[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term results of patient symptoms and radiologic outcomes of laparoscopic renal cyst decortication in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. Renal cysts are common in the adult population. Symptomatic renal cysts have traditionally been treated by percutaneous aspiration with or without injection of sclerosant agents; however, this has a high rate of recurrence.
From April 1994 through July 2005, 45 patients underwent laparoscopic decortication of symptomatic simple renal cysts with renal cyst wall excision and fulguration of the epithelial lining. Complex renal cysts were excluded. Of the 45 patients, 24 (53.3%) had undergone previous cyst aspiration with injection of sclerosant material for intended ablation. The Wong-Baker pain scale was used to assess the preoperative and postoperative pain scores. Radiologic success was indicated as no recurrence on the most recent computed tomography scan.
Of the 45 procedures, 44 were completed laparoscopically. One patient (1.8%) underwent open conversion because of excessive bleeding. The mean operative time was 89 minutes (range 48 to 170). Symptomatic success was achieved in 91.1% of patients, with a median follow-up of 52 months (range 3 to 132), and radiographic success was achieved in 95.5% of patients, with a median follow-up of 39 months (range 3 to 96).
Long-term follow-up has confirmed that laparoscopic cyst decortication is an effective and durable treatment option for symptomatic simple renal cysts during long-term follow-up. The greater and durable success rates of this minimally invasive technique may favor this treatment option over other treatment modalities.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As laparoscopic surgery has evolved, it has become part of the urologic surgical armamentarium and is now used to perform more complex procedures. Carbon dioxide, used to create pneumoperitoneum, produces physiologic changes in various organs, including the kidneys. Such changes are associated with altered redox status because of the release of free radicals and changes in oxidative stress signals. It is unknown whether prolonged pneumoperitoneum is associated with an increase in oxidative stress compared with open surgery. The objective of this study was to compare oxidative stress in patients undergoing urologic laparoscopic and open operations.
Urine samples were obtained immediately preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 6 and 18 hours after surgery from 10 patients who underwent urologic laparoscopic surgery and 10 patients who underwent open surgery. Concentrations of the oxidative stress marker isoprostane (8- iso-prostaglandin F2a) were measured, and the results were analyzed with respect to clinical factors associated with the type of surgery.
Urinary isoprostane concentrations (mean +/- SEM) in the laparoscopic and open groups showed an increase immediately after surgery to 189.0 +/- 64.2% and 141.1 +/- 45.8% of the preoperative values, respectively. A decrease in isoprostane was subsequently observed in both groups at 6 hours postoperatively, with preoperative values restored at 18 hours postoperatively (126.3 +/- 19.7% and 89.5 +/- 55.9% at 6 and 18 hours, respectively, in the laparoscopic group and 130.7 +/- 41.6% and 88.7 +/- 20.4% at 6 and 18 hours, respectively, in the open-surgery group). Although in both groups the peak PGF 2a concentration was observed immediately (0 hours) postoperatively, no significant differences were observed between the groups at 0, 6, and 18 hours. In the laparoscopic-surgery group, the mean increase tended to be higher and the decrease to be less prolonged than in the open-surgery group.
Oxidative stress, as measured by urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a, is produced by both laparoscopic and open urologic surgery. The findings of our nonrandomized study suggest a pattern of increased oxidative stress postoperatively with either type of surgery, with subsequent return almost to preoperative levels. Prolonged laparoscopic operative time did not affect oxidative stress levels.
Journal of Endourology 04/2005; 19(2):221-4. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differentiation of recurrent neoplasm and desmoplastic reaction following laparoscopic resection of renal mass lesions poses a problem. The usefulness of multiphasic helical CT-generated criteria based on enhancement and morphologic characteristics was investigated.
The findings in 5 female and 12 male patients aged 29 to 68 years having renal-cell carcinoma (11-38 mm; N = 15) or solitary angiomyolipomas (N = 2) treated by laparoscopic resection (N = 15) or open segmental surgery (N = 2) were analyzed. Multiphasic helical CT was performed in the preenhancement, arterial corticomedullary, parenchymal, and excretory phases generating 2.5- to 7-mm slices.
Both recurrent neoplasms showed median postcontrast enhancement of 119 HU in the arterial corticomedullary phase; the median enhancement of desmoplastic masses was 48 HU. In the parenchymal and excretory phase, recurrent neoplasms showed progressive loss of enhancement, whereas desmoplastic lesions sustained enhancement at about the same level. Recurrent neoplasms presented a defined mass with characteristic spiculation, whereas desmoplastic reaction was characterized by an ill-defined mass with spidery projections extending to abutting fat and residual fascial planes. On 2- to 3-month follow-up scans, recurrent neoplasms showed progressive increases in size and desmoplastic reaction a sharp decrease.
Enhancement of the mass at the operative site on arterial corticomedullary-phase CT to >90 HU strongly suggests recurrent renal-cell carcinoma, while progressive decrease in size on 1- to 3-month follow-up CT suggests a desmoplastic reaction.
Journal of Endourology 03/2004; 18(2):167-71. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The feasibility of identifying early manifestations of renal papillary necrosis (RPN) and medullary necrosis (RMN) on multiphasic helical CT, leading to prompt treatment for the causative conditions, and its impact on reducing the incidence of late-stage RML and RPN, was investigated.
Sixty-eight patients (35 male, 33 female) aged 19 to 88 years were examined by multiphasic helical CT for complaints of microscopic hematuria (N=49), macroscopic hematuria (N=2), bacteriuria (N=45), pyuria (N=10), fever (N=15), and flank pain (N=27). Preenhancement, arterial corticomedullary, parenchymal, and excretory phase scans generated 1.25 to 7-mm-thick slices. Follow-up CTs were performed at 1 month (N=62) and 3 months (N=58).
While the attenuation coefficients of areas suspect for RMN and RPN were similar on preenhancement CT, they differed substantially on the arterial corticomedullary phase (lesions 55 HU mean; normal medulla 120 HU mean) and parenchymal phase (lesions 58 HU mean, normal medulla 210 HU mean). Investigation for predisposing conditions identified diabetes in 18 patients, upper urinary-tract infections in 48, sickle-cell disease or trait in 17, urinary obstruction in 7, and cirrhosis of the liver in 1. On follow-up examinations, enhancement had normalized in 26 compromised areas of 14 patients at 1 month, and 47 areas (23 patients) at 3 months, remained stationary in 28 patients at 1 month and 9 at 3 months, and progressed in 20 at 1 and 26 at 3 months (P<0.001; Fisher's exact test). Patients (N=35) treated for underlying conditions causing ischemia showed reperfusion in 12 cases at 1 month and 20 at 3 months, while of the untreated patients (N=10), none showed reperfusion, and all lesions increased in size.
Multiphasic helical CT is recommended for identification of RMN and RPN at a stage when effective treatment of underlying causative conditions can arrest or reverse the process of devascularization and prevent loss of medullary tissue.
Journal of Endourology 02/2004; 18(1):49-56. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiphasic helical computerized tomography (CT) is advocated to identify early manifestations of papillary and medullary necrosis based on decreased enhancement of circumscribed areas in the medullary pyramid. At this stage the devascularizing process can be reversed if causative conditions such as infections or diabetes mellitus are effectively treated.
Multiphasic helical CTs were performed in 31 male and 26 female patients with complaints of microscopic hematuria (41), macroscopic hematuria (2), bacteriuria (39) and pyuria (9). Pre-enhancement, arterial, early corticomedullary, parenchymal and excretory phase helical CTs generated 1.25 to 5 mm. thick slices. Followup examination included multiphasic helical CT at 1 and 3 months, and excretory urography for some patients at 3 months.
Bacteriuria was identified as the probable cause of medullary and papillary necrosis in 39 patients, of whom 28 were treated with effective antibiotic therapy, resulting in normalization and re-perfusion of the initial lesion in 16, no change in 5 and progressive disease in 7 at 3-month followup. Of 8 lesions not treated with specific antibiotic therapy 4 progressed and 4 remained unchanged.
Multiphasic helical CT unlike the excretory urogram can identify medullary and papillary necrosis at an early stage when effective treatment of the underlying cause can reverse the process of devascularization and prevent sloughing of medullary tissues.
The Journal of Urology 08/2003; 170(1):94-8. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is defined as an impediment to urinary flow from the renal pelvis into the ureter. The exact cause remains an enigma despite investigations along embryologic, anatomic, and histologic lines. Our goal was to investigate in vivo the expression profile of cytokines in hyperplastic urothelial cells as a means of determining the source of UPJO.
Cellular proteomes of matched normal and hyperplastic urothelial cells were analyzed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and tissue microdissection and human cytokine proteomic chips. All specimens (N = 9) were surgically obtained from patients undergoing laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty and were immediately embedded in O.C.T. solution and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue sections (6 microm) were mounted on uncoated glass slides using a cryostat, fixed in 70% ethanol, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and sequentially dehydrated in ethanol and xylene. Typically, paired samples of normal and hyperplastic urothelial cells were procured on separate caps from serial sections of each specimen by the Arcturus PixCell II LCM system using 3000 laser pulses and a spot diameter of 30 microm. Total proteins were harvested and quantitated. Differential expression profile analysis of 43 cytokines in normal and hyperplastic cells were performed using human protein chips. Briefly, the membranes were initially probed with protein (150 ng) from normal or hyperplastic cells and sequentially reacted with a cocktail of biotinylated cytokine antibodies and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin. The membranes were developed using enhanced chemiluminescence and analyzed by densitometry.
Comparative densitometric analysis revealed twofold to fourfold upregulation of growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1alpha, interferon (INF)-gamma, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, RANTES, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta) and twofold to fourfold downregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and IL-10 in hyperplastic urothelial cells compared with paired control cells.
We here report the efficient application of LCM and proteomic array chips for expression profile analysis of cytokines in vivo. Because the etiology and pathogenesis of UPJO are still fragmentary, the marked heterogeneity of the observed cytokine alterations reported here may be of significance. Further studies are required to elucidate the functional significance of the differentially expressed cytokines in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Journal of Endourology 07/2003; 17(5):333-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an effort to better understand the pathophysiology of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction and to determine possible predisposing factors for endopyelotomy failures, we compared the activation of the nuclear factor NF-kappa B and proinflammatory cytokines in patients who failed endopyelotomy and post-primary pyeloplasty patients. We hypothesized that an imbalance toward proinflammatory cytokines may promote fibrosis prior to and after endopyelotomy in patients with severe hydronephrosis.
The charts of patients who underwent open pyeloplasty at our institution were reviewed. Group I was the control group, consisting of 10 patients who had undergone radical nephrectomy for renal-cell carcinoma without involvement of the renal pelvis. Group II was the endopyelotomy failure group and included 11 patients over the age of 15 years treated for symptomatic UPJ obstruction. Group III included six patients who underwent primary pyeloplasty. Paraffin-embedded blocks of UPJ segments from each of these patients were obtained, and immunohistochemical detection of NF-kappa B activation, interleukin (IL)-6, and hypoxia-inducing factor (HIF) was performed. As an in-vitro model, activation of NF-kappa B and cytokine gene expression were also monitored in human bladder T24 urothelial cells 24 hours after exposure to hypoxia (1% O(2)) in the presence and absence of NF-kappa B inhibitor. The activation of NF-kappa B was determined by immunocytochemical analysis, whereas cytokine gene expression was measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
Immunoreactivity to NF-kappa B was observed in the nuclei of the urothelium and muscle layer in all patients in group II. Such immunostaining suggests increased nuclear translocation and activation of this transcription factor. Those patients with increased expression of NF-kappa B demonstrated increases in IL-6 expression as well. Hypoxia-inducing factor was identified in all the tissue samples tested in group II. Stimulation of the human urothelial cells by hypoxia, known to activate NF-kappa B, resulted in an increase in the levels of IL-1 and IL-6 transcripts compared with hypoxia-exposed cells in the presence of NF-kappa B inhibitors.
The NF-kappa B factor was upregulated and proinflammatory cytokines were activated in patients with UPJ obstruction who failed endopyelotomy. Proinflammatory cytokines upregulated by this nuclear factor can result in fibrosis and affect healing after endopyelotomy. Hypoxia appears to activate this nuclear factor. Further studies correlating the degree of hydronephrosis with the activation of HIF are necessary to clarify the role of severe hydronephrosis and its management in UPJ obstruction.
Journal of Endourology 11/2002; 16(8):611-5. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy has been shown to be a safe method for removing kidneys for transplantation, but concerns have been raised regarding safety and long-term kidney function.
To compare safety and long-term kidney function in hand-assisted laparoscopic, pure laparoscopic, and traditional open living donor nephrectomy.
The charts of 48 patients with more than 1 year follow-up were reviewed. Thirty-four consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy, and 14 had open donor nephrectomy. All kidneys functioned immediately at transplantation. In the laparoscopic group, 11 had the pure laparoscopic technique, and 23 patients had hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy.
Total operative and warm ischemic times were reduced with the hand-assisted technique when compared with pure laparoscopy. Operative and warm ischemic times were similar in open nephrectomy and hand-assisted laparoscopy. Long-term follow-up of serum creatinine levels revealed no significant differences between the 3 groups. Complication rates in the 3 groups were similar.
Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy appears to be comparable to open donor nephrectomy in terms of safety and long-term graft function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the results of a multicenter study of arterial, corticomedullary, nephrographic and excretory phase helical computerized tomography (CT) for detecting and characterizing abnormalities causing asymptomatic microscopic hematuria.
We evaluated 350 consecutive patients, including 216 men and 134 women 23 to 88 years old, with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria of undetermined cause at 4 medical centers. Patients with known urological pathology were excluded from study. We performed 4 helical CT sequences, including pre-enhancement phase imaging from kidney to symphysis pubis, arterial phase imaging of the kidney and lower pelvis, corticomedullary nephrographic phase imaging of the kidney and lower pelvis, and excretory phase imaging from kidney to symphysis pubis with 2 to 5 mm. collimation and 1 to 1.5 pitch.
Of 171 proved lesions 158 were correctly diagnosed. There were 10 false-positive and 13 false-negative diagnoses, indicating 0.9239 sensitivity, 0.9441 specificity, 0.9404 positive and 0.9285 negative predictive values, (p <0.001). All cases of congenital renal lesions, calculous disease, ureteral lesion and neoplastic lesion of the bladder were correctly diagnosed, as were 40 of 41 inflammatory renal, 21 of 23 renal masses and 13 of 16 inflammatory bladder lesions. In 27 patients with renal calculi the study was limited to pre-enhancement spiral CT.
A positive diagnosis rate of 45.1% (158 of 350 cases) for the causes of heretofore refractory cases of hematuria with high sensitivity and specificity attest to the effectiveness of our hematuria CT protocol and support its use.
The Journal of Urology 02/2002; 167(2 Pt 1):547-54. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hand assistance has been a significant advance in making laparoscopy an easier and safer method for certain procedures such as nephrectomy. The value of this technique is realized when comparing patient outcomes (e.g., less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay, quicker recovery time) with those of the standard open approaches. One reported disadvantage of the Pneumo Sleeve device for hand-assisted laparoscopy is leakage of CO2 gas from around the ring base. We describe in detail our technique to secure the Pneumo Sleeve to the abdomen in such a way as to prevent leakage of intraperitoneal gas and fluid.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeIn experienced hands laparoscopic surgery has been shown to be safe for procuring kidneys for transplantation that function identically to open nephrectomy controls. While searching for a safer and easier approach to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, hand assisted laparoscopic techniques have been added to the surgical armamentarium. We compare allograft function in patients with greater than 1-year followup who underwent open donor (historic series), classic laparoscopic and hand assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy.Materials and MethodsThe charts of 48 patients who underwent open donor, laparoscopic donor or hand assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy were reviewed. Only patients with greater than 1-year followup and complete charts were included in our study. Of these patients 34 underwent consecutive laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy and 14 underwent open donor nephrectomy. Mean patient age plus or minus standard deviation (SD) was 36.5 ± 8.4 years for donors and 29 ± 17 for recipients at transplantation (range 13 months to 69 years). In the laparoscopic group 11 patients underwent the transperitoneal technique, and 23 underwent hand assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy.ResultsTotal operating time was significantly reduced with the hand assisted laparoscopic technique compared with classic laparoscopy, as was the time from skin incision to kidney removal and warm ischemic time. Average warm ischemic time plus or minus SD was 3.9 ± 0.3 minutes for laparoscopic nephrectomy and 1.6 ± 0.2 for hand assisted laparoscopy (p <0.05). Long-term followup of serum creatinine levels revealed no significant differences among the 3 groups. Comparison of those levels for recipients of open nephrectomy versus laparoscopic and hand assisted laparoscopic techniques revealed p values greater than 0.5. No blood transfusions were necessary. Complications included adrenal vein injury in 1 patient, small bowel obstruction in 2, abdominal hernia at the trocar site in 1 and deep venous thrombosis in 1.ConclusionsClassic laparoscopic donor and hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies appear to be safe procedures for harvesting kidneys. The recipient graft function is similar in the laparoscopic and open surgery groups.
The Journal of Urology 10/2001; · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As managed care becomes more prevalent, urologists must critically evaluate the economic aspect of and patient satisfaction with urological practice patterns. We have previously reported the advantages of radical perineal prostatectomy, which decreases hospitalization and morbidity, and provides a more rapid return to normal activity, translating into cost savings. We have since evaluated the satisfaction of patients who underwent outpatient radical prostatectomy with and without laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection.
We evaluated the charts of 250 consecutive patients who underwent outpatient radical perineal prostatectomy with less than 24 hours of hospitalization from 1992 to 1997. Complications, pain management, blood transfusion, and bowel and urinary dysfunction were assessed. Validated quality of life questionnaires were mailed to 200 patients several months postoperatively and a 62% response rate was achieved.
Mean followup in the series was 30 months. In the perioperative period there were rectal perforation in less than 2% of patients, anastomotic stricture in 3%, perineal fistula in 0.4% and blood transfusion in 11%. Some problems with bowel movements immediately after the procedure, such as diarrhea, constipation or soiled underwear, developed in 17% of patients, of whom up to 20% had had some bowel dysfunction before surgery. In the majority bowel problems resolved in an average of 7.3 weeks. Persistent new onset bowel trouble developed in 9 of the 124 patients (7%). The questionnaire demonstrated persistent significant urinary incontinence in 8 cases (7%). Nerve sparing was attempted in 54 patients, including 22 (41%) who achieve erection sufficient for vaginal penetration and are satisfied with sexual function. Of the patients 17% reported problems after hospital discharge that were mostly related to Foley catheter management. Overall 94.8% of patients were satisfied with treatment. Physical and social/family well-being appeared to be excellent according to the questionnaire. Only 12% of patients would have preferred longer hospitalization. The preferred method of pain control was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Radical perineal prostatectomy is a low morbidity alternative for localized prostate cancer. Outpatient radical perineal prostatectomy may be performed with good patient satisfaction and safety. There appear to be few bowel problems after long-term followup.
The Journal of Urology 09/2001; 166(2):581-6. · 3.70 Impact Factor