[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is frequently complicated by pulmonary infections which may impair prognosis of this disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on tumor proliferation in vitro in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549, ex vivo in a tissue culture model using human NSCLC specimens and in vivo in the A549 adenocarcinoma mouse model. LPS induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in proliferation of A549 cells as quantified by MTS activity and cell counting. In parallel, an increased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was detected both in A549 cells and in ex vivo human NSCLC tissue. Large amounts of COX-2-derived prostaglandin (PG)E(2) were secreted from LPS-stimulated A549 cells. Pharmacological interventions revealed that the proliferative effect of LPS was dependent on CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR)4. Moreover, blocking of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also decreased LPS-induced proliferation of A549 cells. Inhibition of COX-2 activity in A549 cells severely attenuated both PGE(2) release and proliferation in response to LPS. Synthesis of PGE(2) was also reduced by inhibiting CD14, TLR4 and EGFR in A549 cells. The proliferative effect of LPS on A549 cells could be reproduced in the A549 adenocarcinoma mouse model with enhancement of tumor growth and Ki-67 expression in implanted tumors. In summary, LPS induces proliferation of NSCLC cells in vitro, ex vivo in human NSCLC specimen and in vivo in a mouse model of NSCLC. Pulmonary infection may thus directly induce tumor progression in NSCLC.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 08/2012; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of LPS preincubation on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced loss of epithelial barrier function was investigated in rat alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII). Both apical and basolateral H(2)O(2) administration caused a manyfold increase in transepithelial [(3)H]mannitol passage. Apical but not basolateral preincubation of ATII with LPS did not influence control barrier properties but fully abrogated the H(2)O(2)-induced leakage response. The effect of apical LPS was CD14 dependent and was accompanied by a strong up-regulation of NO synthase II mRNA and protein and NO release. Inhibition of NO by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine suppressed the LPS effect, whereas it was reproduced by exogenous application of gaseous NO or NO donor agents. Manipulation of the glutathione homeostasis (buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine) and the cGMP pathway (1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxaline-1-one; zaprinast) did not interfere with the protective effect of LPS. Superoxide (O*(-)(2)) generation by ATII cells was reduced by exogenous NO and LPS preincubation. O*(-)(2) scavenging with exogenous superoxide dismutase, the intracellular superoxide dismutase analog Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, and the superoxide scavenger nitroblue tetrazolium and, in particular, hydroxyl radical scavenging with hydroxyl radical scavenger 1,3-dimethyl-thiourea inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced epithelial leakage response. In conclusion, apical but not basolateral LPS preincubation of ATII cells provides strong protection against H(2)O(2)-induced transepithelial leakage, attributable to an up-regulation of epithelial NO synthesis. It is suggested that the LPS-induced NO formation is effective via interaction with reactive oxygen species, including superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The polarized epithelial response to LPS may be part of the lung innate immune system, activated by inhaled endotoxin or under conditions of pneumonia.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2002; 169(3):1474-81. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin is a pore-forming bacterial exotoxin that has been implicated as a significant virulence factor in human staphylococcal diseases. In primary cultures of rat pneumocyte type II cells and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell line, purified alpha-toxin provoked rapid-onset phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) hydrolysis as well as liberation of nitric oxide and the prostanoids PGE(2), PGI(2), and thromboxane A(2). In addition, sustained upregulation of proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion occurred. "Priming" with low-dose IL-1beta markedly enhanced the IL-8 response to alpha-toxin, which was then accompanied by IL-6 appearance. The cytokine response was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+)-chelating reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, the protein kinase C inhibitor bis-indolyl maleimide I, as well as two independent inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB activation, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. We conclude that alveolar epithelial cells are highly reactive target cells of staphylococcal alpha-toxin. alpha-Toxin pore-associated transmembrane Ca(2+) flux and PtdIns hydrolysis-related signaling with downstream activation of protein kinase C and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB are suggested to represent important underlying mechanisms. Such reactivity of the alveolar epithelial cells may be relevant for pathogenic sequelae in staphylococcal lung disease.