[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neo-vascular targeting by cationic colloidal carriers enables to realize an innovative approach for tumor therapy. EndoTag-2 is a novel vascular targeting agent, comprising the mammalian topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin in its carboxylate form complexed to cationic lipid (cationic lipid complexed camptothecin). Here we studied tumor vascular targeting properties, antitumoral effects and mode of action of EndoTag-2. Tumor vascular targeting properties of fluorescently labelled EndoTag-2 were investigated by in vivo microscopy using A-MEL-3 tumors grown in the dorsal skinfold chamber preparation and by fluorescence histology of s.c. LLC-1 carcinomas. Therapeutic effects have been investigated in the s.c. LLC-1 carcinoma model and the L3.6pl human pancreatic cancer model implanted orthotopically in athymic nude mice. Antivascular effects have been studied by histological investigation of tumor microvessel density and non invasive investigation of tumor blood flow by dynamic contrast enhanced MRI imaging (DCE-MRI). EndoTag-2 selectively targeted tumor microvessels as confirmed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Compared to controls EndoTag-2 revealed remarkable antitumoral efficiency in s.c. LLC-1 carcinomas implanted in C57/Bl6 mice. Growth and metastasis of orthotopic L3.6pl human pancreatic tumors was significantly inhibited by EndoTag-2 treatment. Quantitative analysis of tumor microvessel density revealed significant reduction of microvessel density in lewis lung carcinomas up to 50%. DCE-MRI confirmed significant reduction of intratumoral vascular volume as well as tumor perfusion upon EndoTag-2 treatment. In conclusion this study shows that cationic lipid complexed camptothecin (EndoTag-2) is a markedly active antitumor agent based on an innovative vascular targeting approach.
Cancer biology & therapy 07/2007; 6(6):920-9. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) are critically involved in degradation of extracellular matrix, and their inhibition is discussed as a promising strategy against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, we analyzed the role of MMP-2 and -9 for leukocyte migration and tissue injury in sham-operated mice and in mice after I/R, treated with a MMP-2/9 inhibitor or vehicle. Using zymography, we show that the MMP-2/9 inhibitor abolished I/R-induced MMP-9 activation, whereas MMP-2 activity was not detectable in all groups. As demonstrated by intravital microscopy, MMP-9 inhibition attenuated postischemic rolling and adherence of total leukocytes in hepatic postsinusoidal venules, CD4+ T cell accumulation in sinusoids, and neutrophil transmigration. These effects were associated with reduction of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and endothelial expression of CD62P. Motility of interstitially migrating leukocytes was assessed by near-infrared reflected light oblique transillumination microscopy in the postischemic cremaster muscle. Upon MMP-9 blockade, leukocyte migration velocity and curve-line and straight-line migration distances were reduced significantly as compared with the vehicle-treated I/R group. Postischemic sinusoidal perfusion failure, hepatocellular apoptosis, and alanine aminotransferase activity were only slightly reduced after MMP-9 inhibition, whereas aspartate aminotransferase activity and mortality were significantly lower. In conclusion, MMP-9 is involved in the early recruitment cascades of neutrophils and CD4+ T cells, promotes neutrophil and T cell transmigration during hepatic I/R, and is required for motility of interstitially migrating leukocytes. MMP-9 blockade is associated with an attenuation of TNF-alpha release and endothelial CD62P expression, weakly protects from early microvascular/hepatocellular I/R damage, but improves postischemic survival.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 07/2006; 79(6):1295-305. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The routine transplantation of steatotic livers could potentially mitigate the donor shortage, but so far is associated with a high rate of graft dysfunction. Steatosis and brain death have been perceived as independent risk factors, but they may synergistically target the hepatic microcirculation. This study compares the effects of brain death on the microcirculation of steatotic and normal livers.
Brain death was induced in obese and lean Zucker rats. Lean and obese sham-operated animals served as controls. Liver microcirculation was investigated using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Serum liver enzyme and reduced glutathione, expression of P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA in the liver were determined. The ultrastructural alterations were compared by electron microscopy.
In nonbrain-dead animals, liver steatosis was associated with smaller sinusoidal diameters, but did not impair sinusoidal perfusion. During brain death, sinusoidal diameter and perfusion were reduced in normal and, to a greater extent, in steatotic livers. Also, more leukocytes were recruited to the microvasculature of steatotic livers than to normal livers in brain-dead state. The highest liver enzyme activities and the lowest hepatic GSH concentrations were measured in brain-dead animals with steatotic livers; only in these organs was endothelial cell swelling regularly observed. In brain-dead state, only the P-selectin mRNA expression was increased in steatotic livers as compared to normal livers.
Brain death amplifies the adverse effects of steatosis on the hepatic microcirculation. Our results underline the need for therapeutic intervention in brain-dead state when steatotic livers are to be used for transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endothelial receptors that control leukocyte transmigration in the postischemic liver are not identified. We investigated the role of junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A), a receptor expressed in endothelial tight junctions, leukocytes, and platelets, for leukocyte transmigration during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. We show that JAM-A is up-regulated in hepatic venular endothelium during reperfusion. I/R-induced neutrophil transmigration was attenuated in both JAM-A-/- and endothelial JAM-A-/- mice as well as in mice treated with an anti-JAM-A antibody, whereas transmigration of T cells was JAM-A independent. Postischemic leukocyte rolling remained unaffected in JAM-A-/- and endothelial JAM-A-/- mice, whereas intravascular leukocyte adherence was increased. The extent of interactions of JAM-A-/- platelets with the postischemic endothelium was comparable with that of JAM-A+/+ platelets. The I/R-induced increase in the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and sinusoidal perfusion failure was not reduced in JAM-A-/- mice, while the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive hepatocytes was significantly higher. Thus, we show for the first time that JAM-A is up-regulated in hepatic venules and serves as an endothelial receptor of neutrophil transmigration, but it does not mediate leukocyte rolling, adhesion, or platelet-endothelial cell interactions. JAM-A deficiency does not reduce I/R-induced microvascular and hepatocellular necrotic injury, but increases hepatocyte apoptosis, despite attenuation of neutrophil infiltration.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is still a matter of investigation how angiogenesis and restoration of gland perfusion determine graft function after free parathyroid autotransplantation. We provide a new animal model allowing simultaneous and repetitive in vivo assessment of angiogenesis and endocrine function of parathyroid transplants.
Fresh human parathyroid tissue from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was grafted into dorsal skinfold chamber preparations of athymic nude mice (CD1-nu; n=8). Equivalent pieces of the same human donor specimens were heat-inactivated and served as control grafts (n=7).
In all animals receiving parathyroid transplants, intact human parathyroid hormone levels were detectable by species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of plasma samples on day 5 after transplantation and increased by 2.5-fold over the observation period (19 days) in contrast with controls. Plasma Ca levels revealed no differences between the groups. On day 5 after transplantation, intravital fluorescence microscopy revealed murine angiogenic microvessels sprouting along nonperfused human donor vessels, and 1 week later functional microvasculature was established in all parathyroid transplants. Histologic analysis revealed well-vascularized endocrine tissue. In contrast, control grafts were necrotic and partly resorbed; they exhibited no angiogenic activity or well-vascularized fat cells indicating fatty degeneration. In addition, species-specific Western blot analysis revealed vascular endothelial growth factor expression of parathyroid transplants rather than functional vessel density as the functional parameter of angiogenesis determining transplant function in vivo.
This model may serve to understand mechanisms associated with specific parathyroid transplant angiogenesis and its significance for transplant function to optimize clinical success of autotransplantation in therapy-resistant patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma haemocanis (formerly Haemobartonella canis) is a red blood cell parasite that causes disease mainly in immunosuppressed and splenectomized dogs. Clinical outbreak of the disease resulted in failure of a large experimental project. We aimed to identify whether M. haemocanis has increased prevalence in kennel-raised dogs. In a prospective study, we compared the prevalence of M. haemocanis in whole blood (anti-coagulated by use of EDTA) collected from pet dogs (University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, Ill.; n = 60) with that in blood from dogs raised in three distinct kennels in western Europe (WE; n = 23), eastern Europe (EE; n = 20), and North America (NA; n = 20). Screening included antibody testing and microscopy of blood smears. The presence of M. haemocanis was identified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for specific DNA of the organism. None of the pet dogs (0%) was test positive for M. haemocanis DNA. Mycoplasma haemocanis was found in dogs tested at all of the kennels. Infection rate in the three kennels was 30, 35, and 87%, respectively (all P < 0.001 versus control, chi2-test). Latent infection with M. haemocanis was not a single observation in kennel-raised dogs. Prevalence may be higher than that in a pet dog population. The potential exists for these latent infections to adversely affect or confound research results.
Comparative medicine 09/2004; 54(4):404-9. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the novel, potent, water-soluble inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ) on hepatic microcirculation, hepatocellular injury, and survival in a murine model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.
Randomized animal study.
C57BL6 mice were subjected to warm either partial (90 mins) or total (75 mins) ischemia of the liver.
Either PARP inhibitor 5-AIQ (3 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to mice intravenously immediately before the start of reperfusion. Sham-operated animals served as controls.
As shown by intravital fluorescence microscopy after 30-60 mins of reperfusion, ischemia-reperfusion significantly enhanced platelet- and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in hepatic microvessels and impaired sinusoidal perfusion. Hepatocellular injury was characterized by an increase in the number of necrotic and apoptotic cells, dramatic elevation of aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase serum activity, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. 5-AIQ treatment attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced increases in the numbers of adherent platelets and leukocytes as well as of necrotic and apoptotic cells and ameliorated perfusion failure. Furthermore, PARP inhibition prevented the increase in aspartate aminotransferase activity after ischemia-reperfusion but did not affect postischemic alanine aminotransferase release. However, no protective impact of 5-AIQ on postischemic oxidative stress was observed. Although PARP inhibition did not alter the survival percentage after ischemia-reperfusion (22% in both groups), this approach prolonged survival from 1 to 24 hrs (ischemia-reperfusion + vehicle) up to 48-72 hrs in the treated group.
PARP inhibition with 5-AIQ during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion attenuates microvascular injury and reduces the extent of necrotic/apoptotic cell damage but does not protect from oxidative injury and does not improve postoperative survival rate.
Critical Care Medicine 03/2004; 32(2):472-7. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the appearance of a Mycoplasma haemocanis infection in laboratory dogs, which has been reported previously, yet, never before in Europe. Outbreak of the disease was triggered by a splenectomy intended to prepare the dogs for a hemorrhagic shock study. The clinical course of the dogs was dramatic including anorexia and hemolytic anemia. Treatment included allogeneic transfusion, prednisone, and oxytetracycline. Systematic follow-up (n = 12, blood smears, antibody testing and specific polymerase chain reaction) gives clear evidence that persistent eradication of M. haemocanis is unlikely. We, therefore, had to abandon the intended shock study. In the absence of effective surveillance and screening for M. haemocanis, the question arises whether it is prudent to continue shock research in splenectomized dogs.
European Surgical Research 01/2004; 36(4):198-205. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the influence of intraischemic liver temperature on oxidative stress during postischemic normothermic reperfusion. In C57BL/6 mice, partial hepatic ischemia was induced for 90 min and intraischemic organ temperature adjusted to 4 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 26 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 37 degrees C. As detected by electron spin-resonance spectroscopy, plasma/blood concentrations of hydroxyl and ascorbyl radicals were significantly increased in all groups after ischemia/reperfusion independent of the intraischemic temperature. In tissue, however, postischemic lipid peroxidation was attenuated after organ cooling down to 32 degrees C-26 degrees C and not detectable after ischemia at 15 degrees C-4 degrees C. mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase-1 and heme oxygenase-1, measured during reperfusion, was significantly elevated in the group at 37 degrees C as compared to the hypothermic groups at 4 degrees C-32 degrees C. The reduction of radical generation was associated with a prevention of adenosine monophosphate hydrolysis during ischemia in the hypothermic groups. In conclusion, ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in the liver tissue is non-linearly-dependent on intraischemic temperature, whereas the plasma/blood concentration of radicals is not affected by organ cooling. Oxidative stress is reduced through mild hypothermia at 32 degrees C-26 degrees C and inhibited completely at 15 degrees C. Reduction of initial intracellular radical generation and prevention of secondary oxidant-induced tissue injury are possible mechanisms of this protection.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2003; 35(8):901-9. · 5.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced tolerance of steatotic livers to ischemic injury is considered to correlate with impaired microcirculation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of heat-shock preconditioning (HSPC) on microcirculatory failure after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in steatotic livers by means of intra-vital fluorescence microscopy. Obese Zucker rats were used. In the HS group, rats underwent whole-body hyperthermia followed by 60-min partial liver ischemia. In group IR, rats were exposed only to ischemia. Microcirculation parameters (sinusoidal perfusion rate, sinusoidal diameter, leukocyte-endothelial interaction) were significantly better preserved in the HS group than in the IR group. Liver enzymes, oxygenated glutathione/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio, and electron microscopy showed less damage in the HS group. A marked expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) was found only in the livers of group HS. HSPC mitigated the I/R injury of steatotic livers by preventing post-ischemic failure of microcirculation. This beneficial effect was found to be associated with the induction of HSP72 and HO-1.
Transplant International 09/2003; 16(8):456-63. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets are suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was designed to analyze platelet-endothelial cell interactions in the postischemic mouse liver in vivo and to define the role of endothelial versus platelet P-selectin for these interactions. Platelet-endothelial cell interactions were quantitatively analyzed using intravital fluorescence microscopy after lobar hepatic I/R in C57BL/6 wild-type and P-selectin-deficient mice after infusion of ex vivo rhodamine-6G-labeled wild-type and P-selectin-deficient platelets. Reperfusion injury and apoptosis were assessed by established methods. In wild-type animals, hepatic I/R caused significantly enhanced platelet-endothelial cell interactions in terminal arterioles and postsinusoidal venules as well as platelet stagnation in sinusoids. Concomitantly, transaminase and caspase-3 activities were elevated and sinusoidal perfusion was impaired. In contrast, platelet-endothelial cell interactions were nearly absent in arterioles and venules of mice lacking endothelial P-selectin, irrespective of the presence of P-selectin on infused platelets, but still significantly elevated in sinusoids. Simultaneously, sinusoidal perfusion failure was ameliorated, and transaminase- and caspase-3 activities were significantly reduced in P-selectin-deficient mice as compared with wild-type animals. The present intravital microscopic study provides, for the first time, quantitative analyses of platelet-endothelial cell interactions in the postischemic hepatic microcirculation. Our in vivo data show that endothelial P-selectin is critical for postischemic platelet-endothelial cell interactions within hepatic presinusoidal arterioles and postsinusoidal venules. P-selectin deficiency prevents microvascular injury and apoptosis after warm hepatic I/R.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) mediates oxidative stress-induced cell injury. We tested the hypothesis that PARP contributes to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage of the liver by triggering the mechanisms of microcirculatory failure. Leukocyte- and platelet-endothelial cell interactions as well as sinusoidal perfusion were analyzed by intravital fluorescence microscopy after lobar hepatic I/R (90 min/30 min) in C57BL/6 x 129/Sv wild-type (PARP+/+) and PARP-deficient (PARP-/-) mice. Hepatic I/R induced leukocyte/platelet-endothelial cell interactions and tissue injury in PARP+/+ mice, as indicated by impaired sinusoidal perfusion and increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum activities. In PARP-/- mice, however, the postischemic increase in the numbers of rolling/adherent leukocytes and platelets was significantly lower. In addition, I/R-induced translocation of CD62P as well as mRNA expression of CD62E, CD54, and CD106 were attenuated. The degree of perfusion failure was reduced and the increase in the ALT/AST activities was lower in PARP-/- mice compared with PARP+/+ mice. We conclude that PARP contributes to hepatic microvascular injury by triggering the expression/translocation of adhesion molecules and modulating leukocyte/platelet-endothelial cell interactions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets are thought to be involved in the induction of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanisms of platelet adhesion in the hepatic microvasculature and the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of I/R-induced liver damage in vivo remain unclear.
In C57BL/6 mice, platelet- and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were quantitatively analyzed using intravital fluorescence microscopy in sham-operated animals, after warm lobar hepatic I/R (90/20 min) in wild-type and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1-deficient mice, and after I/R in wild-type mice treated with an antifibrinogen antibody. Fibrinogen deposition on the endothelium was detected by intravital microscopy and by immunostaining. Reperfusion injury was assessed by measurement of liver enzyme and caspase-3 activities and of lipid peroxidation.
Hepatic I/R induced fibrinogen deposition on hepatic endothelium, followed by a dramatic increase in the number of firmly adherent platelets in the liver microvasculature. Simultaneously, the number of adherent leukocytes in postsinusoidal venules and the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase and caspase-3 activities were elevated. Although ICAM-1 deficiency attenuated postischemic adherence of both platelets and leukocytes, the application of an antifibrinogen antibody selectively reduced the number of adherent platelets but did not influence leukocyte adhesion. The selective blockade of platelet adherence significantly prevented the postischemic increase in liver enzyme and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, sinusoidal perfusion failure and lipid peroxidation were attenuated in the treated group.
These in vivo data show that platelet adhesion mediated through fibrinogen deposition on ICAM-1 expressed on the endothelium of postischemic hepatic microvessels induces microvascular injury and hepatocellular apoptosis after I/R of the liver during early reperfusion.