H Hilger Ropers

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlín, Berlin, Germany

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Publications (34)245.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Next-generation sequencing has greatly accelerated the search for disease-causing defects, but even for experts the data analysis can be a major challenge. To facilitate the data processing in a clinical setting, we have developed a novel Medical Re-sequencing Analysis Pipeline (MERAP). MERAP assesses the quality of sequencing, and has optimized capacity for calling variants, including Single Nucleotide Variants, insertions and deletions, Copy Number Variation, and other structural variants. MERAP identifies polymorphic and known causal variants by filtering against public-domain databases, and flags non-synonymous and splice-site changes. MERAP uses a logistic model to estimate the causal likelihood of a given missense variant. MERAP considers the relevant information such as phenotype and interaction with known disease-causing genes. MERAP compares favorably with GATK, one of the widely used tools, because of its higher sensitivity for detecting indels, its easy installation, and its economical use of computational resources. Upon testing more than 1200 individuals with mutations in known and novel disease genes, MERAP proved highly reliable, as illustrated here for 5 families with disease-causing variants. We believe that the clinical implementation of MERAP will expedite the diagnostic process of many disease-causing defects.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Human Mutation 09/2014; · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the context of a comprehensive research project, investigating novel autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ARID) genes, linkage analysis based on autozygosity mapping helped identify an intellectual disability locus on Chr.12q24, in an Iranian family (LOD score=3.7). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) following exon enrichment in this novel interval, detected a nonsense mutation (p.Q1010*) in the CLIP1 gene. CLIP1 encodes a member of microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking proteins, which specifically associates with the ends of growing MTs. These proteins regulate MT dynamic behavior and are important for MT-mediated transport over the length of axons and dendrites. As such, CLIP1 may have a role in neuronal development. We studied lymphoblastoid and skin fibroblast cell lines established from healthy and affected patients. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed the absence of CLIP1 transcript and protein in lymphoblastoid cells derived from affected patients. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analyses showed MT plus-end staining only in fibroblasts containing the wild-type (and not the mutant) CLIP1 protein. Collectively, our data suggest that defects in CLIP1 may lead to ARID.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 26 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.13.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 02/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Luciana Musante, H Hilger Ropers
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    ABSTRACT: Most severe forms of intellectual disability (ID) have specific genetic causes. Numerous X chromosome gene defects and disease-causing copy-number variants have been linked to ID and related disorders, and recent studies have revealed that sporadic cases are often due to dominant de novo mutations with low recurrence risk. For autosomal recessive ID (ARID) the recurrence risk is high and, in populations with frequent parental consanguinity, ARID is the most common form of ID. Even so, its elucidation has lagged behind. Here we review recent progress in this field, show that ARID is not rare even in outbred Western populations, and discuss the prospects for improving its diagnosis and prevention.
    Trends in Genetics 10/2013; · 9.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Molecular diagnostics can resolve locus heterogeneity underlying clinical phenotypes that may otherwise be co-assigned as a specific syndrome based on shared clinical features, as well as associate phenotypically diverse diseases to a single locus through allelic affinity. Here we describe a novel syndrome, likely caused by de novo truncating mutations in ASXL3, which shares characteristics with Bohring-Opitz syndrome, a disease associated with de novo truncating mutations in ASXL1. METHODS: We used whole genome and whole exome sequencing to interrogate the genomes of 4 subjects with an undiagnosed syndrome. RESULTS: Using genome wide sequencing we identified heterozygous, de novo truncating mutations in ASXL3, a transcriptional repressor related to ASXL1, in four unrelated probands. We found that these probands shared similar phenotypes including severe feeding difficulties, failure-to-thrive and neurologic abnormalities with significant developmental delay. Further, they showed less phenotypic overlap with patients who had de novo truncating mutations in ASXL1. CONCLUSION: We have identified truncating mutations in ASXL3 as the likely cause of a novel syndrome with phenotypic overlap with Bohring-Opitz syndrome.
    Genome Medicine 02/2013; 5(2):11. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With a prevalence between 1 and 3%, hereditary forms of intellectual disability (ID) are among the most important problems in health care. Particularly, autosomal-recessive forms of the disorder have a very heterogeneous molecular basis, and genes with an increased number of disease-causing mutations are not common. Here, we report on three different mutations (two nonsense mutations, c.679C>T [p.Gln227(∗)] and c.1114C>T [p.Gln372(∗)], as well as one splicing mutation, g.6622224A>C [p.Ile179Argfs(∗)192]) that cause a loss of the tRNA-methyltransferase-encoding NSUN2 main transcript in homozygotes. We identified the mutations by sequencing exons and exon-intron boundaries within the genomic region where the linkage intervals of three independent consanguineous families of Iranian and Kurdish origin overlapped with the previously described MRT5 locus. In order to gain further evidence concerning the effect of a loss of NSUN2 on memory and learning, we constructed a Drosophila model by deleting the NSUN2 ortholog, CG6133, and investigated the mutants by using molecular and behavioral approaches. When the Drosophila melanogaster NSUN2 ortholog was deleted, severe short-term-memory (STM) deficits were observed; STM could be rescued by re-expression of the wild-type protein in the nervous system. The humans homozygous for NSUN2 mutations showed an overlapping phenotype consisting of moderate to severe ID and facial dysmorphism (which includes a long face, characteristic eyebrows, a long nose, and a small chin), suggesting that mutations in this gene might even induce a syndromic form of ID. Moreover, our observations from the Drosophila model point toward an evolutionarily conserved role of RNA methylation in normal cognitive development.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 04/2012; 90(5):847-55. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Common diseases are often complex because they are genetically heterogeneous, with many different genetic defects giving rise to clinically indistinguishable phenotypes. This has been amply documented for early-onset cognitive impairment, or intellectual disability, one of the most complex disorders known and a very important health care problem worldwide. More than 90 different gene defects have been identified for X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability alone, but research into the more frequent autosomal forms of intellectual disability is still in its infancy. To expedite the molecular elucidation of autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, we have now performed homozygosity mapping, exon enrichment and next-generation sequencing in 136 consanguineous families with autosomal-recessive intellectual disability from Iran and elsewhere. This study, the largest published so far, has revealed additional mutations in 23 genes previously implicated in intellectual disability or related neurological disorders, as well as single, probably disease-causing variants in 50 novel candidate genes. Proteins encoded by several of these genes interact directly with products of known intellectual disability genes, and many are involved in fundamental cellular processes such as transcription and translation, cell-cycle control, energy metabolism and fatty-acid synthesis, which seem to be pivotal for normal brain development and function.
    Nature 09/2011; 478(7367):57-63. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic variants leading to impairment of intellectual performance are highly diverse and are still poorly understood. ST3GAL3 encodes the Golgi enzyme β-galactoside-α2,3-sialyltransferase-III that in humans predominantly forms the sialyl Lewis a epitope on proteins. ST3GAL3 resides on chromosome 1 within the MRT4 locus previously identified to associate with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability. We searched for the disease-causing mutations in the MRT4 family and a second independent consanguineous Iranian family by using a combination of chromosome sorting and next-generation sequencing. Two different missense changes in ST3GAL3 cosegregate with the disease but were absent in more than 1000 control chromosomes. In cellular and biochemical test systems, these mutations were shown to cause ER retention of the Golgi enzyme and drastically impair ST3Gal-III functionality. Our data provide conclusive evidence that glycotopes formed by ST3Gal-III are prerequisite for attaining and/or maintaining higher cognitive functions.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2011; 89(3):407-14. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the development of the human brain, and much of this knowledge comes from genetic studies of disorders associated with abnormal brain development. We employed array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate copy number variants (CNVs) in a cohort of 169 patients with various structural brain malformations including lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, focal cortical dysplasia, and corpus callosum agenesis. The majority of the patients had intellectual disabilities (ID) and suffered from symptomatic epilepsy. We detected at least one rare CNV in 38 patients (22.5%). All genes located within the rare CNVs were subjected to enrichment analysis for specific Gene Ontology Terms or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways and to protein-protein network analysis. Based on these analyses, we propose that genes involved in "axonal transport," "cation transmembrane transporter activity," and the "c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade" play a significant role in the etiology of brain malformations. This is to the best of our knowledge the first systematic study of CNVs in patients with structural brain malformations and our data show that CNVs play an important role in the etiology of these malformations, either as direct causes or as genetic risk factors.
    Human Mutation 08/2011; 32(12):1427-35. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic basis of autosomal recessive mental retardation (ARMR) is extremely heterogeneous, and there is reason to suspect that the number of underlying gene defects may well go beyond 1,000. To date, however, only less than 10 genes have been implicated in non-specific/non-syndromic ARMR (NS-ARMR). As part of an ongoing systematic study aiming to identify further ARMR genes, we investigated a consanguineous family with three patients with NS-ARMR. By linkage analysis and subsequent mutation screening we identified a novel nonsense mutation (c.163C > T [p.Q55X]) in the second exon of the TUSC3 gene. This is the third MR causing defect in TUSC3 to be described and the second independent mutation in this gene in a cohort of more than 200 ARMR families from the Iranian population. This argues for a more prominent role of TUSC3 in the etiology of this genetically heterogeneous disorder as compared to most of the other so far identified ARMR genes.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2011; 155A(8):1976-80. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used genome-wide genotyping to identify an overlapping homozygosity-by-descent locus on chromosome 9q34.3 (MRT15) in four consanguineous families affected by nonsyndromic autosomal-recessive intellectual disability (NS-ARID) and one in which the patients show additional clinical features. Four of the families are from Pakistan, and one is from Iran. Using a combination of next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing, we have identified mutations in the gene MAN1B1, encoding a mannosyl oligosaccharide, alpha 1,2-mannosidase. In one Pakistani family, MR43, a homozygous nonsense mutation (RefSeq number NM_016219.3: c.1418G>A [p.Trp473*]), segregated with intellectual disability and additional dysmorphic features. We also identified the missense mutation c. 1189G>A (p.Glu397Lys; RefSeq number NM_016219.3), which segregates with NS-ARID in three families who come from the same village and probably have shared inheritance. In the Iranian family, the missense mutation c.1000C>T (p.Arg334Cys; RefSeq number NM_016219.3) also segregates with NS-ARID. Both missense mutations are at amino acid residues that are conserved across the animal kingdom, and they either reduce k(cat) by ∼1300-fold or disrupt stable protein expression in mammalian cells. MAN1B1 is one of the few NS-ARID genes with an elevated mutation frequency in patients with NS-ARID from different populations.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2011; 89(1):176-82. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental retardation (MR) has a worldwide prevalence of around 2% and is a frequent cause of severe disability. Significant excess of MR in the progeny of consanguineous matings as well as functional considerations suggest that autosomal recessive forms of MR (ARMR) must be relatively common. To shed more light on the causes of autosomal recessive MR (ARMR), we have set out in 2003 to perform systematic clinical studies and autozygosity mapping in large consanguineous Iranian families with non-syndromic ARMR (NS-ARMR). As previously reported (Najmabadi et al. in Hum Genet 121:43-48, 2007), this led us to the identification of 12 novel ARMR loci, 8 of which had a significant LOD score (OMIM: MRT5-12). In the meantime, we and others have found causative gene defects in two of these intervals. Moreover, as reported here, tripling the size of our cohort has enabled us to identify 27 additional unrelated families with NS-ARMR and single-linkage intervals; 14 of these define novel loci for non-syndromic ARMR. Altogether, 13 out of 39 single linkage intervals observed in our cohort were found to cluster at 6 different loci on chromosomes, i.e., 1p34, 4q27, 5p15, 9q34, 11p11-q13 and 19q13, respectively. Five of these clusters consist of two significantly overlapping linkage intervals, and on chr 1p34, three single linkage intervals coincide, including the previously described MRT12 locus. The probability for this distribution to be due to chance is only 1.14 × 10(-5), as shown by Monte Carlo simulation. Thus, in contrast to our previous conclusions, these novel data indicate that common molecular causes of NS-ARMR do exist, and in the Iranian population, the most frequent ones may well account for several percent of the patients. These findings will be instrumental in the identification of the underlying genes.
    Human Genetics 11/2010; 129(2):141-8. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    Hans Hilger Ropers
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    ABSTRACT: Intellectual disability (ID) is the leading socio-economic problem of health care, but compared to autism and schizophrenia, it has received very little public attention. Important risk factors for ID are malnutrition, cultural deprivation, poor health care, and parental consanguinity. In the Western world, fetal alcohol exposure is the most common preventable cause. Most severe forms of ID have genetic causes. Cytogenetically detectable and submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements account for approximately 25% of all cases. X-linked gene defects are responsible in 10-12% of males with ID; to date, 91 of these defects have been identified. In contrast, autosomal gene defects have been largely disregarded, but due to coordinated efforts and the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing, this is about to change. As shown for Fra(X) syndrome, this renewed focus on autosomal gene defects will pave the way for molecular diagnosis and prevention, shed more light on the pathogenesis of ID, and reveal new opportunities for therapy.
    Annual review of genomics and human genetics 09/2010; 11:161-87. · 11.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ZNF630 is a member of the primate-specific Xp11 zinc finger gene cluster that consists of six closely related genes, of which ZNF41, ZNF81, and ZNF674 have been shown to be involved in mental retardation. This suggests that mutations of ZNF630 might influence cognitive function. Here, we detected 12 ZNF630 deletions in a total of 1,562 male patients with mental retardation from Brazil, USA, Australia, and Europe. The breakpoints were analyzed in 10 families, and in all cases they were located within two segmental duplications that share more than 99% sequence identity, indicating that the deletions resulted from non-allelic homologous recombination. In 2,121 healthy male controls, 10 ZNF630 deletions were identified. In total, there was a 1.6-fold higher frequency of this deletion in males with mental retardation as compared to controls, but this increase was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.174). Conversely, a 1.9-fold lower frequency of ZNF630 duplications was observed in patients, which was not significant either (P-value = 0.163). These data do not show that ZNF630 deletions or duplications are associated with mental retardation.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 02/2010; 152A(3):638-45. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental retardation/intellectual disability is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with serious impact on affected individuals and their families, as well as on health and social services. It occurs with a prevalence of approximately 2%, is an etiologically heterogeneous condition, and is frequently the result of genetic aberrations. Autosomal-recessive forms of nonsyndromic MR (NS-ARMR) are believed to be common, yet only five genes have been identified. We have used homozygosity mapping to search for the gene responsible for NS-ARMR in a large Pakistani pedigree. Using Affymetrix 5.0 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays, we identified a 3.2 Mb region on 8q24 with a continuous run of 606 homozygous SNPs shared among all affected members of the family. Additional genotype data from microsatellite markers verified this, allowing us to calculate a two-point LOD score of 5.18. Within this region, we identified a truncating homozygous mutation, R475X, in exon 7 of the gene TRAPPC9. In a second large NS-ARMR/ID family, previously linked to 8q24 in a study of Iranian families, we identified a 4 bp deletion within exon 14 of TRAPPC9, also segregating with the phenotype and truncating the protein. This gene encodes NIK- and IKK-beta-binding protein (NIBP), which is involved in the NF-kappaB signaling pathway and directly interacts with IKK-beta and MAP3K14. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of affected individuals indicates the presence of mild cerebral white matter hypoplasia. Microcephaly is present in some but not all affected individuals. Thus, to our knowledge, this is the sixth gene for NS-ARMR to be discovered.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 12/2009; 85(6):909-15. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on three siblings with a novel mental retardation (MR) syndrome who were born to distantly related Iranian parents. The clinical problems comprised severe MR, cataracts with onset in late adolescence, kyphosis, contractures of large joints, bulbous nose with broad nasal bridge, and thick lips. Two patients also had uni- or bilateral iris coloboma. Linkage analysis revealed a single 10.4 Mb interval of homozygosity with significant LOD score in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4 flanked by SNPs rs728293 (4p12) and rs1105434 (4q12). This interval contains more than 40 genes, none of which has been implicated in MR so far. The identification of the causative gene defect for this syndrome will provide new insights into the development of the brain and the eye.Keywords: mental retardation, autosomal recessive, consanguinity, cataract, coloboma, kyphosis
    European Journal of HumanGenetics 09/2008; 17(1):125-128. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Balanced chromosome rearrangements (BCRs) can cause genetic diseases by disrupting or inactivating specific genes, and the characterization of breakpoints in disease-associated BCRs has been instrumental in the molecular elucidation of a wide variety of genetic disorders. However, mapping chromosome breakpoints using traditional methods, such as in situ hybridization with fluorescent dye-labeled bacterial artificial chromosome clones (BAC-FISH), is rather laborious and time-consuming. In addition, the resolution of BAC-FISH is often insufficient to unequivocally identify the disrupted gene. To overcome these limitations, we have performed shotgun sequencing of flow-sorted derivative chromosomes using "next-generation" (Illumina/Solexa) multiplex sequencing-by-synthesis technology. As shown here for three different disease-associated BCRs, the coverage attained by this platform is sufficient to bridge the breakpoints by PCR amplification, and this procedure allows the determination of their exact nucleotide positions within a few weeks. Its implementation will greatly facilitate large-scale breakpoint mapping and gene finding in patients with disease-associated balanced translocations.
    Genome Research 08/2008; 18(7):1143-9. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    H Hilger Ropers
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    ABSTRACT: Early onset intellectual disability (ID) is one of the largest unsolved problems of health care. Yet, it has received very little public attention in the past because many health care professionals do not perceive it as a health condition but as a social or educational issue. In severe ID, cytogenetically visible chromosomal abnormalities like trisomy 21 continue to be common, but since the introduction of array CGH, it is becoming clear that submicroscopic deletions and duplications are equally frequent, yet previously overlooked causes of ID. Until recently, the search for gene defects causing ID has focused on the X-chromosome. So far, >80 genes have been implicated in X-linked ID, largely owing to coordinated efforts of international consortia, and mutations in these genes account for >50% of the families with this condition. Autosomal forms, either due to dominant de novo mutations or to recessive gene defects, are presumably (far) more common than X-linked ones, and their molecular elucidation is a new challenge for research in this field. As recently shown, autosomal recessive ID (ARID) is extremely heterogeneous, and common forms are unlikely to exist. Ongoing studies into the function of ID genes are shedding more light on the pathogenesis of this disorder, and there is reason to believe that at least some genetic forms of ID may be amenable to drug treatment.
    Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 08/2008; 18(3):241-50. · 7.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that autosomal recessive mental retardation (ARMR) is extremely heterogeneous, and there is reason to believe that the number of underlying gene defects goes into the thousands. To date, however, only four genes have been implicated in nonsyndromic ARMR (NS-ARMR): PRSS12 (neurotrypsin), CRBN (cereblon), CC2D1A, and GRIK2. As part of an ongoing systematic study aiming to identify ARMR genes, we investigated a large consanguineous family comprising seven patients with nonsyndromic ARMR in four sibships. Genome-wide SNP typing enabled us to map the relevant genetic defect to a 4.6 Mbp interval on chromosome 8. Haplotype analyses and copy-number studies led to the identification of a homozygous deletion partly removing TUSC3 (N33) in all patients. All obligate carriers of this family were heterozygous, but none of 192 unrelated healthy individuals from the same population carried this deletion. We excluded other disease-causing mutations in the coding regions of all genes within the linkage interval by sequencing; moreover, we verified the complete absence of a functional TUSC3 transcript in all patients through RT-PCR. TUSC3 is thought to encode a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum-bound oligosaccharyltransferase complex that catalyzes a pivotal step in the protein N-glycosylation process. Our data suggest that in contrast to other genetic defects of glycosylation, inactivation of TUSC3 causes nonsyndromic MR, a conclusion that is supported by a separate report in this issue of AJHG. TUSC3 is only the fifth gene implicated in NS-ARMR and the first for which mutations have been reported in more than one family.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2008; 82(5):1158-64. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    H.-Hilger Ropers
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    ABSTRACT: Seit etwa 15 Jahren hat sich die Genomforschung auf die Suche nach genetischen Risikofaktoren für häufige Krankheiten konzentriert, jedoch ohne großen Erfolg. Erst seit kurzem scheint sich das Blatt zu wenden, vor allem durch die Einführung von hochdichten DNS-Rastern zur Typisierung von „single nucleotide polymorphisms“ (SNPs) und durch Untersuchung sehr viel größerer Kohorten als bisher. Die meisten der bisher gefundenen genetischen Risikofaktoren sind jedoch nur für einen kleinen Teil des gesamten genetischen Risikos verantwortlich und ihr diagnostischer Wert ist vernachlässigbar. Es gibt Grund zu der Annahme, dass die Komplexität vieler „multifaktorieller“ Krankheiten primär auf genetische Heterogenität zurückgeht, also auf Defekte in verschiedenen Genen, welche dieselbe Krankheit verursachen. Darüber hinaus konnten neu auftretende submikroskopische Deletionen und Duplikationen als eine wichtige, bisher unbekannte Ursache für geistige Behinderung und andere komplexe Krankheiten identifiziert werden, und in mehreren Fällen konnten die damit assoziierten klinischen Befunde auf Störungen einzelner Gene zurückgeführt werden. Diese Befunde sprechen dafür, die Untersuchung der bisher vernachlässigten monogenen Krankheiten in den Mittelpunkt der Genomforschung zu stellen. U. a. durch die Einführung neuartiger Hochdurchsatz-Sequenziertechnologien ist die Aufklärung von Erbkrankheiten viel einfacher und billiger geworden mit weit reichenden Konsequenzen für die Diagnostik und Prävention genetisch bedingter Störungen, aber auch für die Krankenversorgung allgemein (Ropers, 2007).
    Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit 05/2008; 3:18-24. · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the thyroid monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8/SLC16A2) have been reported to result in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in patients with clinical features of the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS). We performed MCT8 mutation analysis including 13 XLMR families with LOD scores >2.0, 401 male MR sibships and 47 sporadic male patients with AHDS-like clinical features. One nonsense mutation (c.629insA) and two missense changes (c.1A>T and c.1673G>A) were identified. Consistent with previous reports on MCT8 missense changes, the patient with c.1673G>A showed elevated serum T3 level. The c.1A>T change in another patient affects a putative translation start codon, but the same change was present in his healthy brother. In addition normal serum T3 levels were present, suggesting that the c.1A>T (NM_006517) variation is not responsible for the MR phenotype but indicates that MCT8 translation likely starts with a methionine at position p.75. Moreover, we characterized a de novo translocation t(X;9)(q13.2;p24) in a female patient with full blown AHDS clinical features including elevated serum T3 levels. The MCT8 gene was disrupted at the X-breakpoint. A complete loss of MCT8 expression was observed in a fibroblast cell-line derived from this patient because of unfavorable nonrandom X-inactivation. Taken together, these data indicate that MCT8 mutations are not common in non-AHDS MR patients yet they support that elevated serum T3 levels can be indicative for AHDS and that AHDS clinical features can be present in female MCT8 mutation carriers whenever there is unfavorable nonrandom X-inactivation.
    European Journal of HumanGenetics 04/2008; 16(9):1029-37. · 4.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
245.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics
      • Department of Human Molecular Genetics
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
      • Genetics Research Center
      Tehrān, Ostan-e Tehran, Iran
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2008
    • Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands