Giovanni Ballardini

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (11)23.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Desmoid tumour (DT) is a main cause of death after prophylactic colectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of prophylactic laparoscopic colectomy on the risk of developing DT in patients with FAP. The database of a single institution was reviewed. Patients with classical FAP with defined genotype who underwent either open or laparoscopic colectomy between 1947 and 2011 were included in the study. The impact of various demographic and clinical features on the risk of developing DT was assessed. A total of 672 patients underwent prophylactic colectomy: 602 by an open and 70 by a laparoscopic approach. With a median (range) follow-up of 132 (0-516) months in the open group and 60 (12-108) months in the laparoscopic group, 98 patients (16·3 per cent) developed DT after an open procedure compared with three (4 per cent) following laparoscopic surgery. The estimated cumulative risk of developing DT at 5 years after surgery was 13·0 per cent in the open group and 4 per cent in the laparoscopic group (P = 0·042). In multivariable analysis, female sex (hazard ratio (HR) 2·18, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·40 to 3·39), adenomatous polyposis coli mutation distal to codon 1400 (HR 3·85, 1·90 to 7·80), proctocolectomy (HR 1·67, 1·06 to 2·61), open colectomy (HR 6·84, 1·96 to 23·98) and year of surgery (HR 1·04, 1·01 to 1·07) were independent risk factors for the diagnosis of DT after prophylactic surgery. Laparoscopic surgery decreased the risk of DT after prophylactic colectomy in patients with FAP.
    British Journal of Surgery 02/2014; · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Data about strategies for improving the diagnostic ability of capsule endoscopy readers are lacking. AIM: (1) To evaluate the detection rate and the interobserver agreement among readers with different experience; (2) to verify the impact of a specific training (hands-on training plus expert tutorial) on these parameters. METHODS: 17 readers reviewed 12 videos twice; between the two readings they underwent the training. The identified small bowel findings were described by a simplified version of Structured Terminology and classifies as clinically significant/non-significant. Findings identified by the readers were compared with those identified by three experts (Reference Standard). RESULTS: The Reference Standard identified 26 clinically significant findings. The mean detection rate of overall readers for significant findings was low (about 50%) and did not change after the training (46.2% and 46.4%, respectively). There was no difference in the detection rate among readers with different experience. The interobserver agreement with the Reference Standard in describing significant findings was moderate (k=0.44; CI95%: 0.39-0.50) and did not change after the training (k=0.44; CI95%: 0.38-0.49) or stratifying readers according to their experience. CONCLUSIONS: Both the interobserver agreement and the detection rate of significant findings are low, regardless of the readers' experience. Our training did not significantly increase the performance of readers with different experience.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 08/2012; · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2011; 43.
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    ABSTRACT: Data about small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) come from studies involving small and highly selected populations. The study aim was to describe extent of use, indications, results, complications, and practical issues of SBCE in clinical practice in a Northern Italian Region (Lombardia). Twenty-three out of 29 invited centers fulfilled a specific questionnaire. Between 2001 and 2008, 2921 procedures were performed and both the number of centers performing SBCE (from 5 to 29) and the number of SBCE (from 7.2 to 69.2 per month) increased steadily. The main indications for SBCE were: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) (43.4%), unexplained anemia (23.9%), suspected Crohn's disease (7.8%) and abdominal pain (5.3%). Overall, SBCE was positive in 50% of cases, negative in 36% and undefined in 14%. The highest diagnostic yields were observed in patients with OGIB (62.5%), polypoid syndromes (74.1%), known (54.8%) or suspected (47.3%) inflammatory bowel disease, while the yields were low in patients examined for chronic diarrhea (27.4%) and abdominal pain (14.9%), 61 patients (2.1%) experienced capsule retention. Thirty-two of them eventually excreted the capsule naturally while endoscopic or surgical retrieval was necessary in 29 (1%) (in two because of obstruction). Over a period of 7 years the use of SBCE in Lombardia increased steadily confirming, in clinical practice, a high diagnostic yield and an acceptable safety profile.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 02/2010; 22(11):1380-6. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 01/2010; · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease - DIG LIVER DIS. 01/2009; 41.
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    ABSTRACT: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal condition caused by inherited mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or in the MYH genes. Clinical trials have established that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are effective in preventing the development as well as reducing the size and decreasing the number of adenomas in FAP patients. Our aim was to evaluate the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in surgical specimens from patients with no evidence of germ line APC mutations but carrying germ line MYH mutations. COX-2 expression was evaluated through immunohistochemical and mRNA analysis in carcinomas, adenomas, and healthy mucosa from six patients carrying germ line biallelic MYH mutations. A modulation of COX-2 expression from adenoma (lower level) to carcinoma (higher level) was observed in all patients by both immunohistochemical and mRNA analysis. Moreover, patients with MYH mutations showed a weak COX-2 expression in the whole colorectal mucosa, as for classic FAP patients carrying germ line APC mutations. All together, our data suggest that biallelic MYH patients might benefit from NSAID treatment, because in these patients COX-2 is overexpressed in the whole colorectal mucosa, a finding possibly related to the interplay between COX-2 and APC protein being the APC gene a common target of mutations in MYH patients.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 09/2005; 14(8):2049-52. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to assess the overall risk of subsequent colorectal neoplasms (cancer or adenoma) in relation with the various characteristics of the index lesion in a cohort of patients who underwent endoscopic polypectomies of colorectal adenomas. A total of 1086 patients with adenomas of the large bowel were reported between 1979 and 1999 at the National Cancer Institute of Milan during a screening program for colorectal carcinoma. Data on patients who had colonoscopic examinations and treatments were collected prospectively. The relation between colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma features was assessed by computing the hazard ratio (HR) values and corresponding confidence intervals (95% CI) according to Cox proportional hazard models. Of the 1086 eligible patients (487 females, 579 males), 736 had single adenomas (67.7%) and 350 had multiple adenomas (32.3%). Histologic examination revealed 772 cases of tubular adenoma (73%), 205 cases of tubulovillous adenoma and 80 cases of villous adenoma (7.5%). Severe dysplasia was found in 3.3% of the cases. During the 11393 person-years of follow-up, with an average time of surveillance of 10.5 years, colorectal carcinomas developed in 10 patients (0.8%) and a new adenoma in 323 patients (29%). Multivariate analysis showed that male gender (HR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), multiple polyps (HR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), polyps larger than 2 cm (HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1), tubulovillous and villous histology (HR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0-1.6 and HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.6, respectively) at index polypectomy were statistically significant risk factors for developing metachronous adenomatous polyps. The standardized incidence rates (SIR) for CRC was 0.52 (95% CI 0.25-0.95). The SIR was increased in subjects with severe dysplasia (2.8; 95% CI 0.34-1.02). Some features of large bowel adenomas are strongly correlated with an increased risk of metachronous adenomas and colorectal cancer. However, the endoscopic polypectomy is able to reduce by 50% the incidence of CRC in patients with large bowel adenomas.
    International Journal of Cancer 06/2003; 105(1):82-7. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To follow a cohort of patients who had undergone polypectomies in order to assess the overall risk of subsequent colorectal cancer in relation with various adenomas characteristics. A total of 1,063 patients with adenomatous polyps of the large intestine were treated between 1979 and 1996 at the National Cancer Institute of Milan, during a screening program for colorectal carcinoma. Data on patients who had undergone colonoscopies were collected prospectively. The relation between colorectal cancer and adenomas characteristics was assessed by computing the hazard ratio (HR) values and corresponding confidence intervals (95% CI), according to Cox. Of the 1,063 patients who met the eligibility requirements, 672 had single adenomas (63.2%) and 391 had multiple adenomas (36.8%). Histological examination revealed 743 cases of tubular adenoma, 196 cases of tubulo-villous adenoma, and 96 cases of villous adenoma. High-grade dysplasia was found in 3.1% of the cases. During the 8,906 persons/year of follow-up, adenocarcinomas of the large bowel developed in 11 patients. Several adenomas' characteristics at index polypectomy were significant predictors of colorectal cancer occurrence. In univariate analysis the risk of colon cancer was significantly related with multiple adenomas (HR 4.2, 95% CI 1.1-6.5), high-grade dysplasia adenomas (HR 10.0, 95% CI 2.6-38.1) and with adenomas larger than 2 cm (HR 5.0, 95% CI 1.2-20.4). A multivariate stepwise procedure confirmed that the presence of multiple adenomas and presence of high-grade dysplasia are the most important predictors of carcinomas. Hazard ratios for colorectal cancer occurrence, from multivariate Cox's model, were 5.1 (95% CI 1.2-19.9) for multiple compared to single adenomas, and 13.0 (95% CI 3.6-50.7) for adenomas with high-grade dysplasia compared to those with low-grade dysplasia. High-grade dysplasia, number and size of adenomas were confirmed as the major cancer predictors. Based on this conclusion, a subgroup of patients, who may benefit from intensive surveillance colonoscopy, can be identifiable.
    Tumori 01/1999; 85(3):157-62. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Cancer Prevention - EUR J CANCER PREV. 01/1993; 2.
  • Digestive and Liver Disease. 45:S77–S78.