ABSTRACT: To examine the psychometric characteristics of a measure of self-efficacy for managing temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to determine whether scores on this measure were related to pain, disability, and psychological distress in patients with chronic TMD pain.
Patients seeking treatment for chronic TMD pain (n = 156, 87% female, mean age = 37 years) completed measures assessing pain, disability, mental health, pain-coping strategies, and self-efficacy for managing their pain.
The self-efficacy measure, which was adapted from arthritis research, demonstrated good psychometric characteristics (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91, minimal floor and ceiling effects, and validity). Greater self-efficacy was associated with significantly (P < .05) lower levels of pain, disability, and psychological distress. Self-efficacy remained significantly associated with disability and mental health measures even after controlling for demographic variables and pain intensity. In addition, patients with higher self-efficacy reported significantly (P < .05) greater use of an active, adaptive chronic pain-coping strategy (task persistence) and less use of a passive, maladaptive chronic pain-coping strategy (rest).
Self-efficacy for managing pain appears to be important in the adjustment of patients with chronic TMD pain. Research is needed to determine whether treatments designed to increase self-efficacy improve TMD patient outcomes.
Journal of orofacial pain 02/2006; 20(2):115-24. · 2.59 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Reactive measures (measures that change the phenomenon assessed) cause problems in interpreting any changes observed. This study examined whether electronic daily diary measures of pain, activity interference, mood, and pain beliefs were reactive in terms of both observable data and patient-reported effects. Patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain (N = 71, 86% female) completed electronic diaries 3 times daily for approximately 2 weeks and subsequently reported perceived effects on symptom-related variables. Seventy-three percent of patients reported that the assessment affected their pain, whereas 51%, 45%, and 39% thought that it affected their daily activities, mood, and beliefs, respectively. In contrast, there was little objective evidence of reactivity as observed in the electronic diary ratings; changes over 14 days were small (eg, predicted changes on 0 to 10 scales: positive mood, .1; pain, -.3; perceived control, -.5) and not statistically significant. Subjective reactivity was generally not significantly related to objective reactivity. The data suggest that patients view daily assessment as having positive and negative effects on pain-related variables, but pain-related measures do not show reactive effects. PERSPECTIVE: Electronic daily diary assessment methods hold the potential to increase knowledge concerning patients' experiences with pain and sequential relations between pain-related variables, but only if the measurement process is nonreactive. This study provides evidence that electronic diary assessment of pain-related variables is nonreactive.
Journal of Pain 03/2005; 6(2):107-15. · 4.93 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To examine whether catastrophizing is associated with clinical examination findings, pain-related activity interference, and health care use among patients with pain related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD).
Patients with TMD (n = 338; 87% female; mean age, 37 years) completed measures of pain, pain-related activity interference, health care use, and depression, and received a Research Diagnostic Criteria/ Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) clinical examination from an oral medicine specialist.
Catastrophizing was not significantly associated with the more objective clinical examination measures of maximum assisted jaw opening and jaw-joint sounds, but it was associated with the more subjective examination measures (unassisted opening without pain, extraoral muscle site palpation pain severity, joint site palpation pain severity) and with increased TMD-related activity interference and number of health care visits (P values for all < .01). Even after controlling for demographic variables, pain duration, and depression severity, catastrophizing remained significantly associated with extraoral muscle and joint site palpation pain severity and with activity interference and number of health care visits.
TMD patients who catastrophize have higher scores on clinical examination measures reflecting more widely dispersed and severe pain upon palpation of TMD-related facial muscle and joint sites, as well as greater TMD-related activity interference and health care use. Clinicians should consider screening patients with moderate or greater TMD pain and activity interference for catastrophizing. Cognitive-behavioral interventions may help reduce pain, disability, and health care use of patients who catastrophize.
Journal of orofacial pain 02/2005; 19(4):291-300. · 2.59 Impact Factor