[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases of childhood. Knowledge, of which bacteria are the most common pathogens in AOM and their susceptibilities towards antibiotics, is essential for the reasonable empiric treatment. With rapidly increasing frequencies of antibiotic resistance surveillance of the common etiologic pathogens has become pertinent. The purpose of this paper is to present the bacteriological findings and antibiotic susceptibilities, in cultures from nasopharyngeal swabs, in Danish children with AOM.
Children aged up to 10 years who had AOM diagnosed in general practice in Denmark were swabbed in nasopharynx, cultures were incubated and susceptibility testing was performed as tablet diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test.
We included 331 patients, in 257 bacteria were found, which could be classified as commonly ear pathogenic. The most frequent bacteria found was Streptococcus pneumoniae followed by Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Ninety-six percent of the tested S. pneumoniae were susceptible towards penicillin and 99% towards erythromycin. Eighty-nine percent of the H. influenzae were susceptible to ampicillin and all tested M. catarrhalis were susceptible towards erythromycin. In more than 30% of H. influenzae MIC of phenoxymethylpenicillin were above the level that could be achieved in middle ear fluid.
Antimicrobial resistance is still infrequent in pathogens that might cause AOM in children in Denmark; this is probably due to minimal use of antibiotics as well as the use of phenoxymethylpenicillin as primary drug for treatment of AOM. Phenoxymethylpenicillin and azithromycin are not efficient for treating the majority of infections due to H. influenzae.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 10/2004; 68(9):1149-55. DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2004.04.008 · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Denmark, tetracycline resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes is frequent (>30%) whereas macrolide resistance is low (<5%). The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background of tetracycline- and macrolide resistance in macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes (MRSP) and to investigate the correlation between the use of macrolide and tetracycline and macrolide resistance using international data. A total of 133 MRSP isolates were received at Statens Serum Institut from nine Danish clinical microbiology laboratories between. November 2000, and November 2002. The macrolide-resistance genes, erm(B), erm(A), and mef(A) were detected in 46%, 18%, and 32% of the tested MRSP isolates, respectively. In 4% of MRSP isolates, none of the MR genes were detected. Tetracycline resistance was found in 52% of MRSP. Tetracycline resistance was encoded by either tet(M) or tet(O). erm(B) and mef(A) were associated with tet(M). Sixteen different T types were detected among the 133 MRSP. Analysis of the importance of antibiotic use for development of macrolide resistance in S. pyogenes showed no correlation with macrolide use alone (p = 0.15) but a significant correlation (p = 0.03) for the combination of macrolide and tetracycline use. The frequency of macrolide resistance in Danish S. pyogenes was low and mainly due to erm genes. A high frequency of macrolide-tetracycline coresistance in S. pyogenes is found in many countries including Denmark, hence tetracycline use must be considered as a co-factor in selection of MRSP.
Microbial Drug Resistance 02/2004; 10(3):231-8. DOI:10.1089/mdr.2004.10.231 · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotype VIII group B streptococcus has only rarely been described outside Japan. The Streptococcus Unit, Statens Serum Institut, performed national surveillance of invasive group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases in Denmark in 1999 to 2002 and identified seven clinical GBS isolates of serotype VIII in blood from seven patients admitted to different hospitals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacteremia with beta-hemolytic Streptococci groups A, B, C and G has a mortality rate of approximately 20%. In this study we analyzed the association of various patient risk factors with mortality. Records from 241 patients with beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were reviewed with particular attention to which predisposing factors were predictors of death. A logistic regression model found age, burns, immunosuppressive treatment and iatrogenic procedures prior to the infection to be significant predictors of death, with odds ratios of 1.7 (per decade), 19.7, 3.6 and 6.8, respectively. In bacteremic patients with erysipelas, mortality increased from 8% to 50% when bullae were observed. No HIV-positive patients or IVDUs died as a result of their bacteremic episode. Surprisingly, we found 49% resistance to tetracycline.