ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we determined whether serum leptin levels were associated with whole-body BMD and bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), after adjusting for confounders including body fat distribution. We found an inverse association between leptin and bone density in those with peripheral lipoatrophy, defined objectively as <3 kg appendicular fat by DEXA, but no such relationship was seen in those with >3 kg appendicular fat. This result suggests that fat distribution may modify the relationship between leptin and bone density.
AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:103072.
ABSTRACT: Leptin deficiency is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in animals and humans with lipoatrophy; leptin replacement ameliorates these abnormalities.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of leptin therapy in lipoatrophic HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia and hypoleptinemia.
This was a 6-month, open-label, proof-of-principle pilot study.
Metabolic ward studies were performed before and 3 and 6 months after leptin treatment.
Participants included eight HIV-infected men with lipoatrophy, fasting triglycerides greater than 300 mg/dl, and serum leptin less than 3 ng/ml.
Recombinant human leptin was given by sc injection (0.01 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg twice daily for successive 3 month periods).
Measures included fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; fasting lipids; insulin sensitivity by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp; endogenous glucose production, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and whole-body lipolysis by stable isotope tracer studies; oral glucose tolerance testing; liver fat by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and safety.
Visceral fat decreased by 32% (P = 0.001) with no changes in peripheral fat. There were significant decreases in fasting total (15%, P = 0.012), direct low-density lipoprotein (20%, P = 0.002), and non-high-density lipoprotein (19%, P = 0.005) cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased. Triglycerides, whole-body lipolysis, and free fatty acids decreased during fasting and hyperinsulinemia. Fasting insulin decreased. Endogenous glucose production decreased during fasting and hyperinsulinemia, providing evidence of improved hepatic insulin sensitivity. Leptin was well tolerated but decreased lean mass.
Leptin treatment was associated with marked improvement in dyslipidemia. Hepatic insulin sensitivity improved and lipolysis decreased. Visceral fat decreased with no exacerbation of peripheral lipoatrophy. Results from this pilot study suggest that leptin warrants further study in patients with HIV-associated lipoatrophy.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 02/2009; 94(4):1137-44. · 6.50 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Progressive resistance exercise training (PRT) improves physical functioning in patients with HIV infection. Creatine supplementation can augment the benefits derived from training in athletes and improve muscle function in patients with muscle wasting. The objective of this study was to determine whether creatine supplementation augments the effects of PRT on muscle strength, energetics, and body composition in HIV-infected patients.
This is a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical research center-based, outpatient study in San Francisco. 40 HIV-positive men (20 creatine, 20 placebo) enrolled in a 14-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive creatine monohydrate or placebo for 14 weeks. Treatment began with a loading dose of 20 g/day or an equivalent number of placebo capsules for 5 days, followed by maintenance dosing of 4.8 g/day or placebo. Beginning at week 2 and continuing to week 14, all subjects underwent thrice-weekly supervised resistance exercise while continuing on the assigned study medication (with repeated 6-week cycles of loading and maintenance). The main outcome measurements included muscle strength (one repetition maximum), energetics ((31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy), composition and size (magnetic resonance imaging), as well as total body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Thirty-three subjects completed the study (17 creatine, 16 placebo). Strength increased in all 8 muscle groups studied following PRT, but this increase was not augmented by creatine supplementation (average increase 44 vs. 42%, difference 2%, 95% CI -9.5% to 13.9%) in creatine and placebo, respectively). There were no differences between groups in changes in muscle energetics. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area increased following resistance exercise, with no additive effect of creatine. Lean body mass (LBM) increased to a significantly greater extent with creatine. CONCLUSIONS / SIGNIFICANCE: Resistance exercise improved muscle size, strength and function in HIV-infected men. While creatine supplementation produced a greater increase in LBM, it did not augment the robust increase in strength derived from PRT.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(2):e4605. · 4.09 Impact Factor