H. B. Hedrick

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States

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Publications (51)54.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Algin/calcium/myofibrillar protein gel interactions were investigated by modifying protein basic amino acids to an unreactive state and evaluating Instron texture profile (TP) of gels. Gels analyzed were: 1% algin and 0.075% CaCl2; 1% algin, 0.075% CaCl2 and 1.5% porcine myofibrillar protein (A/C/P); and A/C/P with lysine, histidine or arginine modified. The modification of amino acids reduced (P<0.05) gel TP parameters of hardness, hardness 2, gumminess and chewiness. Similar TP data for protein modified gels indicated that each basic amino acid was involved in algin/protein gelation. Results provided evidence that ionic bonds between protein basic amino acids and algin carboxylate groups may be important for algin/myofibrillar protein gelation.
    Journal of Muscle Foods 05/2007; 8(1):33 - 46. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4573.1997.tb00376.x · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACTA method was developed to isolate and quantify uranic acid(s) of alginate or pectin added at various concentrations to lean (5–7% crude fat) ground pork. The method used an Aminex HPX-87-H+ column, isocratic 0.009N H2SO4 eluent and ultraviolet detection. For regression equations derived from mean uranic acid concentrations to predict percentage of alginate or pectin, R2 values were 0.99 for total uranic acids (alginate) and 0.97 for galacturonic acid (pectin). Reproducibility was 84% for alginate and 94% for pectin contents. Recoveries were: alginate 85% and pectin 80%.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 58(5):973 - 977. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1993.tb06091.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • C. L. BROWN · H. B. HEDRICK · M. E. BAILEY ·

    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 39(5):977 - 979. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1974.tb07290.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • O. A. CRUZ · H. B. HEDRICK ·
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    ABSTRACT: Fermented salami was prepared containing 0, 9, 18 and 27% defatted sesame flour (DSF). Chemical and sensory analyses were performed on the products. Results indicated that DSF could be used at either the 9 or 18% level without detrimental effect upon sensory attributes but salami containing 27% DSF will have less desirable flavor.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 50(4):1177 - 1178. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1985.tb13039.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four processing procedures were compared as methods of reducing warmed-over flavor (WOF) of pork chops during frozen storage for 84 days, These procedures were (1) oven-broiled chops, (2) chops from loins precooked with no additives, (3) chops from loins cured with 0.5% salt and 40 ppm NaNO2 and precooked, and (4) chops from loins cured with 2% salt and 120 ppm NaNO2 and precooked. Samples were evaluated by the TBA test, Warner-Bratzler shear, hydroxyproline assay and by sensory analysis after frozen storage at -18°C. Chops from the three precooked treatments were more tender than oven-broiled chops. Nitrite inhibited WOF development of precooked chops during frozen storage and 40 ppm nitrite was nearly as effective as 120 ppm.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 50(2):478 - 481. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1985.tb13431.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • M. C. HUNT · H. B. HEDRICK ·
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    ABSTRACT: Histochemical and histological properties were determined for the longissimus and gluteus medius muscles from beef carcasses which exhibited musculature of the four following quality groups: (1) normal in color, firmness and exudation; (2) normal in color but soft and exudative; (3) pale in color, soft and exudative; and (4) dark color, firm and dry. Differences were observed among quality groups for muscle fiber area and muscle fiber type. A greater proportion of ATPase olRed type fibers was observed in groups 2, 3 and 4 compared to group 1, indicating that muscles from these three aberrant groups differ in metabolic potential.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 42(3):578 - 582. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1977.tb12553.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structural characteristics of aged (10 days) bovine longissimus and semitendinosus muscles as affected by thermal treatment were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy PEM). Steaks were oven roasted at 177°C to internal temperatures of either 63, 68, or 73°C. At 63°C both muscle samples exhibited coagulation and denaturation of the perimy-sium and sarcolemma and progressively increased to near complete coagulation and denaturation at 73°C. Well-defined myofibrillar surface features were present in semitendinosus samples at 63°C and increased sarcomere denaturation and shrinkage were observed at the higher temperatures. Whereas, the overall topographical features of longissimus myofibrils were not well-defined and exhibited a granular appearance even at 63°C. TEM of samples heated to 63°C revealed less distinct myofibrils in longissimus than in semitendinosus samples. Disintegration of filaments in the I-band and shrinkage of filaments in the A-band occurred at 63°C. Increased disintegration of actin filaments in the I-band at the junction of the Z-disc and shrinkage and disruption of the A-band material occurred as temperatures were increased. Z-disc material remained intact with some evidence of disruption at the higher temperatures. Although progressive disruption of muscle fiber ultrastructure occurred as steaks were heated to higher internal temperatures, these changes did not result in increased muscle tenderness. Instead the samples became progressively less tender as internal temperatures were increased likely due to the shrinkage and hardening of filamentous material in the A-bands. Increased disintegration of filaments in the I-band as temperature was increased apparently did not contribute to an improvement in tenderness.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 45(1):1 - 6. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1980.tb03857.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereford yearling steers (N= 144) were alloted to one of three pasture systems: tall fescue, smooth bromegrass-red clover or orchardgrass-red clover. After the grazing period, steers were finished in drylot and then serially slaughtered at 0, 56, 84 and 112 days. Carcass quality grades and yield grade numbers increased when steers were fed grain up to 112 days. Tenderness of loin steaks increased up to 84 days, after which no improvements were observed. Sensory panel scores for grassy flavor of steaks and ground beef decreased up to 112 days. Fifty-three compounds were identified in the volatiles of melted subcutaneous fat by direct sampling-gas chromatography/mass spectro-metry. The major differences between volatiles from fat of forage-fed compared to grain-fed steers were the higher concentrations of 2,3-octanedione and various diterpenoids present in the samples of the forage-fed animals.
    Journal of Food Science 08/2006; 52(2):245 - 251. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb06585.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    A DiCostanzo · R J Lipsey · M G Siemens · J C Meiske · H B Hedrick ·
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    ABSTRACT: Although originally used for prediction of whole body composition (WBC), use of 40K emission detection was later suggested for determination of empty body composition (EBC), Therefore, the present study was conducted to validate existing equations developed to predict WBC and to develop more useful equations to predict EBC or carcass composition (CC) of beef steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were detected for 40K emissions and slaughtered and their chemical composition determined from chemical analyses and total body K determined from 40K emissions. the existing equation for percentage whole body lipid had a slope of .93 and an intercept of -1.62%, indicating a close approximation of percentage of whole body lipid. Percentage of whole body protein was poorly estimated by existing equations. Equations developed for prediction of EBC relied on both BW and predicted K. Coefficients of variation for prediction of empty water or protein were within 5% and those for prediction of empty body lipid were approximately 15%. These results demonstrate that use of predicted K from 40K emission detection enhances the determination of EBC and CC.
    Journal of Animal Science 11/1995; 73(10):2882-7. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formulated zinc methionyl bST (sometribove, 50, 100, or 150 mg) was administered as a single treatment once every 2 wk or as two equal treatments once/week to evaluate the efficacy of prolonged release delivery of bovine somatotropin (bST) in finishing lambs. Feed conversion during the 6-wk treatment period was improved 9 and 19% in lambs that received treatments once and twice/2 wk, respectively (P < .05), and the responses to differing doses were similar within a dosing frequency (P > .05). Carcass muscle:fat ratio indicators generally were affected in a dose-related manner and were independent of frequency of administration. For example, fat thickness was 17, 30, and 42% lower than control in lambs that received 50, 100, and 150 mg of formulated sometribove/2 wk, respectively (P < .05). Percentages of muscle were higher and of fat were lower with increasing dose of formulated sometribove, but weight of only fat was significantly affected (P < .05). Clinical chemistry indices of metabolic effects of bST (e.g., circulating bST, IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and urinary nitrogen concentrations) were affected in directions similar to those observed with bST administered by daily injection. The results of this study demonstrate the growth performance and carcass composition advantages of a formulation designed to deliver bST over a 2-wk period.
    Journal of Animal Science 10/1994; 72(10):2544-51. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine placental lactogen (PL) is a partial somatotropin agonist in the cow and decreases urea nitrogen, indicating increased nitrogen retention. In the present study, the somatogenic effects of bovine PL (bPL; 4 and 8 mg/d) were compared with those of bovine somatotropin (bST; 4 and 8 mg/d) in finishing lambs. Measures of comparison included growth performance, carcass composition, and growth-related clinical chemistry traits. Although feed efficiency during the first 3 wk of treatment with bPL was improved by 14% (P < .05), feed efficiency for the full 6-wk treatment period did not differ from that of control lambs. Responsiveness to bPL may have been attenuated by high titer antibodies present after 2 wk of treatment. However, bPL also did not influence growth-related clinical chemistry traits during short-term (7 d) treatment, strongly suggesting that bPL was ineffective in finishing lambs at the doses tested. In contrast, bST improved 6-wk feed efficiency by an average of 17% (P < .05) and decreased feed intake by an average of 12% (P < .05). In addition, measures of carcass composition including longissimus muscle area, specific gravity of the rack, kidney and pelvic fat, and fat thickness demonstrated that bST, but not bPL, treatment decreased carcass fatness and increased carcass leanness. Treatment with bST, but not with bPL, affected IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and urea nitrogen in a dose-related manner. Thus, daily injections of bPL did not affect either performance or carcass quality, whereas performance and carcass responses of finishing lambs to bST were consistent with those reported by others.
    Journal of Animal Science 01/1994; 71(12):3307-18. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    B A Becker · C D Knight · J J Veenhuizen · G W Jesse · H B Hedrick · C A Baile ·
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to assess the ability for recombinant porcine somatotropin (rpST)-treated pigs to perform and cope with the demands of hot and cold environments. In the first experiment, finishing pigs were exposed to either a thermoneutral (TN; 18 to 21 degrees C) or a hot environment (H; 27 to 35 degrees C) for 35 d. In the second experiment, pigs were exposed to a TN or cold environment (C; 5 to 15 degrees C). The rpST delivered by a 6-wk prolonged-release system had no effect on ADG, whereas both H and C reduced ADG by 29.4 and 11.8%, respectively. In the first experiment, rpST-treated pigs consumed 17.6% less feed than control pigs, whereas rpST-treated pigs in H consumed 24.4% less feed than rpST-treated pigs in TN. Overall feed/gain ratios through the first 4 wk of both studies were improved by 21.8 and 14%, respectively, by rpST (P < .05) and were 24.3% poorer in C (P < .05) than in H. The changes in blood concentrations of pST, IGF-I, and IGF-II associated with rpST were not influenced by the different environments. Total body composition of rpST-treated pigs had increased amounts of protein (P < .05) and decreased amounts of fat (P < .05); H further reduced fat (P < .05). The C resulted in reduced protein content (P < .05). No evidence of thermal imbalance due to rpST was found as assessed by rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heat production estimated by indirect calorimetry and chemical analysis.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/1993; 71(9):2375-87. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The variation in growth and carcass composition responses of lambs to somatotropin (ST) treatment may depend on the source of ST used as well as on other experimental conditions. In the present experiment, growth, carcass composition, and clinical chemistry responses to recombinantly produced ovine ST (oST) and two bovine ST (N-methionyl-bST[M-bST] and N-alanyl-bST[A-bST] were compared. Lambs weighing 42 kg were assigned to treatment groups of control (no injection) or 4 mg/d of M-bST, A-bST, or oST administered by s.c. injection for 6 wk. Growth rate was increased by an average of 30% and feed efficiency was improved by an average of 22% by ST treatment compared with control, and responses did not differ among ST. The IGF-I, insulin, and glucose concentrations were increased by 107, 700, and 53% compared with control, respectively, and did not differ among ST treatment groups. Urea nitrogen responses to A-bST and oST were transiently greater than those to M-bST. Although quality grade was not affected by treatment, an average .8-kg increase in weight of retail cuts was calculated from yield grade. Carcasses of ST-treated lambs were calculated to have 1.3 kg more muscle and 1.9 kg less fat. Although fat and muscle were affected more by oST than by M-bST on a percentage basis, they did not differ among treatment groups on a total weight basis. Thus, both bST variants and oST improved growth performance and carcass leanness. Decreased responses of some carcass variables to M-bST treatment may have been related to the presence of antibodies that were indicated by an increased number of positive responders in a relative bST binding assay.
    Journal of Animal Science 07/1993; 71(6):1453-63. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    B A Becker · C D Knight · F C Buonomo · G W Jesse · H B Hedrick · C A Baile ·
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to compare the effects of a single 100-mg recombinant porcine somatotropin (rpST) implant on performance, carcass characteristics, and blood hormones and metabolites of 40 finishing pigs exposed to either a thermoneutral (TN; 18 to 21 degrees C) or hot environment (H; 27 to 35 degrees C) for 28 or 35 d. Pigs in H gained at a slower rate (P less than .01) than pigs in TN. Control and rpST-treated pigs gained at similar rates in respective environments. The rpST-treated pigs consumed 13% less feed (P less than .01) than the control pigs in both environments, and pigs in H consumed 19% less feed (P less than .01) than pigs in TN. Feed efficiency for rpST-treated pigs was 15% better (P less than .01) than that for control pigs; environment had no effect on feed efficiency. When slaughtered, pigs treated with rpST had less (P less than .01) leaf fat and less (P less than .01) 10th rib backfat than control pigs. Pigs in H had a lower (P less than .01) final BW and less leaf fat and backfat than pigs in TN. The rpST and H had various effects on blood hormones and metabolites. The results demonstrated that the benefits of this form of rpST treatment achieved under TN were also achieved in H with no interactions between the hormone and environment.
    Journal of Animal Science 10/1992; 70(9):2732-40. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four experiments using 580 barrows and 580 gilts (Study 1) and seven experiments using 500 barrows and 500 gilts (Study 2) were conducted at various geographical locations in the United States to determine the dose response of a pelleted form of porcine somatotropin (pST) relative to ADG, feed/gain (F/G), and percentage of carcass protein. Average initial weights for Studies 1 and 2 were 67.6 and 72.6 kg, respectively, and four pigs/pen were slaughtered when they achieved weights of 106.5 to 111.0 kg. In Study 1, pigs were implanted subcutaneously with pelleted pST doses of 0, 12, 24, 36, or 48 mg/wk and self-fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 13.75% CP. Study 2 included two control groups self-fed a diet containing either 13.75 or 17% CP with added lysine. The pST-treated pigs were administered 12, 24, or 36 mg/wk, and all were offered the 17% CP diet. The pST treatments in Study 1 resulted in a linear reduction (P less than .05) in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and a quadratic (P less than .05) improvement in F/G and percentage of carcass protein. The pST treatments in Study 2 resulted in a linear reduction in ADFI (P less than .05), a linear improvement in F/G, and a quadratic increase in the percentage of carcass protein (P less than .05). Average daily gain was not affected in either study with this form of pST. The greatest increase in efficiency of lean gain was observed with the 36-mg dose for both Study 1 (9.4%) and Study 2 (10.8%). In Study 1, the force required to shear cores of the longissimus muscle was increased linearly with pST treatment (P less than .05). There was a similar linear increase in Study 2 with pST treatment (P less than .05); however, there was also an effect of sex (P less than .05) on shear force (gilts greater than barrows) that was similar in magnitude to that observed for pST treatment. Differences in sensory evaluation because of pST were minor and of the same magnitude as those observed between barrows and gilts. It was therefore concluded that weekly administration of pST improved F/G and percentage of carcass protein with no detrimental effects on palatability of cooked lean pork.
    Journal of Animal Science 01/1992; 69(12):4678-89. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    A L Siemens · R J Lipsey · W M Martin · M G Siemens · H B Hedrick ·
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    ABSTRACT: Liquid scintillation detection of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars, barrows and gilts. Pigs were fed to five live weights (23, 45, 68, 91 and 114 kg) and 40K emissions were determined on live pigs in a whole body counter (WBC) equipped with a two-pi liquid scintillation detector. Then, pigs were slaughtered conventionally and the right side of each carcass was weighed, 40K emissions of this carcass side was determined in the WBC and total grams of potassium were calculated. The right side of each carcass was ground, sampled and analyzed for fat, protein, moisture and potassium. Fat, protein, moisture and overall potassium percentage means were 23.9 +/- 7.2, 16.5 +/- .94, 57.0 +/- 6.5 and .25 +/- .02, respectively. Whole body counter carcass potassium was highly correlated (P less than .01) to chemically determined carcass potassium (r = .70). Percentage of fat, protein and moisture prediction equations were formed by stepwise regression using the linear, quadratic and interactive effects of live animal and carcass side weight. Whole body counter live animal and carcass potassium and sex were utilized as independent variables. Carcass weight and 40K determined potassium of the carcass explained more of the variation in carcass composition than did live animal weight and 40K determined potassium of the live animal.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/1991; 69(1):47-53. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    A L Siemens · R J Lipsey · H B Hedrick · F L Williams · S W Yokley · M G Siemens ·
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    ABSTRACT: Two feeder pig grading systems were tested. Forty-five barrows were selected using current USDA Feeder Pig Grade Standards (U.S. No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3). Additionally, 45 barrows were selected using three frame sizes (large, medium and small). Pigs were slaughtered at 100, 113.5 of 127 kg live weight. Trimmed four lean cuts were separated into soft tissue, skin and bone. The skinless belly and soft tissue from the four lean cuts were ground separately and analyzed chemically. Data from each grading system were analyzed separately in a 3 X 3 factorial plan. Pigs selected using current USDA grade standards differed (P less than .05) for last rib backfat, 10th rib fat depth, longissimus muscle area, percentage of trimmed four lean cuts and USDA carcass grade. In the frame size system, pigs with large frame size had less last rib backfat, less 10th rib fat depth, longer carcasses, higher percentage of four lean cuts and superior USDA carcass grades than pigs with small frame size did (P less than .05). The Bradley and Schumann test of sensitivity showed that selection by frame size was more sensitive than current USDA grade standards for discriminating feeder pig foreleg length, body depth and ham width. In addition, selection by frame size was more sensitive than current USDA grade standards for discriminating carcass length and carcass radius length. No increase in sensitivity (P greater than .10) was noted for carcass composition or growth traits over the current USDA Feeder Pig Grade Standards.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/1990; 68(8):2217-21. · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • R P Cowart · R J Lipsey · H B Hedrick ·
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    ABSTRACT: A group of 85 commingled feeder pigs was fed on a totally confined feeding floor until slaughter. Mean daily weight gain was calculated for each pig. At slaughter, the nose of each pig was cross-sectioned and scored for conchal atrophy by use of 2 methods. One method ascribed a score based on a linear measurement of the distance between the ventral scroll of the ventral conchae and the ventral floor of the nasal cavity. The other method ascribed a score based on a subjective evaluation of the degree of conchal degeneration according to previously published guidelines. The amount of pulmonary consolidation attributable to pneumonia was also estimated for each pig. Association was not found between growth rate and conchal atrophy, as determined by linear measurement scores. A negative correlation existed between growth rate and conchal atrophy, as determined by subjective evaluation scores. Pigs with extensive pneumonic lesions (consolidation of 20 to 30% of total lung volume) grew slower than pigs with milder pneumonic lesions. Results of this study indicate that subjective evaluation scores of conchal atrophy may be more useful in predicting growth rate than are linear measurement scores.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 05/1990; 196(8):1262-4. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pork roasts cooked to various endpoint temperatures were evaluated by sensory and chemical analyses. Increased endpoint temperatures were associated with increased cooking losses; decreased juiciness, pink color, and metallic flavor; increased graininess, brown color, and pork flavor. Increased endpoint temperatures also led to a concentration of lipid, protein and certain fatty acids. Cholesterol levels were not significantly influenced by endpoint temperature. Lipid content was decreased by removal of external fat before cooking. To minimize pink color in some muscles and maximize other sensory characteristics and yield of cooked meat, at least 71.1°C and no more than 76.6°C is recommended as the endpoint temperature for fresh pork roasts.
    Journal of Food Science 04/1990; 55(3):613 - 617. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb05189.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: . Effects of fat cover, bone removal and endpoint cooking temperature on proximate and sensory characteristics of pork center loin chops were investigated. Only brown color of broiled chops was affected by presence of bone and by endpoint temperature. Fat cover only affected perceived chewiness of chops. Broiled boneless chops contained higher percent fat than bone-in chops. There were no differences in protein, fat or moisture percentages in cooked chops due to fat cover. Higher internal temperature decreased percent moisture and increased percent protein. Percent fat did not differ due to internal temperature. A consumer study to determine the degree of liking of pork center loin roasts showed that consumers preferred roasts with no fat cover more than roasts with 0.6 cm fat cover and roasts cooked to 71.1°C compared to roasts cooked to 76.7°C. There was no difference in preference between boneless and bone-in roasts.
    Journal of Sensory Studies 01/1990; 4(3):179-188. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-459X.1990.tb00468.x · 1.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

859 Citations
54.72 Total Impact Points


  • 1971-2006
    • University of Missouri
      • Department of Food Science
      Columbia, Missouri, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 1992-1994
    • Monsanto Company
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
    • Agricultural Research Service
      ERV, Texas, United States