[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism of cell death and it can be triggered by a variety of internal and external stimuli. It has been indicated that some opium derivatives develop cell apoptosis.
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of opium addiction on ovary cell apoptosis in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods
This experimental study was done on control, control-addicted, diabetic and diabetic-addicted rats. DNA fragmentation as a biomarker of apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL assay.
The blood glucose concentration in diabetic-addicted and diabetic rats was increased when compared to control (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between weights of control, control-addicted (non-diabetic) and diabetic-addicted groups during this study. The results of this study indicated that apoptosis in addicted and diabetic-addicted ovary cells was significantly higher than in diabetic group, and also apoptosis in addicted group was significantly more than the control rats. In addition, we found that ovary cells apoptosis of diabetic rats were significantly less than in control group.
Overall, these findings suggest that opium-addiction could play an important role in ovary cell apoptosis and could be very harmful for the reproductive system. Also, ovary cells of non-diabetic rats are more susceptible to opium-induced apoptosis than those of diabetic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of opium addiction on the secretion of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TGF-β under In Vivo and In Vitro conditions. The blood samples were collected and PBMCs were cultured in RPMI1640 with and without opium for 48hours. The levels of the cytokines were measured using ELISA technique. The results showed that plasma levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were significantly lower and IL-6 and TGF-β were higher in plasma taken from opium-addicted subjects. The concentrations of all the cytokines in opium addicted subjects inInVitrocondition were significantly lower than the control group. Addicted subjects cultured lymphocytes significantly decrease secreted IL-4, IL-6 and TGF-β but not IFN-γ in response to being cultured with opium, where as IFN-γ was increased in controls. These results may explain the frequent microbial infections and an increased tumor incidence seen in addicted patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundChronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsPeripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured.ResultsThe mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group.ConclusionsGenerally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is essential for maintiiining bone health and growth throughout life. Vitamin D deficiency not only leads to bone metabolic diseases in children and adults but may increase the risk of many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relation with vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism. In addition the study included the evaluation of known risk factors and their correlation to the vitamin D status among girls aged 11 - 17 years in Rafsanjan during the winter of 2009.
In a cross-sectional study, 250 healthy female students (age range, 11 - 17 years) were selected by random sampling method. Fasting blood samples were collected and the concentration of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3, PTH, ionized Ca, P, ALP, and VDR gene polymorphism (exon 9) were evaluated. Values of 20 nmol/L were considered severe, 20.1 - 37.5 nmol/L moderate, 37.6 - 50 nmol/L mild deficiency, and 25 (OH) vitamin D3 levels higher than 50 nmol/L were considered normal.
The results showed 59.6% of students suffered from vitamin D deficiency (14.4% severe, 24.4% moderate, and 20.8% mild deficiency). There was a significant relationship between serum levels of vitamin D with ionized Ca, PTH, ALP, type of clothing, and egg consumption, while no significant relationship was found between serum levels of vitamin D with age, residency, menstruation status, skin color, sun light exposure, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, exercise, physical activity, fish consumption, and polymorphisms in exon 9 of VDR gene.
This study indicated a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in female students in a sunny city, Rafsanjan in winter. Low sun light exposure, coverage especially veil, and low intake vitamin D are important factors in vitamin D deficiency in studied subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aim: Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. Saliva as a host factor plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of oral structures. The aim of the present study was to compare resting salivary pH, buffering capacity, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), calcium, and phosphate concentrations between children with and without ECC. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples of unstimulated saliva of 90 children (45 in ECC group and 45 in caries-free group) were taken with Scully method. The pH and buffering capacity were determined by pH meter. sIgA, calcium, and phosphate concentrations were quantitated with ELISA, CPC photometric, and phosphomolybdate/UV methods. Results: The mean resting salivary pH was significantly higher among children without ECC and the buffering capacity was significantly better among this group (P = 0.002). The mean sIgA concentration was significantly higher among the ECC group (P = 0.015). There were no statistically significant differences between calcium and phosphate concentrations between the two groups. Conclusion: The higher mean resting salivary pH and better buffering capacity found in children without ECC are probably the contributing factors that protect against caries development; but further studies are needed to understand the effects of saliva and its characteristics and components on ECC.
Indian journal of dental research: official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research 09/2012; 23(5):628-32. DOI:10.4103/0970-9290.107380
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different studies have shown the regulatory effects of vitamin D(3) on the immune system and bone metabolism. Regarding the effects of vitamin D on immune cells and the importance of cytokines on bone metabolism, we assessed the association between serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and IFN-γ cytokines and bone metabolism markers (Ca, P, PTH, ALP) in female students with vitamin D deficiency compared with control group. A total of 100 subjects with 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) (25-(OH) D(3)) deficiency were selected as case and 100 subjects with sufficient 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) (25-(OH) D(3)) were selected as the control group. The serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA method. Ionized Ca, PTH, P, ALP levels were also determined in all participants. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the levels of ALP with IFN-γ, PTH with IL-17 and a significant negative correlation between P with IL-10 in vitamin D deficient group. The results suggest that IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10 are important mediators of bone metabolism and vitamin D affect bone metabolism, at least in part, through immune system. In addition, not only vitamin D affect bone metabolism but also modulates immune responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common types of endocrine disease and the immune system plays a predominant role in its pathogenesis.
The present study aimed to examine known gene polymorphisms within IL-12B (+1188) region and its circulating serum levels in Type 2 diabetic patients from the southeastern region of Iran and compare them with unrelated controls.
In this clinical study, peripheral blood was collected from 114 Type 2 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls. Serum levels of IL-12B were measured by ELISA. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and polymorphisms at the +1188 position of the IL-12B gene were assessed using PCR restriction fragment-length polymorphism.
Our findings demonstrated that the AA genotype and the A allele of IL-12B were increased significantly in Type 2 diabetic patients when compared with controls. Our results also showed that the circulating levels of IL-12B were significantly decreased in Type 2 diabetic patients when compared with controls.
According to the findings of the current study, we concluded that IL-12B and its +1188 polymorphism may play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes. Further replicative investigations using a larger sample size are essential to identify additional IL-12B genetic variants associated with a risk of Type 2 diabetes.
Biomarkers in Medicine 02/2012; 6(1):89-95. DOI:10.2217/bmm.11.84 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that some opium derivatives promote cell death via apoptosis. This study was designed to examine the influence of opium addiction on brain and liver cells apoptosis in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium-addicted, diabetic and diabetic opium-addicted male and female rats. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and DNA fragmentation assays. Results of this study showed that apoptosis in opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted brain and liver cells were significantly higher than the both normal and diabetic rats. In addition, we found that apoptosis in brain cells of opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted male rats were significantly higher than opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted female, whereas apoptosis in liver cells of opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted female rats were significantly higher than opium-addicted and diabetic opium-addicted male. Overall, these results indicate that opium probably plays an important role in brain and liver cells apoptosis, therefore, leading neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings also in away possibly means that male brain cells are more susceptible than female and interestingly liver of females are more sensitive than males in induction of apoptosis by opium.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 12/2011; 15(6):327-32. DOI:10.4196/kjpp.2011.15.6.327 · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokines play an important role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was designed to determine the effects of administering progesterone (P) and estrogen (E), alone and in combination, on brain water content, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbance, and brain level of cytokines following diffuse TBI. Ovariectomized rats were divided into 9 groups, treated with vehicle, E1, E2, P1, P2, E1+P1, E1+P2, E2+P1, and E2+P2. Levels of BBB disruption (5 h), cytokines, and water content (24 h) were evaluated after TBI induced by the Marmarou method. Physiological (E1 and P1) and pharmacological (E2 and P2) doses of estrogen and progesterone were administered 30 min after TBI. Water content in the E1+P2-treated group was higher than in the E1-treated group. The inhibitory effect of E2 on water content was reduced by adding progesterone. The inhibitory effect of E1 and E2 on Evans blue content was reduced by treatment with E1+P1 and E2+P2, respectively. The brain level of IL-1β was reduced in E1 and E2, after TBI. In the E2+P2-treated group, this level was higher than in the E2-treated group. The brain level of TGF-β was also elevated by the administration of progesterone and estrogen alone, and reduced when the hormones were administered in combination. In conclusion, a combined administration of progesterone and estrogen inhibited the decreasing effects of administration of progesterone and estrogen alone on water content and BBB disruption that mediated to change the proinflammatory cytokines.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 01/2011; 89(1):31-40. DOI:10.1139/y10-103 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Several cells of immune system such as regulatory T cells and macrophages secrete transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in response to different stimuli. This cytokine has inhibitory effect on immune system and diminished production of this cytokine is associated with autoimmune disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of opium addiction on serum level of TGF-β in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. Methods: This experimental study was performed on normal, opium addicted, diabetic and addicted-diabetic male and female rats. Serum level of TGF-β was measured by ELISA. Results: The results of our study indicated that the mean serum level of TGF-β in female addicted rats was significantly increased compared to control group (p<0.004). Conversely, in male addicted rats the mean serum level of TGF-β was lower compared with control (p<0.065). Conclusion: Our results suggest that opium and its derivatives have differential inductive effects on the cytokine expression in male and female rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this experiment, we studied the chronic effects of NPY, as there were no data on long-term effects of NPY in vivo.
Complementary DNA encoding NPY was isolated, sequenced and cloned into the expression vector, pCEP4. The 6-23 clone 6 cell line was transfected with this clone. Two groups of 10 adult male WAG rats (180-250 g body weight) were injected with either untransfected 6-23 clone 6 or 6-23 clone 6 transfected with NPY cDNA [6-23 (NPY)]. After 8 weeks, the animals were killed, their plasma assayed for insulin. Pancreatic glucagon (PG), by RIA, and plasma glucose were measured.
The transfected cells were shown to be producing fully processed, bioactive NPY. The expression of NPY was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. The animals injected with 6-23 (NPY) cells gained significantly more weight than the controls, (on day 54, 31.89 +/- 3.56 vs. 24.1 +/- 4.12 g, n = 10, P < 0.05). Plasma insulin and PG increased significantly in NPY animals compared to controls. The total RNA extracted from tumours was analysed by Northern blotting and showed NPY mRNA expression in NPY animals, but not in controls.
The long-term effects of NPY was confirmed by injection of the cells producing this peptide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most common and conventional blood test that physicians usually request. However the results of this test are affected by different factors such as, the temperature and duration of incubation, therefore the aim of this survey was to evaluate the effect of temperature and time of incubation on CBC, red blood cells (RBC) indices and white blood cells (WBC) differential count.
In a cross-sectional study, blood samples were taken from 30 healthy medical students of Rafsanjan University (15 males and 15 females). The samples divided into three parts; CBC were done on the samples up to 48 hours incubation at temperature of 25, 30, and 370 C at the time of sampling, and after 2, 8, 24 and 48 hours. Data were statistically analyzed and the following results were obtained.
RBC count, hematocrit, MCH, percent of monocytes and eosinophils were constant in different temperatures, WBC count, MCHC, hemoglobin, platelets count, the percent of lymphocytes and neutrophils were constant up to 24 hours and then tend to increase with increasing temperature except lymphocytes percent that tend to decrease. MCV decreased with increasing temperature up to 8 hours and then significantly increased (from 83.89 to 87.50 fmol/l, p < 0.001). WBC, hematocrit, MCV, platelets count, and neutrophils' percent tend to increase by the time of incubation, but RBC count, MCHC, lymphocytes' percent decreased. Hemoglobin, MCH, and the percent of monocytes and eosinophils were constant.
The finding of this survey showed that some of CBC parameters can be changed with the incubation, therefore it is better to do the CBC test after blood taking as soon as possible.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC 18(1):14-6.