[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The prevalence of Adult attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (A-ADHD) has been estimated as to be around 5%. There are several hypotheses regarding the etiology of ADHD. Although numerous researches have been conducted regarding neurobiology of pediatric ADHD, A-ADHD studies were relatively few. Many studies have indicated that oxidant mediated neuronal damage may play a role in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. Recently, oxidative stress has been studied in A-ADHD and there is an accumulating evidence to support its' role. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate catalase (CAT) and thiol levels in A-ADHD patients and compare with healthy controls. Materials-Methods: Twenty-five A-ADHD patients from Gaziantep University, diagnosed according to Turgay's Turkish version of Adult ADD/ADHD DSM IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale by two psychiatrists, and 25 healthy volunteer controls were included. The subjects strictly refrained from any substance intake and physical exercise after 08:00 p.m. on the day before collection. CAT and Thiol levels were measured in plasma samples of study groups. Results: Age, gender, and body mass indexes of patients and controls have shown homogeneity and there were no differences between the groups. Total score and subscores were not correlated with any of the mentioned biochemical parameters. The mean CAT levels in patients with ADHD were significantly higher and Thiol levels were lower than those of controls (<0.001, <0.001, respectively). When the comorbid patient group compared with pure A-ADHD patients in terms of CAT (11.49±0.28, 11.51±0.40, respectively) and thiol (0.22±0.05, 0.25±0.03, respectively) levels there were not found any significant differences (p=0.865, p=0.174, respectively). Conclusions: The results of the present study may indicate that thiol levels may be decreased with in reaction of increased CAT levels and thiol act like a pro-oxidant. This study may be considered as one of the initial phase studies that lighten the relationship between oxidative stress and A-ADHD. There is a need for further studies that will prove this relationship exactly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum resistin levels and metabolic changes in bipolar disorder Aim: Metabolic changes in bipolar disorder appear to be among the cluster of disturbances that have insulin resistance as a common etiologic factor. Several recently discovered adipokines such as resistin and visfatin play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. In this study we aimed to evaluate the association between serum resistin levels and metabolic changes in bipolar disorder. Method: Sixty euthymic bipolar I disorder patients, of 29 on mood stabilizer (MS) (lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine) treatment and of 31 on atypical antipsychotic (AA) (risperidone, quetiapine and olanzapine) treatment for at least 3 months, were enrolled. The control group consisted of 27 healthy members who have had similar distributions of age, sex, and BMI with the patients. Resistin, glucose, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were measured in all groups. Results: Resistin levels were found to be significantly high in bipolar patients than that in the controls. However, when metabolic parameters were considered resistin levels were not significantly different between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Despite serum resistin levels were high in bipolar patients, we did not find any association between metabolic disturbances and treatment modalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise on plasma adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in sedentary men. Fourteen healthy, nonsmoking, and sedentary men aged between 18.4 and 21.4 years participated in the study. All the subjects performed 5 Wingate tests (WTs) with 75 g per kilogram body weight load with 2-minute intervals between the tests. Blood samples were collected at preexercise, immediately after, 15 and 60 minutes after the fifth WT. Serum and plasma samples were stored at -80°C until the time of analysis for myoglobin, adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Plasma adiponectin levels decreased, whereas IL-6 levels increased postexercise compared with that preexercise. The TNF-α levels were not changed with supramaximal exercise. In conclusion, repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise cause an inflammatory response in exercised muscle and increase in plasma IL-6 levels and decrease in adiponectin concentrations.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 06/2012; 26(6):1675-9. DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318231ac1c · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to understand whether exercise and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has an effect on obesity and weight control, we investigated the effects of CAPE, and exercise on lipid parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C), and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin in rats. 40 male rat were randomly assigned into 4 groups. It was determined that CAPE does not have any significant effect on these parameters but that lipid parameters and leptin values in exercise groups decreased considerably, while no significant change occurred in resistin levels. In order to understand whether diet has an effect on exercise, body weights of all animal groups in pre and post-exercise were compared. A significant weight gain was observed (p = 0.005) in all groups. This study concluded that exercise has a considerable effect on leptin and lipid parameters; however, exercise alone was not sufficient for weight control and could be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet. Key pointsCaffeic acid phenethyl ester is not effective on weight control, lipid parameters, and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin.Exercise can be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet.
Journal of sports science & medicine 12/2011; 10(4):649-54. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on plasma adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF )-alpha levels in sedentary men. Fourteen healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary men participated in the study. The protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of our institution. This study was a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Blood samples were collected from all participants before coenzyme Q10 or placebo supplementation. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups. Seven participants received oral coenzyme Q10 (100 mg/day) supplementation, and seven participants received placebo (glucose) for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, a second blood sampling was performed. After a 4-week washout period, placebo was given to the participants who used coenzyme Q10 the first time, and vice versa, and blood sampling was repeated. Plasma was stored at -80 degrees C until the time of analysis for adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. Both CoQ10 and placebo supplementation did not affect plasma adiponectin and TNF-alpha levels. IL-6 level increased with coenzyme Q10 supplementation, but this increase did not differ from that seen with placebo supplementation. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation did not affect plasma adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels in sedentary men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate whether serum ghrelin levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in bipolar patients. Methods: A total of 60 bipolar disorder patients and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The patient group was separated into two subgroups according to the use of atypical antipsychotics (AA)-risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine or mood stabilizers (MS)-lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine. The serum ghrelin level was measured by human ghrelin ELISA kits. Patients were diagnosed with MetS according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel 3 (NCEP ATP 3) criteria; MetS was considered present when 3 or more criteria were met. Results: Among bipolar patients included in the study, 51.7% (n=31) were treated only with AA, while 48.8% (n=29) were treated with MS alone. MetS diagnosis was established in 36.7% (n=22) of patients. There was no significant difference in ghrelin levels when comparing patients with and without MetS. Additionally, there were no significant differences among the patients with MetS using AAs and among the patients with MetS using MSs in terms of ghrelin levels. The serum ghrelin levels were found to be significantly lower in bipolar patients compared to controls. Negative correlation was detected between ghrelin and fasting blood glucose. Conclusion: Our study found that, compared to the general population, MetS was more frequently observed in bipolar patients and that serum ghrelin level was significantly lower in those patients. This result might be associated either with a compensatory mechanism or with an involvement of other disease-specific parameters. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 328-32)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lamotrigine is a novel mood stabiliser as well as an anti-epileptic drug that has already been used for the prevention of convulsions. Despite several known side effects, hepatic dysfunction related to the drug has not been widely reported. A few cases have been observed in neurological, especially paediatric patients, but not in psychiatric patients. We report a case of cholestatis which occurred 6 weeks after starting lamotrigine therapy and which resolved after discontinuation, during the acute phase of disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of lamotrigine associated with cholestasis reported in patients with bipolar disorder.
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 07/2009; 9(1):65-67. DOI:10.1080/13651500510014774 · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few studies evaluating the biochemical basis of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A-ADHD). In the present study, we evaluated whether nitric oxide (NO), an oxidant, level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant, activity are associated with A-ADHD or not.
Twenty A-ADHD patients from Gaziantep University Sahinbey Research Hospital, Psychiatry Clinic, diagnosed according to The Turkish version of Adult ADD/ADHD DSM IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale by two psychiatrists (H.A.S. and S.S.), and twenty-one healthy volunteer controls were included. Blood samples were collected; NO levels and SOD activities were measured.
The mean NO levels in patients were significantly higher than those of controls and SOD activity of patients was significantly lower than controls.
Remarkable high levels of oxidant NO, and low SOD activities suggest an oxidative imbalance in A-ADHD. This is the first study evaluating the oxidative metabolism in A-ADHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have already pointed out a possible pathophysiological role of oxidative and antioxidative molecules in bipolar disorder. We aimed to evaluate the activity and levels of antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), and oxidant nitric oxide (NO), in bipolar I depressive episode (BD-DE) patients in a prospective design.
30 BD-DE patients, diagnosed according to DSM IV, and 30 healthy volunteer controls were included. The serum levels of NO and SOD have been studied when admitted to hospital (1st) and on the 30th days. Clinical outcome was measured by Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). The patients were allowed to have their treatments. One patient was dropped out due to insufficient sampling.
As in the previous studies, NO 1st day levels were significantly higher in patients and SOD 1st day activity was significantly low (p<0.01). NO levels significantly decreased (p<0.01) and normalized, as SOD activity significantly increased but did not reach to the controls' levels (p<0.01) on the 30th day.
Despite normalized NO levels, persistent low SOD activity might point out an oxidative imbalance in BD-DE. Chronic low SOD activity may be associated with incapacity of coping with oxidative stress. This research connotes the probable oxidative imbalance in BD-DE and discusses that phenomenon within the continuum of the disease state.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the biochemical basis of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (A-ADHD), we compared lipid peroxidation status in the plasma of A-ADHD patients, and that of control subjects without A-ADHD by quantifying the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of fatty acid oxidation. We aimed to examine the association between MDA and A-ADHD.
The study comprised 20 A-ADHD patients from Gaziantep University Sahinbey Research Hospital Psychiatry Clinic, diagnosed by 2 psychiatrists (H.A.S. and S.S.) according to the Turkish version of the adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale, and 21 healthy volunteers. Malondialdehyde levels were measured in plasma samples of both study groups.
The mean (standard deviation [SD]) MDA levels in patients (2.44 [0.84] nmol/mL) were significantly higher than those of control subjects (0.36 [0.20] nmol/mL) (t=11.013, df=39, p<0.01). MDA levels were correlated with overall number of criteria met (n=20, p=0.01, Ro=0.56) and total hyperactivity/impulsivity score (n=20, p=0.02, Ro=0.51).
The fact that MDA levels were increased in A-ADHD could be an indication of increased oxidative stress in this disease. We suggest that such changes may have a pathological role in A-ADHD. This is the first study evaluating the MDA levels in A-ADHD, and our findings may provide a scientific guide for the further clinical enzymologic and biochemical studies on this disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that nuts have protective effects against coronary artery disease by improving lipid profile and inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, data about pistachio nuts are limited, and to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the effects of pistachio intake on lipid oxidation and serum antioxidant levels. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of pistachio intake on serum lipids and determine whether consumption of pistachio would alter serum antioxidant levels. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 for each): control group fed basic diet for 10 weeks and treated groups fed basic diet plus pistachio which constituted 20% and 40% of daily caloric intake, respectively. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and decreased total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, compared with those not taking pistachio. However, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by pistachio consumption. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased serum paraoxonase activity by 35% and arylesterase activity by 60%, which are known to inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation, compared with the control group. However, increased antioxidant activity was blunted when pistachio intake was increased to 40% of daily caloric intake. In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake leads to significant improvement in HDL and TC/HDL ratio and inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation. These results suggest that pistachio may be beneficial for both prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2007; 212(1):43-8. DOI:10.1620/tjem.212.43 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidant nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorders. This is the first prospective study aimed to evaluate NO levels and SOD activity in bipolar disorder (type I manic episode) (BD-ME). 29 inpatient subjects with BD-ME and 30 healthy controls were included. Serum NO levels and SOD activity have been studied at 1st (NO [1st] and SOD [1st] respectively) and 30th days (NO [30th] and SOD [30th] respectively) after treatment. The clinical outcome was measured by Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale (BRMS). The mean NO [1st] (p<.001) and NO [30th] levels (p<.001) were higher than controls, but SOD [1st] (p<.001) and SOD [30th] (p<.001) activities in BD-ME were lower than controls. SOD(1) activity was higher than SOD [30th] (p<.001), while there was no significance in comparison between NO [1st] and NO [30th] (p>.05). SOD [30th] activity is negatively correlated with the number of previous manic attacks and NO [1st] was negatively correlated with sleep item score of BRMS at first day. Also there was a significant correlation between NO [1st] levels and with the existence of a delusion. NO and SOD appear to play a role in the pathophysiological events occurring in BD, especially in BD-ME. This study for the first time showed the possible role of NO on sleep and the generation of delusions in the pathophysiology of BD. In the light of literature, induced glutamate pathway might be responsible for delusions in BD. The results of this research need further investigation to understand the oxidative vs antioxidative process in BD.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2007; 31(3):697-702. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.12.020 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. NO level was found high in acute manic inpatients. In this study, we aimed to assess NO level and activity of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), in euthymic bipolar patients. Twenty-seven patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in euthymic phase, and 20 healthy volunteers were included in this study. A semi-structured form was used to note social, demographic and clinical parameters of the patients. NO level and SOD activity were studied in the serum samples obtained from the patients and controls. The mean serum NO level in BD was significantly higher than in controls. Mean serum SOD activity was found to be elevated in patients with BD compared to controls. Total number of the manic episodes correlated with NO levels, but not with SOD activity. In conclusion, the number of manic episodes is positively associated with NO levels. NO and SOD appear to have a pathophysiological role in BD, especially in Type I euthymic phase, and may be considered an available trait marker for BD.
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 02/2006; 7(1):51-5. DOI:10.1080/15622970510029993 · 4.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperhomocysteinemia may constitute a risk factor for patients with severe heart failure. This study examines the relationship between plasma homocysteine concentration and left ventricular ejection fraction with renal function in heart failure patients free of coronary artery disease.
Left ventricular ejection fraction was documented in 62 patients with advanced heart failure who had no proven significant coronary artery stenosis. Glomerular filtration rate was measured using the Cockroft-Gault equation.
Elevated homocysteine levels (>or=15 micromol/L) were detected in 22 patients. Low glomerular filtration rate was observed in patients who had normal serum creatinine concentration. Homocysteine was strongly correlated with age, duration of disease, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate. Statistically significant trends were observed across respective homocysteine quartiles. However, by multivariate regression, the strongest predictor of homocysteine was the glomerular filtration rate.
Impaired renal function leads to a diminished clearance rate, which can be a prominent pathophysiological mechanism in the elevation of homocysteine concentration in heart failure.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 02/2006; 44(11):1324-9. DOI:10.1515/CCLM.2006.245 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical antipsychotics (AA)-induced weight gain is associated with increased leptin levels. AA have been increasingly used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between serum leptin and lipid profiles considering the drug treatments in euthymic bipolar outpatients. Leptin and lipid profiles were compared, and no differences were noted in leptin, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels among the patients and controls. Glucose, very-low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels in patients were higher than in controls, while high-density lipoprotein levels were low. Patients were divided into three groups according to their type of drug usage: AA users, AA + mood stabilizer users, and mood stabilizer users. Each group of patients was compared with a healthy control group for mentioned biochemical parameters. Lipid profiles were disordered by using both AA and mood stabilizers, but higher leptin levels are associated with AA usage. However, leptin does not seem to be responsible for dyslipidemia caused by AA or mood stabilizers in euthymic bipolar patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular torsion and detorsion are important clinical problems for infertile man and oxidative stress may have a role in this clinical situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of erdosteine, an antioxidant, on unilateral testicular reperfusion injury in rats. The rats were divided into four groups including seven rats in each group: control, torsion, torsion/detorsion and torsion/detorsion+erdosteine. Rats, except the sham operation group, were subjected to left unilateral torsion (720( composite function) rotation in the clockwise direction) without including the epididymis. The experiments were finished after sham operation time for control, 120 min torsion for torsion group and 120 min torsion and 240 min detorsion for torsion/detorsion groups. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed for all groups of rats. The ipsilateral and controlateral testis were divided into two pieces to analyse biochemical parameters and to investigate the light microscopic view. Malondialdehyde level of ipsilateral testis was increased in torsion and torsion/detorsion groups in comparison with the other groups (p < 0.05). Erdosteine treatment ameliorated lipid peroxidation after torsion/detorsion in ipsilateral testis (p < 0.05). Also, xanthine oxidase activity of ipsilateral testis was increased in torsion/detorsion group in comparison with the others (p < 0.05). Nitric oxide (NO) level of ipsilateral testis was higher in all experimental groups than sham operated control group (p < 0.05). Also, NO level of torsion group was increased in comparison with detorsion groups (p < 0.05). Erdosteine treatment caused increased glutathione peroxidase activity in comparison with torsion and torsion/detorsion groups and catalase activity in comparison with the other groups in ipsilateral testis (p < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity of ipsilateral testis was higher in torsion/detorsion and torsion/detorsion+erdosteine groups than control and torsion groups (p < 0.05). The biochemical parameters were not affected in controlateral testis in all groups. Torsion, torsion/detorsion and torsion/detorsion+erdosteine groups showed ipsilateral testicular damage in the histological examination, but the specimens from torsion/detorsion had a significantly greater histological injury than those from the other groups (p < 0.05). Control rats showed normal seminiferous tubule morphology. Rats in torsion group had slight-to-moderate disruption of the seminiferous epithelium. Rats in torsion/detorsion group displayed moderate-to-severe disruption of the seminiferous epithelium. In all animals from torsion/detorsion+erdosteine group, the testicular tissues were affected with slight-to-moderate degenerative changes of the seminiferous epithelium. Administration of erdosteine resulted in a significantly reduced histological damage associated with torsion of the spermatic cord compared with torsion/detorsion. In all groups, the contralateral testes were histologically normal. In conclusion, the results clearly displayed that erdosteine treatment may have a protective role on testicular torsion/detorsion injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precise cause of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is elusive. Ischemia and reperfusion injury of the intestine has been considered to be a major contributing factor for NEC. Ischemic preconditioning is defined as one or more brief periods of ischemia with intermittent reperfusion that protects tissues against a sustained period of subsequent ischemia. Contribution of preconditioning to hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury in newborn rats has not been evaluated previously.
The study was carried out on 1-day-old Wistar albino rat pups. Whole-body hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) was achieved by 10 min hypoxia using 95 % N (2) + 5 % CO (2) followed by 10 min reoxygenation with 100 % oxygen. Whole body hypoxic preconditioning (HP) cycles were performed with 3 min hypoxia and 5 min reoxygenation. Thirty-three pups were randomly allocated into 4 groups. Group 1 served as untreated controls. The pups in group 2 were subjected to H/R only. In groups 3 and 4, 1 cycle and 3 cycles of HP were performed prior to H/R, respectively. Animals were killed at the end of the protocols. Intestine specimens were obtained to determine the histological changes, as well as to measure the tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and xanthine oxidase (XO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities.
The microscopic lesions in H/R rat pups were virtually the same as those seen in neonatal NEC, with severe destruction of villi and crypts, in some cases extending to the muscularis. In both HP groups, the lesions were found to be milder. H/R resulted in a marked elevation in MDA and NO levels, and XO and MPO activities compared to the untreated controls. Both 1 cycle and 3 cycles of HP prior to H/R resulted in an obvious decrease in all biochemical parameters. Differences of the biochemical results between both HP groups were not statistically significant.
This study revealed that whole-body hypoxic preconditioning is beneficial for hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury in newborn rats.
European Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/2005; 15(5):325-32. DOI:10.1055/s-2005-865820 · 0.99 Impact Factor