ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the incidence permanent hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy (TL), (2) whether asymptomatic patients with mildly elevated thyrotropin (TSH) levels can be managed without thyroid hormone replacement, and (3) if the degree of lymphocytic infiltration (LI) and germinal center (GC) formation in the resected thyroid lobe correlates with the development of post-TL hypothyroidism.
Subjects undergoing TL between January 2006 and January 2008 at 2 centers were enrolled in the study and thyroid function was followed prospectively based on a previously published algorithm. The histology of each resected thyroid lobe was examined, and the degree of LI and GC was quantified.
The study cohort consisted of 117 patients. Early postoperative TSH levels were significantly increased over preoperative levels (P < .001). TSH measured at 6 months to 1 year postoperatively, while still significantly increased over preoperative levels (P < .001), was also significantly reduced (P = .006) compared with early postoperative levels. Of the patients who presented with early postoperative hypothyroidism, 69.2% recovered to normal levels without intervention. The overall incidence of early postoperative hypothyroidism was 21.6%, and permanent hypothyroidism was 7.8%. A high degree of LI and GC correlated with a significantly higher mean TSH level (P = .003).
The incidence of hypothyroidism following TL is low, and a significant proportion of individuals who become biochemically hypothyroid will demonstrate only a transient elevation in their TSH levels. As well, individuals with LI, or GC formation, within their resected thyroid lobe may be at increased risk for post-TL hypothyroidism.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2011; 18(9):2548-54. · 4.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) generally has a favorable outcome, but some patients develop local recurrence and/or distant metastases and ultimately die of their disease. Molecular markers that accurately predict tumor behavior are lacking. This study's aim was to ascertain the role of cell cycle regulators in predicting malignant histology and tumor behavior in DTC.
Tissue microarrays consisting of 100 benign and 105 malignant thyroid lesions, plus 24 lymph node samples, were stained for p16, p21, p27, p53, p57, p63, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and mdm2. Statistical analysis was used to compare the expression of the markers in benign versus DTC lesions and correlate their expression with clinicopathologic characteristics.
p16, p21, cyclin D1, and cyclin E showed significantly (P < .001) increased expression in DTCs compared with benign thyroid lesions (54.7% vs. 5%, 71.7% vs. 38%, 87.1% vs. 45.7%, and 72.3% vs. 37.4%, respectively). There was no significant difference in expression between benign lesions and DTC for the remaining markers. p16 expression correlated significantly with extrathyroidal tumor extension (P = .02) and the presence of cancer in lymph nodes (P = .03). A total of 73% vs. 45% of the cancers of patients with and without lymph node involvement, respectively, stained positive for p16 (P = .01).
There is a statistically significant difference in the expression of p16, p21, cyclin D1, and cyclin E between DTCs and benign thyroid lesions, and p16 expression correlates with clinicopathologic variables predicting poor outcomes for DTC. These results suggest that evaluation of cell cycle derangement in thyroid tumors may serve as a useful tool for both DTC diagnosis and prognosis.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2007; 14(12):3403-11. · 4.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to determine the true proportion and optimal surgical approach for individuals undergoing thyroid operation for a suspicion of cancer based on a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of a follicular neoplasm (FN). A secondary objective of this study was to determine whether patient characteristics could assist the clinician in predicting malignancy in this FN patient cohort.
A retrospective chart, pathology, and cytology review of 370 consecutive primary thyroid operations was performed over a 4-year period at a tertiary care referral center. Clinical patient data were evaluated as an adjunct for predicting malignancy in the FN patient cohort. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the association and the predictability.
A total of 80 (22%) of the 370 patients underwent hemithyroidectomy to rule out cancer based on clinical presentation with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of FN. Fifteen (19%) of the FN cases were diagnosed as cancer by histological analysis (4 follicular carcinomas and 11 papillary carcinomas). Hemithyroidectomy was considered adequate treatment for 77 patients (96%). No patient characteristic significantly predicted the presence of cancer by either univariate or multivariate analysis.
Overall, in the FN patient population, five hemithyroidectomies were performed to identify each cancer, and no further operation was required in 96% of patients. New diagnostic tools are needed to reduce the number of operations performed for benign pathology in patients with nodular thyroid disease and a needle biopsy diagnosis of FN.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2006; 13(3):425-32. · 4.17 Impact Factor