[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess neurologic and neuropsychologic complications in 104 patients randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting or spinal cord stimulation. An additional objective of the study was to assess whether preoperative white matter disease might predict cerebral complications, as previous studies have shown that there is a relationship between white matter disease and neuropsychologic decline after coronary artery bypass grafting.
The patients were subjected to neurologic examination before and six months after intervention. The patients underwent a cerebral magnetic resonance imaging before intervention and the presence of white matter disease was related to development of cerebral complications.
More patients in the bypass group than in the spinal cord stimulation group developed focal cerebral ischemia (p < 0.05) and astheno-emotional disorder (p < 0.001). More patients with white matter disease undergoing bypass were affected by focal cerebral ischemia (p < 0.01) and astheno-emotional disorder (p < 0.001) after the intervention compared to patients with white matter disease undergoing spinal cord stimulation. In patients with no white matter disease there were no differences between the bypass group and spinal cord stimulation group with regard to cerebral complications.
Patients undergoing bypass had more neurologic and neuropsychologic complications than patients undergoing spinal cord stimulation. Furthermore, patients with white matter disease were affected by cerebral complications in a higher extent after bypass than after spinal cord stimulation. Thus, preoperative assessment of white matter disease before undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting might predict the patient's risk of developing cerebral injury.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2005; 79(1):74-9; discussion 79-80. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2004.06.085 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used since 1985 for patients with refractory angina pectoris. Spinal cord stimulation has anti-ischaemic effects and reduces angina effectively. After long-term treatment, temporary cessation of stimulation may occur due to SCS battery depletion or electrode fracture. The aim of the present study was to assess anginal symptoms and functional status during SCS dysfunction and after its restitution.
A prospective follow-up study of angina patients treated with SCS, where temporary SCS dysfunction had occurred.
Thirty-two patients treated with SCS for angina pectoris over 65 months, on average (range 14-181 months), were included. Complete stimulator dysfunction had occurred due to battery depletion (n=25) or electrode fracture (n=7). The number of anginal attacks and the amount of short-acting nitrates consumed were assessed during dysfunction and after restitution of SCS function. The Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) was used to assess functional status.
The anginal frequency increased during dysfunction (18.9 per week) and decreased after restitution of SCS function (7.6 episodes per week; p<0.001). The consumption of short-acting nitrates decreased as well (21.7 versus 7.1 tablets per week; p<0.01). The functional status according to the SAQ also improved with regard to anginal stability, anginal frequency, and disease perception. No evidence of tolerance development to SCS was found.
This study indicates that SCS relieves angina effectively also after long-term treatment, without development of tolerance. The findings suggest that mechanisms other than placebo and spontaneous variation of symptoms are responsible for the improvement in angina during SCS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term outcome regarding quality of life and survival in patients who were included in the ESBY study 1992-1995. The ESBY study (Electrical Stimulation versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Severe Angina Pectoris) included 104 patients-with severe angina, increased surgical risk and no prognostic benefits from revascularization-randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting or spinal cord stimulation.
The ESBY patients' quality of life was analysed using two questionnaires, and 5-year mortality was assessed. Quality of life improved significantly 6 months after spinal cord stimulation and coronary artery bypass grafting, respectively, compared to run-in (P<0.001). The results were consistent after 4.8 years. The 5-year mortality was 27.9%. There were no significant differences between the groups.
Spinal cord stimulation as well as coronary artery bypass grafting offered long-lasting improvement in quality of life. Survival up to 5 years was comparable between the groups. Both methods can be considered as effective treatment options for patients with severe angina, increased surgical risks and estimated to have no prognostic benefits from coronary artery bypass grafting.
European Heart Journal 12/2002; 23(24):1938-45. · 15.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Refractory angina pectoris is defined as severe angina despite optimal medical and surgical/invasive treatment (CABG, PTCA). The epidemiology of this condition is unknown. The estimated yearly incidence is 2,000 patients in Sweden and 30,000-50,000 patients in Europe. The patient group is growing as a result of improved therapy. A number of additional treatment modalities have been developed during the last decades. The article summarises the scientifically and clinical basis of these treatments and gives recommendations concerning their use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, 24-hour ECG recordings were analyzed from the Electrical Stimulation versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (ESBY) Study where spinal cord stimulation was compared to CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) in selected patients with severe angina pectoris. During the monitoring period, the spinal cord stimulation was discontinued to evaluate possible long-term effects of this treatment. The number of ischemic episodes and the duration of ischemia decreased in the CABG group at the follow-up when compared to spinal cord stimulation (p<0.05). In spite of this, the number of anginal attacks decreased (p<0.0001) in both groups. The fact that the anginal symptoms decreased in the spinal cord stimulation group in spite of discontinued stimulation and lack of effects on ischemic ST changes could indicate a long-term primary analgesic effect of this treatment in addition to the well-documented acute anti-ischemic effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal cord stimulation has been used to treat intractable angina pectoris since 1985 with good results. Several studies have shown the treatment to yield both anti-anginal and antiischaemic effects. The mechanisms underlying these effects have been investigated in a number of studies, but remain unclear. In a recent randomised prospective study, where spinal cord stimulation was compared to coronary artery bypass surgery, both treatments yielded adequate relief of symptoms, and there was no subgroup difference in this respect. The article consists in a review of current trends in this field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to have antianginal and anti-ischemic effects in severe angina pectoris. The present study was performed to investigate whether SCS can be used as an alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in selected patient groups, ie, patients with no proven prognostic benefit from CABG and with an increased surgical risk.
One hundred four patients were randomized (SCS, 53; CABG, 51). The patients were assessed with respect to symptoms, exercise capacity, ischemic ECG changes during exercise, rate-pressure product, mortality, and cardiovascular morbidity before and 6 months after the operation. Both groups had adequate symptom relief (P<.0001), and there was no difference between SCS and CABG. The CABG group had an increase in exercise capacity (P=.02), less ST-segment depression on maximum (P=.005) and comparable (P=.0009) workloads, and an increase in the rate-pressure product both at maximum (P=.0003) and comparable (P=.03) workloads compared with the SCS group. Eight deaths occurred during the follow-up period, 7 in the CABG group and 1 in the SCS group. On an intention-to-treat basis, the mortality rate was lower in the SCS group (P=.02). Cerebrovascular morbidity was also lower in the SCS group (P=.03).
CABG and SCS appear to be equivalent methods in terms of symptom relief in this group of patients. Effects on ischemia, morbidity, and mortality should be considered in the choice of treatment method. Taking all factors into account, it seems reasonable to conclude that SCS may be a therapeutic alternative for patients with an increased risk of surgical complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used in the treatment of severe angina pectoris since the 1980s. Several studies have shown both an antianginal and an anti-ischaemic effect. There are several theories about the mechanism behind the anti-ischaemic effect of SCS, including the possibility that it is dependent on an increase in coronary flow velocity.
To determine if there were effects of SCS on coronary flow velocity during cardiac stress.
Eight patients with severe anginal pain secondary to coronary artery disease who had been implanted with an SCS device were included in the study. In addition, four patients with syndrome X were examined. If possible, a Doppler guidewire was placed in the vessel corresponding to the ischaemic area revealed on a prior myocardial scintigram. A temporary pacemaker electrode was placed in the right atrium. Atrial pacing started at 80 beats/min and increased by 10 beats/min every 2 min until the patient experienced moderate angina; the pacing frequency was then maintained at the same level. After 2 min of pacing at this frequency, SCS treatment commenced; after a further 5 min, pacing was stopped. Throughout the procedure, coronary flow velocity, assessed as average peak velocity (APV), was monitored continually.
APV increased during pacing in all the patients with coronary artery disease (mean increase 53%; P < 0.02). There were no significant changes in APV during maximum pacing frequency when stimulation was introduced.
The results of this study do not support the theory that the anti-ischaemic effect of SCS is dependent on an increase in coronary flow velocity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal cord stimulation has been used in the treatment of intractable angina pectoris since the beginning of the 1980s. This study was designed to investigate whether the documented anti-ischaemic effects of spinal cord stimulation are mediated through a decrease in sympathetic activity.
Ten patients with a spinal cord stimulator implanted as anti-anginal treatment were included in the study. Atrial pacing until the patient experienced moderate angina was performed and after 50 min rest the procedure was repeated during spinal cord stimulation. Total body and cardiac norepinephrine spillover was calculated and the former was found to have increased during pacing (47%, P = 0.02). When spinal cord stimulation was applied, total body norepinephrine spillover decreased at a comparable pacing rate (18%, P = 0.02). Cardiac norepinephrine spillover was not affected during the procedure.
The results of this study indicate that the anti-ischaemic effect of spinal cord stimulation is not due to reduced cardiac sympathetic activity. However, spinal cord stimulation decreases overall sympathetic activity which may benefit the heart, possibly by reducing oxygen demand.
European Heart Journal 01/1998; 18(12):1890-6. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a015197 · 15.20 Impact Factor