ABSTRACT: The pathogenic role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in hypertensive patients regarding endothelial progenitor-cell (EPC) function is still poorly understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate EPC number, function, and relationship to carotid intima media thickness (IMT) progression.
We studied 36 newly diagnosed mildly hypertensive patients free of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors without prior or concurrent therapy with ACE inhibitors. Patients were randomized to receive enalapril 20 mg/day (n = 18) or zofenopril 30 mg/day (n = 18). EPC number and migrating capacity, plasma nitrite and nitrate (NOx), and isoprostane concentrations were evaluated. Carotid IMT was determined by ultrasonography at baseline and after 1 and 5 years of follow-up.
EPC number increased during the follow-up, with no statistical differences between treatment groups. There was an inverse correlation between circulating EPCs and IMT increase over time. Plasma NOx decreased during the study without evident differences between treatment groups. Isoprostanes decreased more markedly in zofenopril-treated patients. Multiple linear regression model demonstrated that carotid IMT was significantly inversely correlated with EPC but not with migratory cells after adjusting for confounders.
The study demonstrated that EPC levels increased during the follow-up in both groups of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These drugs prevented progression of vascular damage, with an inverse correlation between circulating EPC levels and IMT values.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2011; 67(9):877-83. · 2.85 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors exert antiatherosclerotic effects in preclinical models and antioxidant effects in patients. However, whether ACE inhibitors have any clinically significant antiatherogenic effects remains still debated.
In mildly hypertensive patients, we evaluated the effect of the sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor zofenopril in comparison with the carboxylic ACE inhibitor enalapril on carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness [IMT] and vascular lumen diameter) and systemic oxidative stress (nitrite/nitrate, asymmetrical dimethyl-l-arginine, and isoprostanes).
In 2001, we started a small prospective randomized clinical trial on 48 newly diagnosed mildly hypertensive patients with no additional risk factors for atherosclerosis (eg, hyperlipidemia, smoke habit, familiar history of atherosclerosis-related diseases or diabetes). Patients were randomly assigned either to the enalapril (20 mg/d, n = 24) or the zofenopril group (30 mg/d, n = 24); the planned duration of the trial was 5 years. Carotid IMT and vascular lumen diameter were determined by ultrasonography for all patients at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 years. Furthermore, nitrite/nitrate, asymmetrical dimethyl-l-arginine, and isoprostane levels were measured.
In our conditions, IMT of the right and left common carotid arteries was similar at baseline in both groups (P = NS). Intima-media thickness measurements until 5 years revealed a significant reduction in the zofenopril group but not in the enalapril group (P < .05 vs enalapril-treated group). This effect was coupled with a favorable nitric oxide/oxidative stress profile in the zofenopril group.
Long-term treatment with the sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor zofenopril besides its blood pressure-lowering effects may slow the progression of IMT of the carotid artery in newly diagnosed mildly hypertensive patients.
American heart journal 01/2009; 156(6):1154.e1-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The circulating form of endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) are derived from bone marrow (BM)-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Enhanced mobilization of EPCs was shown to be linked to cardiac diseases. This study investigated whether reduced EPC levels in advanced coronary heart disease (CHD) are secondary to a functional exhaustion of HSCs in the BM or to reduced mobilization. Number and functional properties of EPCs were assessed in 15 healthy controls, and 40 patients with CHD. The colony-forming unit (CFU) capacity of BM-derived mononuclear cells and the CD34+ HSC number were examined in four healthy volunteers, and 15 CHD patients. EPC number was reduced in CHD patients (P < 0.01 vs. controls). Moreover, the migratory capacity was significantly impaired in EPCs of CHD patients (P < 0.05 vs. controls). On multivariate analysis, CHD was an independent predictor of functional EPC impairment. CFUs were reduced in CHD patients (59.6 +/- 21.2 vs. 75.4 +/- 25.8 in controls, P < 0.05). CHD was also predictor of impaired CFU capacity. In this small clinical study, CHD is associated with selective impairment of HSC function in the BM and in the peripheral blood, which may contribute to impairment of cardiac function.
European Journal Of Haematology 03/2008; 80(3):258-64. · 2.61 Impact Factor