest after disturbance by wind throw in the western Russian taiga was investigated between July and October 1998 using the eddy covariance technique. The research area was a regenerating forest (400 m × 1000 m), in which all trees of the preceding generation were uplifted during a storm in 1996. All deadwood had remained on site after the storm and had not been extracted for commercial purposes. Because of the heterogeneity of the terrain, several micrometeorological quality tests were applied. In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, carbon pools of decaying wood in a chronosequence of three different wind throw areas were analysed and the decay rate of coarse woody debris was derived.During daytime, the average CO2 uptake flux was −3 µmol m−2s−1, whereas during night-time characterised by a well-mixed atmosphere the rates of release were typically about 6 µmol m−2s−1. Suppression of turbulent fluxes was only observed under conditions with very low friction velocity (u* ≤ 0.08 ms−1). On average, 164 mmol CO2 m−2d−1 was released from the wind throw to the atmosphere, giving a total of 14.9 mol CO2 m−2 (180 g CO2 m−2) released during the 3-month study period.The chronosequence of dead woody debris on three different wind throw areas suggested exponential decay with a decay coefficient of −0.04 yr−1. From the magnitude of the carbon pools and the decay rate, it is estimated that the decomposition of coarse woody debris accounted for about a third of the total ecosystem respiration at the measurement site. Hence, coarse woody debris had a long-term influence on the net ecosystem exchange of this wind throw area.From the analysis performed in this work, a conclusion is drawn that it is necessary to include into flux networks the ecosystems that are subject to natural disturbances and that have been widely omitted into considerations of the global carbon budget. The half-life time of about 17 years for deadwood in the wind throw suggests a fairly long storage of carbon in the ecosystem, and indicates a very different long-term carbon budget for naturally disturbed vs. commercially managed forests.
    Global Change Biology 02/2002; 8(3):231 - 246. · 8.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One-dimensional box model estimates of biospheric CO2 gross fluxes are presented. The simulations are based on a set of measurements performed during the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX intensive campaign between 27 July and 1 August 1999 in a natural Picea abies forest in Russia. CO2 mixing ratios and stable isotope ratios of CO2 were measured on flask samples taken in two heights within the canopy. Simultaneously, soil and leaf samples were collected and analysed to derive the 18O/16O ratio of the respective water reservoirs and the 13C/12C ratio of the leaf tissue. The main objective of this project was to investigate biospheric gas exchange with soil and vegetation, and thereby take advantage of the potential of the 18O/16O ratio in atmospheric CO2. Via exchange of oxygen isotopes with asso- ciated liquid water reservoirs, leaf CO2 assimilation fluxes generally enrich while soil CO2 respiration fluxes generally deplete the 18O/16O ratio of atmospheric CO2. In the model, we parameterised intra- canopy transport by exploiting soil-borne 222Rn as a tracer for turbulent transport. Our model approach showed that, using oxygen isotopes, the net ecosystem CO2 flux can be separated into assimilation and respiration yielding fluxes comparable with those derived by other methods. However, partitioning is highly sensitive to the respective discrimination factors, and therefore also on the parameterisation of internal leaf CO2 concentrations and gradients.
    Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, v.54, 476-496 (2002). 01/2002;
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    ABSTRACT: Based on review and original data, this synthesis investigates carbon pools and fluxes of Siberian and European forests (600 and 300 million ha, respectively). We examine the productivity of ecosystems, expressed as positive rate when the amount of carbon in the ecosystem increases, while (following micrometeorological convention) downward fluxes from the atmosphere to the vegetation (NEE = Net Ecosystem Exchange) are expressed as negative numbers. Productivity parameters are Net Primary Productivity (NPP=whole plant growth), Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP = CO2 assimilation minus ecosystem respiration), and Net Biome Productivity (NBP = NEP minus carbon losses through disturbances bypassing respiration, e.g. by fire and logging). Based on chronosequence studies and national forestry statistics we estimate a low average NPP for boreal forests in Siberia: 123 gC m–2 y–1. This contrasts with a similar calculation for Europe which suggests a much higher average NPP of 460 gC m–2 y–1 for the forests there. Despite a smaller area, European forests have a higher total NPP than Siberia (1.2–1.6 vs. 0.6–0.9 × 1015 gC region–1 y–1). This arises as a consequence of differences in growing season length, climate and nutrition. For a chronosequence of Pinus sylvestris stands studied in central Siberia during summer, NEE was most negative in a 67-y old stand regenerating after fire (– 192 mmol m–2 d–1) which is close to NEE in a cultivated forest of Germany (– 210 mmol m–2 d–1). Considerable net ecosystem CO2-uptake was also measured in Siberia in 200- and 215-y old stands (NEE:174 and – 63 mmol m–2 d–1) while NEP of 7- and 13-y old logging areas were close to the ecosystem compensation point. Two Siberian bogs and a bog in European Russia were also significant carbon sinks (– 102 to – 104 mmol m–2 d–1). Integrated over a growing season (June to September) we measured a total growing season NEE of – 14 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 168 gC m–2 summer–1) in a 200-y Siberian pine stand and – 5 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 60 gC m–2 summer–1) in Siberian and European Russian bogs. By contrast, over the same period, a spruce forest in European Russia was a carbon source to the atmosphere of (NEE: + 7 mol m–2 summer–1 = + 84 gC m–2 summer–1). Two years after a windthrow in European Russia, with all trees being uplifted and few successional species, lost 16 mol C m–2 to the atmosphere over a 3-month in summer, compared to the cumulative NEE over a growing season in a German forest of – 15.5 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 186 gC m–2 summer–1; European flux network annual averaged – 205 gC m–2 y–1). Differences in CO2-exchange rates coincided with differences in the Bowen ratio, with logging areas partitioning most incoming radiation into sensible heat whereas bogs partitioned most into evaporation (latent heat). Effects of these different surface energy exchanges on local climate (convective storms and fires) and comparisons with the Canadian BOREAS experiment are discussed. Following a classification of disturbances and their effects on ecosystem carbon balances, fire and logging are discussed as the main processes causing carbon losses that bypass heterotrophic respiration in Siberia. Following two approaches, NBP was estimated to be only about 13–16 mmol m–2 y–1 for Siberia. It may reach 67 mmol m–2 y–1 in North America, and about 140–400 mmol m–2 y–1 in Scandinavia. We conclude that fire speeds up the carbon cycle, but that it results also in long-term carbon sequestration by charcoal formation. For at least 14 years after logging, regrowth forests remain net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. This has important implications regarding the effects of Siberian forest management on atmospheric concentrations. For many years after logging has taken place, regrowth forests remain weaker sinks for atmospheric CO2 than are nearby old-growth forests.
    Global Change Biology 12/2001; 5(6):703 - 722. · 8.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In July 1993, we measured leaf conductance, carbon dioxide (CO(2)) assimilation, and transpiration in a Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. ex Kuzen forest in eastern Siberia. At the CO(2) concentration of ambient air, maximum values (mean of 10 highest measured values) for CO(2) assimilation, transpiration and leaf conductance for water vapor were 10.1 micro mol m(-2) s(-1), 3.9 mmol m(-2) s(-1) and 365 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. The corresponding mean values, which were much lower than the maximum values, were 2.7 micro mol m(-2) s(-1), 1.0 mmol m(-2) s(-1) and 56 mmol m(-2) s(-1). The mean values were similar to those of Vaccinium species in the herb layer. The large differences between maximum and actual performance were the result of structural and physiological variations within the tree crowns and between trees that reduced maximum assimilation and leaf conductance by about 40 and 60%, respectively. Thus, maximum assimilation and conductance values averaged over the canopy were 6.1 micro mol m(-2) s(-1) and 146 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Dry air caused stomatal closure, which reduced assimilation by an additional 26%. Low irradiances in the morning and evening had a minor effect (-6%). Daily canopy transpiration was estimated to be 1.45 mm day(-1), which is higher than the value of 0.94 mm day(-1) measured by eddy covariance, but similar to the value of 1.45 mm day(-1) calculated from the energy balance and soil evaporation, and less than the value of 2.1 mm day(-1) measured by xylem flux. Daytime canopy carbon assimilation, expressed on a ground area basis, was 0.217 mol m(-2) day(-1), which is higher than the value measured by eddy flux (0.162 mol m(-2) day(-1) including soil respiration). We discuss the regulation of leaf gas exchange in Larix under the extreme climatic conditions of eastern Siberia (temperature > 35 degrees C and vapor pressure deficit > 5.0 kPa).
    Tree Physiology 10/1997; 17(10):607-15. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • Global Change Biology, v.8, 231-246 (2002).
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    Tree Physiology, v.22, 537-552 (2002).
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    Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology, v.54, 429-442 (2002).