ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression and the significance of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3) in placenta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) in maternal and cord blood of idiopathic fetal growth restriction (IFGR), and their correlation with the pathogenesis of symmetric and asymmetric IFGR.
From April 2008 to April 2009, 42 primiparae of singleton pregnancy and their IFGR babies, who delivered at term through cesarean section, in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were enrolled. All subjectects were divided into symmetric IFGR group (n = 20) and asymmetric IFGR group (n = 22). Another 42 non-IFGR pairs were randomly selected as the control group. The polink-2 plus polymerized horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immunohistochemical method and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were applied to detect TLR-3 and TNF-alpha levels.
(1) The expression of TLR-3 protein were observed in all maternal placenta of the three groups. TLR-3 essentially expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts and hofbouer cells in the symmetric IFGR and control group, but expressed mostly in hofbouer cells and less in syncytiotrophoblasts in the asymmetric IFGR group. (2) The expression of TLR-3 in the syncytiotrophoblasts of the symmetric and asymmetric IFGR group was significantly lower than in the control group (111 +/- 14 and 118 +/- 11 vs. 156 +/- 9, P < 0.01). The number of TLR-3 positive in Hofbourer cell in the symmetric IFGR group was lower than the control group (8.9 +/- 2.8 vs 17.5 +/- 2.8, P < 0.01), but the number in the asymmetric IFGR group was higher (23.8 +/- 3.7) compared with the control group (P < 0.01). (3) The TNF-alpha levels in the maternal and cord blood of the symmetric and the asymmetric group were higher than that of the control group [maternal: (90 +/- 10) microg/L and (86 +/- 11) microg/L vs. (73 +/- 9) microg/L; cord blood: (92 +/- 12) microg/L and (96 +/- 8) microg/L vs. (79 +/- 9) microg/L; P < 0.01]. (4) Neither symmetric nor the asymmetric IFGR group showed any correlations between the maternal and cord blood levels of TNF-alpha (P > 0.05). (5) Significant correlation was found between the TNF-alpha level of the cord blood and TLR-3 expression in the placenta in both the symmetric and asymmetric IFGR group (P < 0.05), but no relationship was found between the maternal blood TNF-alpha level and TLR-3 expression in the placenta (P > 0.05).
The variantions of TLR-3 expression in placenta and the increased expression of TNF-alpha in cord blood are associated with the genesis IFGR. The reduced expression of TLR-3 may related to symmetric IFGR, while the increased TLR-3 level in hofbouer cells may lead to asymmetric IFGR.
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi 12/2009; 44(12):909-14.
ABSTRACT: To study the change and significance of the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and endothelium-selectin (E-selectin) in placenta of patients with pre-eclampsia.
Twenty normal pregnant women (control group) and 40 women with pre-eclampsia (pre-eclampsia group, including 16 women with mild pre-eclampsia and 24 women with severe pre-eclampsia) were selected. The cellular distribution of TGF-beta1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin in placenta in both groups was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the mean density was measured by computer image analysis system.
(1) The level of TGF-beta1 in placental villous syncytiotrophoblast of pre-eclampsia group (70.7 +/- 0.5) was significantly higher than that of control group (70.3 +/- 0.6), while the level of VCAM-1 and E-selectin in pre-eclampsia group (VCAM-1: 82.5 +/- 0.5, E-selectin: 53.5 +/- 0.5) was significantly lower than that of control group (VCAM-1: 82.8 +/- 0.3, E-selectin: 53.8 +/- 0.4) (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in women with mild pre-eclampsia (TGF-beta1: 70.6 +/- 0.6, VCAM-1: 82.4 +/- 0.6, E-selectin: 53.4 +/- 0.5) and severe ones (TGF-beta1: 70.8 +/- 0.4, VCAM-1: 82.6 +/- 0.5, E-selectin: 53.6 +/- 0.5) (P > 0.05); (2) The level of E-selectin in placental villous capillary endothelial cells of pre-eclampsia group (63.0 +/- 0.5) was significantly higher than that of control group (62.6 +/- 0.4) (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in women with mild pre-eclampsia (63.2 +/- 0.4) and severe pre-eclampsia (62.9 +/- 0.5) (P > 0.05).
TGF-beta1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin are not only related to placenta shallow bed of pre-eclampsia, but also participate in pathogenic process of vascular endothelial damage of pre-eclampsia.
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi 08/2006; 41(8):514-7.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) in placenta tissue of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), and the relationship between HO protein expression and enzymatic activity.
Protein expression was analyzed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by Western blotting in placental tissue of PIH (PIH group, n = 30) and normal late pregnant women (control group, n = 30). The levels of HO enzymatic activity in placental tissue were measured with the double wavelength scanning by spectrophotometer.
(1) Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the relative protein levels of HO-1 and HO-2 in placental samples of control group were 0.7 +/- 0.4 and 0.8 +/- 0.4 respectively, there were no significant difference between HO-1 and HO-2 protein levels (P > 0.05). (2) The relative levels of HO-1 were 0.6 +/- 0.4 in PIH group, there was no significant difference from those in the control group (P > 0.05); the relative levels of HO-2 protein were 0.6 +/- 0.3 in PIH group, that were obviously lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The levels of HO enzymatic activity of PIH group were (0.3 +/- 0.2) nmol x mg(-1) x h(-1), significantly lower than that of the control group [(0.5 +/- 0.3) nmol x mg(-1) x h(-1)] (P < 0.01). The levels of HO activity correlated with HO-2 protein levels.
The expression levels of HO-2 protein were decreased and HO enzymatic activity reduced in PIH group. HO may play a role in the pathophysiology of poor placental perfusion and tissue damage in placenta of PIH.
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi 07/2004; 39(6):361-4.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression and localization of the two known isoforms of hemeoxygenase (HO) in normal human first trimester placenta and third trimester placenta.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were resorted to demonstrate the expression and localization of HO-1 and HO-2 in normal placenta tissue, obtained from 6 approximately 10 week gestation women (20 cases) and the third trimester woman (20 cases).
Compared with glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), the expression of HO-1 was lower, there was no significant difference between the first trimester (0.31 +/- 0.19) and third trimester (0.28 +/- 0.14) (P > 0.05); the expression of HO-2 was higher, it is significantly higher at third trimester (1.12 +/- 0.58) compared with first trimester placenta (0.70 +/- 0.48) (P < 0.05). The result of immunohistochemistry demonstrated that HO-1 was predominantly localized in villous stroma cell and trophoblast; HO-2 predominantly localized in trophoblast as well as capillaries, with weak staining of villous stroma. The staining score were not normally distributed. The median staining scorse of HO-1 in trophoblast, villous stroma and capillaries at first trimester were 9.0, 2.6 and 2.8, respectively, at third trimester were 8.7, 2.0 and 1.4, there was no difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The median staining score of HO-2 in capillaries at first trimester was 5.8, significantly lower than that of the third trimester (9.3) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the staining score of HO-2 in trophoblast (10.5, 8.0) and villous stroma (3.6, 2.4) between the first trimester and the third trimester (P > 0.05).
HO-1 and HO-2 as endogenous system may regulate feto-placental circulation, indicated their different roles in placental vascular development and regulation. They may offer protection against cyto-toxic damage in the placenta, and influence immunological function.
Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi 09/2003; 38(9):534-7.