[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of the PPP2R1B gene, which encodes the Abeta scaffolding subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), have been identified in several types of cancer including lung and breast carcinoma. One of these mutations results in an alteration of glycine 90 to aspartic acid (G90D), which has been found in both tumor and genomic DNA, raising the possibility that it is associated with an increased risk for cancer. A novel microarray-based technology was used to screen for this single-nucleotide polymorphism in 387 cancer patients and 329 control individuals. These data were used for case-control and family-based comparisons in order to study the association of this polymorphism with susceptibility to lung carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The frequency of the G90D polymorphism in breast cancer patients was significantly higher in cases (3%) than in controls (0.3%). The wild-type Abeta subunit interacted with the B56gamma (PPP2R5C), PR72 (PPP2R3A), and PR48 subunits of PP2A but did not interact with the B55alpha (PPP2R2A), B56alpha (PPP2R5A), or B56beta (PPP2R5B) regulatory subunits in an in vitro binding assay. The G90D alteration inhibited the interaction of Abeta with the B56gamma subunit but had no effect on binding to the PR72 subunit. These results provide evidence that the G90D alteration of the Abeta subunit of PP2A is associated with a low frequency of breast carcinoma and that the role of this alteration in transformation is likely to involve decreased interaction with the B56gamma regulatory subunit.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 03/2006; 45(2):182-90. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have determined the complete sequence of 951,695 bp from the class I region of H2, the mouse major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) from strain 129/Sv (haplotype bc). The sequence contains 26 genes. The sequence spans from the last 50 kb of the H2-T region, including 2 class I genes and 3 class I pseudogenes, and includes the H2-M region up to Gabbr1. A 500-kb stretch of the H2-M region contains 9 class I genes and 4 pseudogenes, which fall into two subfamilies, M1 and M10, distinct from other mouse class I genes. This M1/M10 class I gene-cluster is separated from the centromeric H2-T and the telomeric H2-M4, -5 and -6 class I genes by "nonclass I genes". Comparison with the corresponding 853-kb region of the human Mhc, which includes the HLA-A region, shows a mosaic of conserved regions of orthologous nonclass I genes separated by regions of species-specific expansion of paralogous Mhc class I genes. The analysis of this mosaic structure illuminates the dynamic evolution of the Mhc class I region among mammals and provides evidence for the framework hypothesis.
Genome Research 05/2003; 13(4):589-600. · 13.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by the development of bony protuberances at the ends of all long bones. Genetic analyses have revealed HME to be a multigenic disorder linked to three loci on chromosomes 8q24 (EXT1), 11p11-13 (EXT2), and 19p (EXT3). The EXT1 and EXT2 genes have been cloned and defined as glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of heparan sulfate. EST database analysis has demonstrated additional gene family members, EXT-like genes (EXTL1, EXTL2, and EXTL3), not associated with a HME locus. The mouse homologs of EXT1 and EXT2 have also been cloned and shown to be 99% and 95% identical to their human counterparts, respectively. Here, we report the identification of the mouse EXTL1 gene and show it is 74% identical to the human EXTL1 gene. Expression studies of all three mouse EXT genes throughout various stages of embryonic development were carried out and whole-mount in situ hybridization in the developing limb buds showed high levels of expression of all three EXT genes. However, in situ hybridization of sectioned embryos revealed remarkable differences in expression profiles of EXT1, EXT2, and EXTL1. The identical expression patterns found for the EXT1 and EXT2 genes support the recent observation that both proteins form a glycosyltransferase complex. We suggest a model for exostoses formation based on the involvement of EXT1 and EXT2 in the Indian hedgehog/parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) signaling pathway, an important regulator of the chondrocyte maturation process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 11q23-24 chromosome is a region containing frequent allelic loss (loss of heterozygosity; LOH) in human cancers. To examine cancer-related allelic loss in the region between D11S940 and APOC3, we used 17 polymorphic markers and allotyped 28 lung cancer-derived cell lines and their corresponding matched lymphoblastoid cell lines. LOH was found in 71.4% (20/28) of the lung cancer cell lines and was localized to two distinct minimal regions of loss. One region is bracketed by markers D11S1647 and NCAM2 and contains the gene encoding the beta isoform of the A subunit of the human protein phosphatase 2A (PPP2R1B). Recently, mutations in this gene were described in lung and colon cancers, suggesting that PPP2R1B functions as a tumor-suppressor gene. A second minimal region of loss was defined between markers D11S1792 and D11S1885, a region estimated to be less than I Mb. Thus, chromosome 11 likely harbors two sites of suppressor oncogene activity in lung cancer, one defined by the PPP2R1B gene and the second located telomeric to PPP2R1B. This study facilitates the identification and cloning of a second critical tumor-suppressor gene involved in lung cancer, and possibly a variety of other cancers, on human chromosome band 11q23.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 07/1999; 25(2):154-9. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olfactory receptors (OR) are encoded by a large multigene family including hundreds of members dispersed throughout the human genome. Cloning and mapping studies have determined that a large proportion of the olfactory receptor genes are located on human chromosomes 6, 11, and 17, as well as distributed on other chromosomes. In this paper, we describe and characterize the organization of olfactory receptor genes on human chromosome 11 by using degenerate PCR-based probes to screen chromosome 11-specific and whole genome clone libraries for members of the OR gene family. OR genes were identified by DNA sequencing and then localized to regions of chromosome 11. Physical maps of several gene clusters were constructed to determine the chromosomal relationships between various members of the family. This work identified 25 new OR genes located on chromosome 11 in at least seven distinct regions. Three of these regions contain gene clusters that include additional members of this gene family not yet identified by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the newly described OR genes suggests a mechanism for the generation of genetic diversity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PPP2R1B gene, which encodes the β isoform of the A subunit of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), was identified
as a putative human tumor suppressor gene. Sequencing of thePPP2R1B gene, located on human chromosome 11q22-24, revealed somatic alterations in 15% (5 out of 33) of primary lung tumors, 6%
(4 out of 70) of lung tumor–derived cell lines, and 15% (2 out of 13) of primary colon tumors. One deletion mutation generated
a truncated PP2A-Aβ protein that was unable to bind to the catalytic subunit of the PP2A holoenzyme. The PP2R1B gene product may suppress tumor development through its role in cell cycle regulation and cellular growth control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of an extended pedigree in which a balanced t(9;11)(p24;q23.1) translocation was found to cosegregate with bipolar affective disorder revealed that five of 11 translocation carriers had bipolar affective disorder and one carrier had unipolar depression. There were no affected individuals in the pedigree without the balanced translocation. We hypothesized that gene(s) or gene regulatory regions disrupted by the translocation might be contributing to the bipolar affective disorder in a dominant fashion. To test this hypothesis, we isolated the derivative chromosome 9 and derivative chromosome 11 in somatic cell hybrids and identified the nearest flanking markers on chromosome 9 (D9S230 and D9S2011E/HRFX3) and chromosome 11 (EST00652 and CRYA2). YAC contigs were constructed in the region of flanking markers for both chromosomes 9 and 11. Chromosome 11 breakpoint was localized within an 8-kb region in a small insert (100 kb) YAC. Chromosome 9 breakpoint was localized within approximately 2 Mb region. Several genes and ESTs including EST00652, CRYA2, DRD2, 5HTR3 on chromosome 11 and VLDLR and SLC1A1 on chromosome 9 were mapped within the vicinity of the breakpoint but were shown not to be disrupted by the translocation breakpoint. Although several possibilities exist regarding the role of the balanced translocation in developing bipolar affective disorder in this pedigree, including a chance cosegregation, identification of a disrupted gene or gene regulatory region with the help of physical mapping resources described in this study may help to identify the presence of a susceptibility gene for this disorder.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 02/1998; 81(1):81-91. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Usher syndrome 1C (USH1C) is a congenital condition manifesting profound hearing loss, the absence of vestibular function, and eventual retinal degeneration. The USH1C locus has been mapped genetically to a 2- to 3-cM interval in 11p14–15.1 between D11S899 and D11S861. In an effort to identify the USH1C disease gene we have isolated the region between these markers in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) using a combination of STS content mapping and Alu–PCR hybridization. The YAC contig is ∼3.5 Mb and has located several other loci within this interval, resulting in the order CEN-LDHA-SAA1-TPH-D11S1310-(D11S1888/KCNC1)-MYOD1-D11S902D11S921-D11S1890-TEL. Subsequent haplotyping and homozygosity analysis refined the location of the disease gene to a 400-kb interval between D11S902 and D11S1890 with all affected individuals being homozygous for the internal marker D11S921. To facilitate gene identification, the critical region has been converted into P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones using sequence-tagged sites (STSs) mapped to the YAC contig, Alu–PCR products generated from the YACs, and PAC end probes. A contig of >50 PAC clones has been assembled between D11S1310 and D11S1890, confirming the order of markers used in haplotyping. Three PAC clones representing nearly two-thirds of the USH1C critical region have been sequenced. PowerBLAST analysis identified six clusters of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), two known genes (BIR,SUR1) mapped previously to this region, and a previously characterized but unmapped gene NEFA (DNA binding/EF hand/acidic amino-acid-rich). GRAIL analysis identified 11 CpG islands and 73 exons of excellent quality. These data allowed the construction of a transcription map for the USH1C critical region, consisting of three known genes and six or more novel transcripts. Based on their map location, these loci represent candidate disease loci for USH1C. The NEFA gene was assessed as the USH1C locus by the sequencing of an amplified NEFA cDNA from an USH1C patient; however, no mutations were detected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia represents one of the earliest diverging lineages in the evolutionary history of eukaryotic organisms as well as an important human pathogen. A representative sampling of gene sequences from this early diverging protozoan could provide insights into genotypic and phenotypic innovations associated with the origin of eukaryotes. Currently, known giardial gene sequences are heavily biased toward a few gene families, including variant surface proteins (VSPs), structural proteins, and ribosomal RNA genes. One-pass sequences of Giardia genomic DNA were obtained using vector flanking priming sequences on the ends of cosmids in two independent libraries. Comparisons of 2304 of these sequences against the GenBank™ database identified 205 potential giardial genes with BLAST scores P(n)
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 01/1998; 95(2):267-280. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PRIMO is a computer program that designs walking primers for large-scale DNA sequencing projects. Oligonucleotide primers are predicted automatically, using quality information associated with each base call, eliminating the need for manually viewing the sequence traces or inspecting contig assemblies to determine appropriate locations for primer design. This allows PRIMO to run in batch mode on an arbitrarily large number of templates. For shotgun sequencing, PRIMO reads assembled sequence contigs with corresponding base quality statistics and automatically designs walking primers as needed to extend and join contigs, or improve their overall quality. In the opposite extreme of single-pass or completely directed sequencing, PRIMO reads the unassembled sequence for each template and designs walking primers for extending each read. If the base-calling software does not provide base quality statistics, PRIMO assigns its own measure of base quality determined by the shapes of individual peaks in the trace data for each template. In this way, PRIMO can be used in the finishing stages of a shotgun sequencing project, in sequencing by directed primer walking, or in some intermediate strategy. The code is written in ANSI C and maintained in two versions: one for the Macintosh and the other for UNIX.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical mapping of human chromosomes at a resolution of 100 kb to 1 Mb will provide important reagents for gene identification and framework templates for ultimately determining the complete DNA sequence. Sequence-tagged site (STS) content mapping, coupled with large fragment cloning in yeast artificial chromosomes, provides an efficient mechanism for producing first-generation, low-resolution maps of human chromosomes. Previously, we produced a set of standardized STSs for human chromosome 11 regionally localized by fluorescencein situhybridization or somatic cell hybrid analysis. In this paper, we used these as well as other STSs to map over 900 YAC clones to chromosome 11, organize yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones into contigs by STS content, and identify 109 islands spanning an estimated 218 Mb on the 126-Mb chromosome. Since about 62% of the islands contain markers ordered on chromosome 11 by genetic or radiation hybrid analysis, this data set represents a first-order approximation of a physical map of human chromosome 11. This set of clones, contigs, and associated STSs will provide the material for the production of a continuous overlapping set of YACs as well for high-resolution physical mapping based upon sampled and complete DNA sequencing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The past year has seen major advances in our understanding of chromosome structure, driven by technology that allows the rapid construction of physical and genetic maps. Information on the structure and organization of human chromosome 11 is rapidly being accumulated as a result of these developments.
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 07/1993; 3(3):418-24. · 8.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene encoding the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) is located on human chromosome 11q23 and has been circumstantially associated with a number of human disorders including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and susceptibility to alcoholism. To determine the physical structure of the DRD2 gene, we utilized cosmid cloning, isolation of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to construct a long-range physical map of human chromosome 11q23 linking the genes for the DRD2 and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). The D2 dopamine receptor gene extends over 270 kb and includes an intron of approximately 250 kb separating the putative first exon from the exons encoding the receptor protein. The resulting physical map spans more than 1.5 mb of chromosome band 11q23 and links the DRD2 gene with the gene encoding the NCAM located 150 kb 3′ of the DRD2 gene and transcribed from the same DNA strand. We additionally located the sites of at least four hypomethylated HTF islands within the physical map, which potentially indicate the sites of additional genes. High-resolution fluorescent in situ suppression hybridization using cosmid and YAC clones localized this gene cluster between the ApoAI and STMY loci at the interface of bands 11q22.3 and 11q23.1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes encoding G-protein-coupled receptors, including dopamine, serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors, play an important role in neurotransmission and may be involved in the pathophysiology of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Huntington's disease (HD). We mapped the gene encoding the D5 dopamine receptor (DRD5) to human chromosome 4p, an area implicated in HD and the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, using gene-specific amplification with the polymerase chain reaction on a panel of somatic cell hybrids carrying different human chromosomes. Further localization of the DRD5 gene was carried out through the isolation and analysis of yeast artificial chromosomes, fluorescence in situ suppression hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes, and analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids subdividing human chromosome 4 into nine regions. The human DRD5 gene is located at 4p15.1-p15.33, centromeric to the location of the Huntington's disease locus although not in the obligate area containing the HD gene. The localization of the DRD5 gene to 4p15.1-p15.33 suggests the possibility that cis-position effects could be responsible for the altered D1-type dopamine receptor number observed in HD tissues or that the DRD5 gene could be a candidate for some of the abnormalities associated with the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) provide a powerful tool for the isolation and mapping of large regions of mammalian chromosomes. We developed a rapid and efficient method for the isolation of DNA fragments representing the extreme ends of YAC clones by the insertion of a rescue plasmid into the YAC vector by homologous recombination. Two rescue vectors were constructed containing a yeast LYS2 selectable gene, a bacterial origin of replication, an antibiotic resistance gene, a polylinker containing multiple restriction sites, and a fragment homologous to one arm of the pYAC4 vector. The 'end-cloning' procedure involves transformation of the rescue vector into yeast cells carrying a YAC clone, followed by preparation of yeast DNA and transformation into bacterial cells. The resulting plasmids carry end-specific DNA fragments up to 20 kb in length, which are suitable for use as hybridization probes, as templates for direct DNA sequencing, and as probes for mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization. These vectors are suitable for the rescue of end-clones from any YAC constructed using a pYAC-derived vector. We demonstrate the utility of these plasmids by rescuing YAC-end fragments from a human YAC library.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/1991; 19(18):4943-8. · 8.81 Impact Factor