[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-grain adaptation programs are widely used with feedlot cattle to balance enhanced growth performance against the risk of acidosis. This adaptation to a high-grain diet from a high-forage diet is known to change the rumen microbial population structure and help establish a stable microbial population within the rumen. Therefore, to evaluate bacterial population dynamics during adaptation to a high-grain diet, 4 ruminally cannulated beef steers were adapted to a high-grain diet using a step-up diet regimen containing grain and hay at ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20. The rumen bacterial populations were evaluated at each stage of the step-up diet after 1 week of adaptation, before the steers were transitioned to the next stage of the diet, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, 16S rRNA gene libraries, and quantitative real-time PCR. The T-RFLP analysis displayed a shift in the rumen microbial population structure during the final two stages of the step-up diet. The 16S rRNA gene libraries demonstrated two distinct rumen microbial populations in hay-fed and high-grain-fed animals and detected only 24 common operational taxonomic units out of 398 and 315, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene libraries of hay-fed animals contained a significantly higher number of bacteria belonging to the phylum Fibrobacteres, whereas the 16S rRNA gene libraries of grain-fed animals contained a significantly higher number of bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Real-time PCR analysis detected significant fold increases in the Megasphaera elsdenii, Streptococcus bovis, Selenomonas ruminantium, and Prevotella bryantii populations during adaptation to the high-concentrate (high-grain) diet, whereas the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Fibrobacter succinogenes populations gradually decreased as the animals were adapted to the high-concentrate diet. This study evaluates the rumen microbial population using several molecular approaches and presents a broader picture of the rumen microbial population structure during adaptation to a high-grain diet from a forage diet.
Applied and environmental microbiology 11/2010; 76(22):7482-90. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spring-born Hereford x Angus heifers (n = 206) were used to determine effects of energy supplementation programs and amount of starch in the diet on incidence of puberty. In Exp. 1, heifers (205 +/- 5 kg; n = 68) grazing dormant native pasture were fed 0.9 kg/d (as-fed basis) of a 42% CP supplement from November until February 14. Heifers were stratified by weaning weight and allotted randomly to treatment before breeding (May to July). Treatments were 1) 0.9 kg (as-fed basis) of a 42% CP supplement/d and pasture (control); 2) a high-starch (HS) diet (73% corn; 53% starch) fed in a drylot for 60 d (HS-60); 3) a HS diet fed in drylot for 30 d (HS-30); or 4) a low-starch (LS) diet (49% corn; 37% starch) self-fed on pasture for 30 d (LS-30). The HS-60 and HS-30 heifers were limited-fed to gain 0.9 kg/d, and the LS-30 heifers had ad libitum access to the diet. High-starch-60 and LS-30 heifers were heavier (P < 0.05) than control and HS-30 heifers at the beginning of the breeding season. Thirty-one, 25, and 26% more HS-60 heifers were pubertal (P < 0.05) on May 1 compared with LS-30, HS-30, and control heifers, respectively. At puberty, HS-60 heifers were 24 and 22 d younger (P < 0.05) than LS-30 and control heifers, and 31 kg lighter (P < 0.01) than LS-30 heifers. In Exp. 2, heifers grazed dormant pasture and were fed 0.9 kg (as-fed basis) of a 42% CP supplement/d from weaning in October to late February; then heifers were assigned randomly to treatments for 60 d before the breeding season. In two years, control heifers (n = 46) grazed pasture and received 0.9 kg of SBM supplement/d; LS (n = 46) heifers were self-fed a distiller's grain and soybean hull-based diet in drylot; and HS heifers (n = 46) were limited-fed a corn-based diet in drylot. During treatment, HS and LS heifers had greater weight gains than control heifers. Pubertal BW (313 +/- 6 kg) was not influenced by treatment, but HS and LS heifers were younger (P < 0.03) than control heifers at puberty. During a 60-d breeding period, the incidence of puberty was greater (P < 0.05) for HS and LS heifers than for control heifers and was greater (P < 0.05) in HS than in LS heifers in Year 1. Feeding a LS or a HS diet for 30 d before breeding may be inadequate to stimulate puberty in beef heifers, but feeding a diet with a greater amount of starch for 60 d before breeding may increase the incidence of puberty during breeding of heifers that have inadequate yearling weight.
Journal of Animal Science 12/2005; 83(11):2653-62. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of balancing total diet degradable intake protein with dietary total digestible nutrients (TDN), we conducted two studies during 2 yr with 100 (302 +/- 8 kg initial BW) mixed-breed yearling steers and 12 ruminally cannulated steers (526 +/- 28 kg). Steers individually received one of four supplements 5 d/wk while grazing dormant native tallgrass prairie. Supplements included: 1) corn and soybean meal, balanced for total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN (CRSBM), 2) corn and soybean hulls, equal in supplemental TDN to CRSBM (CORN), 3) soybean meal, equal in supplemental degradable intake protein to CRSBM (SBM), or 4) a cottonseed hull-based control supplement (CONT). At each feeding (5 d/wk), steers consumed 13.6, 13.6, or 4.2 g of dry matter/kg of body weight, or 178 g of DM, respectively, of supplement. Steers fed CRSBM had greater (P < 0.01) average daily gain than cattle fed CORN or SBM. Feeding soybean meal (CRSBM, SBM) resulted in improved (P < 0.01) efficiency of supplement. Grazing time, intensity, and harvesting efficiency were reduced (P < 0.05) by corn supplementation (CRSBM and CORN), whereas the number of grazing bouts per day was increased (P < 0.08). Intake and digestibility of forage organic matter were reduced (P < 0.01) for steers supplemented with corn (CORN and CRSBM) vs cattle not fed corn (SBM and CONT). Total diet digestibility (P < 0.12) and digestible organic matter intake (P < 0.01) were greater for CRSBM-fed steers than for cattle fed either CORN or SBM. Steers fed CRSBM had greater (P < 0.01) fecal nitrogen and serum insulin than cattle fed CORN or SBM. Corn-fed cattle had lesser (P < 0.01) fecal pH and ADF concentrations than steers not consuming grain. Cattle fed supplements with soybean meal (CRSBM and SBM) had greater (P < 0.01) serum urea nitrogen than steers fed supplements without soybean meal (CORN, CONT). Supplemented steers grazing dormant tallgrass prairie had a greater rate of gain, with the greatest response in animal performance occurring when grain supplements were balanced for total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN. These results lead us to suggest that grain-supplemented cattle grazing dormant tallgrass prairie require a balance of total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN to optimize animal performance.
Journal of Animal Science 01/2003; 81(1):304-17. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplement type on the rate of gain by heifers grazing bermudagrass and on the intake, apparent total-tract OM digestibility, ruminal fermentation, digesta kinetics, in situ DM digestibility, and forage protein degradation by steers fed prairie hay. In Exp. 1, 45 heifers (284+/-24 kg) grazed a bermudagrass pasture for 91 d in the late summer to determine the effects of no supplement (CON), or one of four individually fed monensin-containing (150 mg/[heifer x d]) supplements (MINCS; 0.1 kg of mineral mix with 0.2 kg [DM] of cottonseed hulls as a carrier/[heifer x d]), a pelleted protein supplement (PROT; 1 kg of DM, 242 g of degradable intake protein [DIP]/[heifer x d]), or high-fiber (HF) and high-grain (HG) (2 kg of DM, 243 and 257 g of DIP, respectively/[heifer x d]) pelleted energy supplements. In Exp. 2, four ruminally cannulated steers (311+/-22 kg) with ad libitum access to low-quality (4% DIP, 73% NDF, 40% ADF) prairie hay were individually fed monensin-containing (200 mg/[steer x d]) treatments consisting of 1) mineral mix + corn (MINCR; 0.1 kg of mineral and 0.4 kg of cracked corn [DM] as a carrier, 19 g of DIP/[steer x d]), 2) PROT (1.4 kg of DM, 335 g of DIP/[steer x d]), 3) HF, or 4) HG (2.9 kg of DM, 340 and 360 g of DIP, respectively/[steer x d]) in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 14-d adaptation and 6-d sampling periods. In Exp. 1, the HF-, HG-, and PROT-supplemented heifers had greater (P < 0.01) rates of gain than CON heifers, and the HF- and HG-supplemented heifers tended (P < 0.11) to gain more weight than those fed PROT. In Exp. 2, steers fed PROT consumed more (P < 0.05) hay OM than HF and HG, or MINCR. Total OM intake was greater (P < 0.01) by supplemented steers than MINCR-fed cattle. Hay OM digestibility was not affected (P = 0.19) by treatment, but total diet OM digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) for HF- and HG- than for MINCR- or PROT-fed steers. The rate of in situ DM digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) for HF, HG, and PROT than for MINCR. Results from these studies indicate that feeding milo- vs fiber-based energy supplements formulated to provide adequate DIP did not result in different forage intake, OM digestibility, or in situ DM digestibility, whereas both increased ADG in heifers consuming low-quality forages compared with unsupplemented or mineral- or protein-supplemented cattle. An adequate DIP:TDN balance decreased the negative associative effects often observed when large quantities of high-starch supplements are fed with low-quality hay.
Journal of Animal Science 04/2001; 79(4):1041-51. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Live weight gains of light and heavy calves grazing Plains Old World bluestem at three stocking rates were evaluated during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Initial weights of mixed-breed light-weight steers (LHT) were 141 SD = 17 kg (n = 214) in 1997 and 160 SD = 23 kg (n = 193) in 1998. Initial weights of mixed-breed heavy steers (HWT) were 265 SD = 17 kg (n = 115) in 1997 and 248 SD = 13 kg (n = 126) in 1998. Initial stocking rates for both sizes of steers were as follows: light, 392 kg of live weight/ha; moderate, 504 kg of live weight/ha (increased to 616 kg live weight/ha in 1998); and heavy, 840 kg of live weight/ ha. Averaged gain and gain/hectare are reported as stocking rate by steer type within year. Heavy steers had greater ADG than LHT steers during both years. Forage intake, expressed as a percentage of BW, was greater (P = 0.05) for LHT (3.1%) than for HWT (2.8%) calves. Grazing time (min/d; 1998 only) was greater (P = 0.05) for LHT (665) than for HWT (624) steers. Forage CP and in vivo digestible organic matter (DOM) were slightly greater (P < 0.05) in pastures grazed by HWT vs LHT cattle. Gain/hectare was greater (P < 0.05) for LHT than for HWT calves at all three stocking rates during both years. A linear decline in ADG was observed (P < 0.07) as stocking rates increased for HWT steers in 1997 and LHT steers in 1998. However, ADG did not decline with increasing stocking rate for LHT calves during 1997 or HWT calves during 1998. Forage intake was not different among stocking rates in either 1997 or 1998. Grazing time was greatest (P < 0.05) for steers in the moderate and heavy stocking rates. Forage in vivo DOM decreased (P < 0.05) as stocking rate increased. Both LHT and HWT steers had lower (P < 0.05) ADG at all three stocking rates during 1998 compared with 1997. Despite lower ADG, LHT steers had greater gain/hectare than HWT steers during both 1997 and 1998.
Journal of Animal Science 03/2001; 79(2):493-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prairie hay supplemented with various amounts of corn and soybean meal was fed to steers in two experiments. Effects of supplementation on hay OM intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation and kinetics were measured. A preliminary study was conducted to attain accurate values for OM intake and digestibility of prairie hay to be used in ration formulation using the NRC (1996) level 1 model. Ten steers (284 +/- 9 kg) given ad libitum access to chopped prairie hay (75% NDF, 6% CP) were supplemented with dry-rolled corn (0.75% of BW/d) plus soybean meal (0.25% of BW/d). Hay OM intake was 1.85% of BW and hay OM digestibility was 48%. Based on results from the preliminary study, eight ruminally cannulated beef steers (317 +/- 25 kg) received a sequence of eight different supplementation combinations (2 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments). These supplements consisted of dry-rolled corn at either 0 or 0.75% of BW (DM basis) daily combined with one of four amounts of added soybean meal to provide between 0 and 1.3 g of degradable intake protein (DIP)/kg of BW. After supplements had been fed for 10 d, feces were collected for 4 d. Intake of hay and total OM increased quadratically (P < 0.01) in response to added DIP with or without supplemental corn. Hay OM digestibility increased quadratically (P = 0.03) as DIP was added when corn was fed in the supplement. Intake of digestible OM was greater (P < 0.01) with than without corn supplementation. Increasing DIP increased (P < 0.01) digestible OM intake regardless of whether corn was fed. Inadequate ruminally degraded protein in grain-based supplements decreased forage intake, digestibility, and energy intake of cattle fed low-quality prairie hay. Providing adequate supplemental DIP to meet total diet DIP needs seemed to overcome negative associative effects typically found from supplementing low-quality forages with large quantities of low-protein, high-starch feeds.
Journal of Animal Science 12/2000; 78(12):3144-54. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of short-term progestin administration to resynchronize the second estrus after artificial insemination in yearling beef heifers. In Trial 1 crossbred yearling heifers (n = 208) were synchronized with Syncro-Mate-B (SMB) and artificially inseminated (AI) between 48 and 54 h following implant removal. Implant removal is defined as Day 1. Following AI, the heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups. Group 1 heifers were fed melengestrol acetate (MGA) daily from Day 17 to 21 at a rate of 0.5 mg/head, while Group 2 control received no exogenous progestin during this period. Synchrony of estrus was defined as the 3-d period in which the highest number of heifers expressed behavioral estrus in each group. There was no difference (P < 0.05) in the pregnancy rate during the second estrus due to MGA supplementation. More MGA-treated heifers (P < 0.01) expressed estrus in a 3-d period than the controls. In Trial 2, yearling heifers (n = 108) were synchronized with 2 injections of PGF(2alpha) (second PGF(2alpha) injection is designated as Day 1) administered 14 d apart with AI 12 h after the onset of behavioral estrus. The heifers were then randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups after initial AI: 1) MGA fed at 0.5 mg/head daily from Days 17 to 21; 2) norgestomet administered in 6.0-mg implants from Days 17 to 21; 3) untreated control heifers. Blood samples were collected on Day 21 and analyzed for progesterone (P(4)). Elevated P(4) (> 1 ng/ml) on Day 21 indicated pregnancy to the first insemination. Synchrony among the 3 groups of heifers was similar (P > 0.10); however, the second estrus was less (P < 0.05) variable in the MGA and norgestomet treated heifers. During the resynchronized second estrus, conception rates were not affected by progestin treatment (MGA 40%, norgestomet 64%, and control 62%; P > 0.10). However, a proportion of heifers treated MGA 10% 4 36 and norgestomet 3% 1 36 expressed behavioral estrus during second estrus even though they were diagnosed as pregnant from first service by elevated P(4) levels on Day 21. We conclude that short-term use of progestin from Days 17 to 21 following AI causes closer synchrony of estrus; however, inseminating pregnant heifers that exhibit behavioral estrus may cause abortion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two hundred eighty-eight heifer calves in two 1-yr replications were used to test the hypothesis that ionophore (ION) feeding, anthelmintic (ANT) administration, or the combination (COMB) would cause heifers to express pubertal estrus at a younger age than control (CONT) heifers. Heifers were assigned randomly within three weight blocks in a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A high-fiber diet was fed for 172 d during yr 1 (Y1) and 199 d during yr 2 (Y2). Monensin sodium (200mg.animal-1.d-1) was fed to ION and COMB treatments and ivermectin (200 micrograms/kg of BW) was given to ANT and COMB groups at weaning and 84 d later. Rate of gain was monitored every 21 d and diet intake was adjusted to obtain equal rates of gain across treatments. Fecal samples were collected from one-third of the heifers in each group and analyzed for internal parasite egg counts every 21 d. Serum progesterone samples taken twice weekly were used to estimate onset of puberty. There was no treatment x year interaction in any parameter measured and the data were pooled across both years. Total weight gain was similar (P > .10) for all treatments. Fecal egg output decreased (P < .01) after initial application of anthelmintic. The ANT, ION, and COMB heifers had greater (P < .05) gain:feed ratios than did CONT (.132, .142, and .148 vs .125 kg for ANT, ION, COMB, and CONT, respectively). Age and weight at puberty were different (P < .05) for ION (425 d, 351.8 kg), COMB (425 d, 349.5 kg), and ANT (424 d, 348.8 kg) compared with CONT (433 d, 362.5 kg). There was no difference (P > .10) in age and weight at puberty between COMB, ION, or ANT heifers. During Y1, but not Y2, there were a greater (P < .05) number of COMB, ION, and ANT heifers pubertal before the breeding season. Additionally, there was a tendency (P = .12) for higher first-service conception in the COMB, ION, and ANT heifers than in the CONT heifers. Final pregnancy rates among treatments were similar (P > .10).
Journal of Animal Science 04/1996; 74(4):736-44. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In three consecutive years, spring-calving Hereford and Hereford x Angus cows (n = 348) were used to determine effects of level of supplemental energy or protein before and after calving on cowherd performance. Beginning on November 1, cows were individually fed 1.22 kg/d of a 40% CP (PROTEIN) or 2.44 kg/d of a 20% CP supplement (ENERGY) until calving. After calving, cows remained on the same supplement, were switched to the other supplement, or were fed 2.44 kg/d of a 40% CP supplement (HI PROT). Supplementation ended on April 20, the start of a 65-d breeding season. Cows fed ENERGY during gestation had greater BW gains (9 kg) at calving than PROTEIN-fed cows (P < .01). Calf weaning weight was not affected by supplementation. Cows fed ENERGY before calving had an 11% greater pregnancy rate than the cows fed PROTEIN (P < .002). Cows fed PROTEIN or ENERGY after calving had similar BW gains but cows fed HI PROT after calving lost less BW during supplementation (P < .002). Pregnancy rates were not influenced by treatments fed for a short period after calving. In conclusion, conception rates were significantly improved by feeding greater levels of supplemental energy prepartum but not postpartum. Energy supplements can affect reproduction with minimal effects on BW or condition.
Journal of Animal Science 04/1995; 73(3):657-64. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of oxfendazole (Synanthic) on weight gain and reproductive performance of spring-born heifer calves was evaluated at five locations (IL, IN, MI, MO, ND). Three hundred thirty-eight mixed-breed beef heifers (293.4 kg) blocked by weight and age were randomly allotted to one of two treatments. Treatment 1 heifers were dewormed via intraruminal injection of oxfendazole. Treatment 2 heifers served as a control. Heifers were comingled during the winter phase in semi-confinement during the period from late January to late May (winter phase). Heifers were sorted by treatment at the beginning of the grazing season (approximately May 24, 1991) and remained separate until the end of the study (approximately July 31, 1991; summer phase). Dewormed heifers received oxfendazole (4.5 mg/kg BW) in late January and again 28 and 56 d after the beginning of the grazing season. Fecal samples were taken every 21 d from January through September and assayed for gastrointestinal parasite eggs. Fecal egg counts were similar across treatments at the beginning of the trial (P = .34). Deworming decreased fecal egg counts throughout the trial. Twenty-eight days after initial deworming a significant treatment effect on fecal egg counts was observed (P < .01). Winter ADG was significantly higher (P < .01) for dewormed heifers than for controls (.60 vs .52 kg, respectively). Summer ADG was not different between treatments. Dewormed heifers were 7.4 kg heavier than controls (P < .05) at the end of the trial. Age of puberty was not affected by treatment (P = .64). First-service conception and final pregnancy rates were not different between treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Journal of Animal Science 04/1994; 72(4):817-23. · 2.09 Impact Factor