ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with adequate chest compression depth appears to improve first shock success in cardiac arrest. We evaluate the effect of simplification of chest compression instructions on compression depth in dispatcher-assisted CPR protocol.
Data from two randomized, double-blinded, controlled trials with identical methodology were combined to obtain 332 records for this analysis. Subjects were randomized to either modified Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) v11.2 protocol or a new simplified protocol. The main difference between the protocols was the instruction to "push as hard as you can" in the simplified protocol, compared to "push down firmly 2in. (5cm)" in MPDS. Data were recorded via a Laerdal ResusciAnne SkillReporter manikin. Primary outcome measures included: chest compression depth, proportion of compressions without error, with adequate depth and with total release.
Instructions to "push as hard as you can", compared to "push down firmly 2in. (5cm)", resulted in improved chest compression depth (36.4 mm vs. 29.7 mm, p<0.0001), and improved median proportion of chest compressions done to the correct depth (32% vs. <1%, p<0.0001). No significant difference in median proportion of compressions with total release (100% for both) and average compression rate (99.7 min(-1) vs. 97.5 min(-1), p<0.56) was found.
Modifying dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions by changing "push down firmly 2in. (5cm)" to "push as hard as you can" achieved improvement in chest compression depth at no cost to total release or average chest compression rate.
Resuscitation 10/2008; 79(1):97-102. · 3.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The quality of early bystander CPR appears important in maximizing survival. This trial tests whether explicit instructions to "put the phone down" improve the quality of bystander initiated dispatch-assisted CPR.
In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, subjects were randomized to a modified version of the Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) version 11.2 protocol or a simplified protocol, each with or without instruction to "put the phone down" during CPR. Data were recorded from a Laerdal Resusci Anne Skillreporter manikin. A simulated emergency medical dispatcher, contacted by cell phone, delivered standardized instructions. Primary outcome measures included chest compression rate, depth, and the proportion of compressions without error, with correct hand position, adequate depth, and total release. Time was measured in two distinct ways: time required for initiation of CPR and total amount of time hands were off the chest during CPR. Proportions were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum tests and time variables with ANOVA. All tests used a two-sided alpha-level of 0.05.
Two hundred and fifteen subjects were randomized-107 in the "put the phone down" instruction group and 108 in the group without "put the phone down" instructions. The groups were comparable across demographic and experiential variables. The additional instruction to "put the phone down" had no effect on the proportion of compressions administered without error, with the correct depth, and with the correct hand position. Likewise, "put the phone down" did not affect the average compression depth, the average compression rate, the total hands-off-chest time, or the time to initiate chest compressions. A statistically significant, yet trivial, effect was found in the proportion of compressions with total release of the chest wall.
Instructions to "put the phone down" had no effect on the quality of bystander initiated dispatcher-assisted CPR in this trial.
Resuscitation 03/2008; 76(2):249-55. · 3.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Response times for pre-hospital emergency care may be improved with the use of algorithms that analyzes historical patterns in incident location and suggests optimal places for pre-positioning of emergency response units. We will develop such an algorithm based on cluster analysis and test whether it leads to significant improvement in mileage when compared to actual historical data of dispatching based on fixed stations.
AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium 02/2006;