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Publications (3)31.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-synuclein (alphaS) is an abundant neuronal protein that accumulates in insoluble inclusions in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the related disorder, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). A central question about the role of alphaS in the pathogenesis of PD and DLB concerns how this normally soluble protein assembles into insoluble aggregates associated with neuronal dysfunction. We recently detected highly soluble oligomers of alphaS in normal brain supernatants and observed their augmentation in PD and DLB brains. Further, we found that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) enhanced alphaS oligomerization in intact mesencephalic neuronal cells. We now report the presence of elevated PUFA levels in PD and DLB brain soluble fractions. Higher PUFA levels were also detected in the supernatants and high-speed membrane fractions of neuronal cells over-expressing wild-type or PD-causing mutant alphaS. This increased PUFA content in the membrane fraction was accompanied by increased membrane fluidity in the alphaS overexpressing neurons. In accord, membrane fluidity and the levels of certain PUFAs were decreased in the brains of mice genetically deleted of alphaS. Together with our earlier observations, these results suggest that alphaS-PUFA interactions help regulate neuronal PUFA levels as well as the oligomerization state of alphaS, both normally and in human synucleinopathies.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2004; 278(50):49874-81. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspirin (ASA) is unique among current therapies because it acetylates cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enabling the biosynthesis of R-containing precursors of endogenous antiinflammatory mediators. Here, we report that lipidomic analysis of exudates obtained in the resolution phase from mice treated with ASA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6) produce a novel family of bioactive 17R-hydroxy-containing di- and tri-hydroxy-docosanoids termed resolvins. Murine brain treated with aspirin produced endogenous 17R-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid as did human microglial cells. Human COX-2 converted DHA to 13-hydroxy-DHA that switched with ASA to 17R-HDHA that also proved a major route in hypoxic endothelial cells. Human neutrophils transformed COX-2-ASA-derived 17R-hydroxy-DHA into two sets of novel di- and trihydroxy products; one initiated via oxygenation at carbon 7 and the other at carbon 4. These compounds inhibited (IC(50) approximately 50 pM) microglial cell cytokine expression and in vivo dermal inflammation and peritonitis at ng doses, reducing 40-80% leukocytic exudates. These results indicate that exudates, vascular, leukocytes and neural cells treated with aspirin convert DHA to novel 17R-hydroxy series of docosanoids that are potent regulators. These biosynthetic pathways utilize omega-3 DHA and EPA during multicellular events in resolution to produce a family of protective compounds, i.e., resolvins, that enhance proresolution status.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2002; 196(8):1025-37. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    Article: Resolvins
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    ABSTRACT: Aspirin (ASA) is unique among current therapies because it acetylates cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enabling the biosynthesis of R-containing precursors of endogenous antiinflammatory mediators. Here, we report that lipidomic analysis of exudates obtained in the resolution phase from mice treated with ASA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6) produce a novel family of bioactive 17R-hydroxy-containing di- and tri-hydroxy-docosanoids termed resolvins. Murine brain treated with aspirin produced endogenous 17R-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid as did human microglial cells. Human COX-2 converted DHA to 13-hydroxy-DHA that switched with ASA to 17R-HDHA that also proved a major route in hypoxic endothelial cells. Human neutrophils transformed COX-2-ASA–derived 17R-hydroxy-DHA into two sets of novel di- and trihydroxy products; one initiated via oxygenation at carbon 7 and the other at carbon 4. These compounds inhibited (IC50 ∼50 pM) microglial cell cytokine expression and in vivo dermal inflammation and peritonitis at ng doses, reducing 40–80% leukocytic exudates. These results indicate that exudates, vascular, leukocytes and neural cells treated with aspirin convert DHA to novel 17R-hydroxy series of docosanoids that are potent regulators. These biosynthetic pathways utilize omega-3 DHA and EPA during multicellular events in resolution to produce a family of protective compounds, i.e., resolvins, that enhance proresolution status.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2002; 196(8):1025-1037. · 13.21 Impact Factor