ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetic profiles of azithromycin given as a single-dose regimen (2.0-g extended-release microspheres) were characterized in serum and white blood cells (WBC) and compared with those of a 3-day regimen (a 500-mg immediate-release tablet once daily; total dose, 1.5 g) in an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study of 24 healthy adult subjects. Serial blood samples were collected up to 5 days after the start of dosing for both regimens. Safety assessments were conducted throughout the study. A single 2.0-g dose of azithromycin microspheres achieved significantly higher exposures in serum and WBC during the first 24 h after the start of dosing than a 3-day regimen: an approximately threefold higher area under the curve from time zero to 24 h postdose (AUC(0-24)) and an approximately twofold higher mean peak concentration on day 1. The single-dose regimen provided total azithromycin exposures in serum and WBC similar to those of the 3-day regimen, as evidenced by the similar AUC(0-120) and trough azithromycin concentrations in serum and WBC (mononuclear leukocytes [MNL] and polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNL]). For both regimens, the average total azithromycin exposures in MNL and PMNL were approximately 300- and 600-fold higher than those in serum. Azithromycin concentrations in MNL and PMNL remained above 10 microg/ml for at least 5 days after the start of dosing for both regimens. This "front-loading" of the dose on day 1 is safely achieved by the extended-release microsphere formulation, which maximizes the drug exposure at the time when the bacterial burden is likely to be highest.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2007; 51(1):103-9. · 4.84 Impact Factor