G. Pineau des Forêts

UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (255)722.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present quantum dynamical calculations that describe the rotational excitation of H$_2$O due to collisions with H atoms. We used a recent, high accuracy potential energy surface, and solved the collisional dynamics with the close-coupling formalism, for total energies up to 12 000 cm$^{-1}$. From these calculations, we obtained collisional rate coefficients for the first 45 energy levels of both ortho- and para-H$_2$O and for temperatures in the range T = 5-1500 K. These rate coefficients are subsequently compared to the values previously published for the H$_2$O / He and H$_2$O / H$_2$ collisional systems. It is shown that no simple relation exists between the three systems and that specific calculations are thus mandatory.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2015; 446:2312. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We detect bright [CII]158$\mu$m line emission from the radio galaxy 3C 326N at z=0.09, which shows weak star formation ($SFR<0.07$M$_{\odot}$~yr$^{-1}$) despite having strong H$_2$ line emission and $2\times 10^9$M$_{\odot}$ of molecular gas. The [CII] line is twice as strong as the 0-0S(1) 17$\mu$m H$_2$ line, and both lines are much in excess what is expected from UV heating. We combine infrared Spitzer and Herschel data with gas and dust modeling to infer the gas physical conditions. The [CII] line traces 30 to 50% of the molecular gas mass, which is warm (70<T<100K) and at moderate densities $700<n_{H}<3000$cm$^{-3}$. The [CII] line is broad with a blue-shifted wing, and likely to be shaped by a combination of rotation, outflowing gas, and turbulence. It matches the near-infrared H$_2$ and the Na D optical absorption lines. If the wing is interpreted as an outflow, the mass loss rate would be larger than 20M$_{\odot}$/yr, and the depletion timescale shorter than the orbital timescale ($10^8$yr). These outflow rates may be over-estimated because the stochastic injection of turbulence on galactic scales can contribute to the skewness of the line profile and mimic outflowing gas. We argue that the dissipation of turbulence is the main heating process of this gas. Cosmic rays can also contribute to the heating but they require an average gas density larger than the observational constraints. We show that strong turbulent support maintains a high gas vertical scale height (0.3-4kpc) in the disk and can inhibit the formation of gravitationally-bound structures at all scales, offering a natural explanation for the weakness of star formation in 3C 326N. To conclude, the bright [CII] line indicates that strong AGN jet-driven turbulence may play a key role in enhancing the amount of molecular gas (positive feedback) but yet can prevent star formation on galactic scales (negative feedback).
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Some runaway stars are known to display IR arc-like structures around them, resulting from their interaction with surrounding interstellar material. The properties of these features as well as the processes involved in their formation are still poorly understood. Aims.We aim to understand the physical mechanisms that shape the dust arc observed near the runaway O-star AE Aur (HD 34078). Methods.We obtained and analyzed a high spatial resolution (4.4'') map of the 12CO(1-0) emission that is centered on HD 34078, and that combines data from both the IRAM interferometer and 30 m single-dish antenna. Results: One third of the 30 m flux mainly originates from two small (no larger than 5'' × 10'' or 0.013 × 0.026 pc), and bright (1 and 3 K peak temperatures) CO globulettes. The line of sight toward HD 34078 intersects the outer part of one of the globulettes, which accounts for both the properties of diffuse UV light observed in the field and the numerous molecular absorption lines detected in HD 34078's spectra, including those from highly excited H2. Their modeled distance from the star(0.2 pc) is compatible with the fact that they lie on the 3D paraboloid, which fits the arc detected in the 24 μm Spitzer image. Four other compact CO globulettes are detected in the mapped area, all lying close to the rim of this paraboloid. These globulettes have a high density and linewidth, and are strongly pressure-confined or transient. Conclusions: The presence of molecular globulettes at such a close distance from an O star is unexpected, and probably related to the high proper motion of HD 34078. Indeed, the good spatial correlation between the CO globulettes and the IR arc suggests that they result from the interaction of the radiation and wind emitted by HD 34078 with the ambient gas. However, the details of this interaction remain unclear. A wind mass-loss rate significantly larger than the value inferred from UV lines is favored by the large IR arc size, but does not easily explain the low velocity of the CO globulettes. The effect of radiation pressure on dust grains also meets several issues in explaining the observations. Further observational and theoretical work is needed to fully elucidate the processes shaping the gas and dust in bow shocks around runaway O stars. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).PdeB map in FITS format is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ftp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A71
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2014; 570:71G. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    Benjamin Godard, Edith Falgarone, Guillaume Pineau Des Forêts
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Tens of light hydrides and small molecules have now been detected over several hundreds sight lines sampling the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in both the Solar neighbourhood and the inner Galactic disk. They provide unprecedented statistics on the first steps of chemistry in the diffuse gas. Aims. These new data confirm the limitations of the traditional chemical pathways driven by the UV photons and the cosmic rays (CR) and the need for additional energy sources, such as turbulent dissipation, to open highly endoenergetic formation routes. The goal of the present paper is to further investigate the link between specific species and the properties of the turbulent cascade in particular its space-time intermittency. Methods. We have analysed ten different atomic and molecular species in the framework of the updated model of turbulent dissipation regions (TDR). We study the influence on the abundances of these species of parameters specific to chemistry (density, UV field, and CR ionisation rate) and those linked to turbulence (the average turbulent dissipation rate, the dissipation timescale, and the ion neutral velocity drift in the regions of dissipation). Results. The most sensitive tracers of turbulent dissipation are the abundances of CH+ and SH+, and the column densities of the J = 3, 4, 5 rotational levels of H2 . The abundances of CO, HCO+, and the intensity of the 158 $\mu$m [CII] emission line are significantly enhanced by turbulent dissipation. The vast diversity of chemical pathways allows the independent determinations of free parameters never estimated before: an upper limit to the average turbulent dissipation rate, $\overline{\varepsilon}$ < 10$^{-23}$ erg cm$^{-3}$ s$^{-1}$ for $n_H$=20 cm$^{-3}$, from the CH+ abundance; an upper limit to the ion-neutral velocity drift, $u_{in}$ < 3.5 km s$^{-1}$, from the SH+ to CH+ abundance ratio; and a range of dissipation timescales, 100 < $\tau_V$ < 1000 yr, from the CO to HCO+ abundance ratio. For the first time, we reproduce the large abundances of CO observed on diffuse lines of sight, and we show that CO may be abundant even in regions with UV-shieldings as low as $5 \times 10^{-3}$ mag. The best range of parameters also reproduces the abundance ratios of OH, C2H, and H2O to HCO+ and are consistent with the known properties of the turbulent cascade in the Galactic diffuse ISM. Conclusions. Our results disclose an unexpected link between the dissipation of turbulence and the emergence of molecular richness in the diffuse ISM. Some species, such as CH+ or SH+, turn out to be unique tracers of the energy trail in the ISM. In spite of some degeneracy, the properties of the turbulent cascade, down to dissipation, can be captured through specific molecular abundances.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • D. R. Flower, G. Pineau des Forêts
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    ABSTRACT: We have computed C- and J-type models of shock waves in molecular outflow sources. In addition to the (optically thin) emission line spectrum of molecular hydrogen, the spectra of CO, OH, SiO, H2O and NH3 were computed by means of the large velocity gradient approximation. We find that the intensities of the OH lines are particularly sensitive to the character (C- or J-type) of the shock wave. The results of these computations were used to guide the interpretation of the spectrum of the outflow source NGC 1333 IRAS 4B, recently observed by Herschel/PACS and the Spitzer satellites. We find that the best overall fit to the spectrum of this object is provided by quasi-time-dependent (CJ-type) models, which have both C- and J-type characteristics; the dynamical age of the emitting region is found to be of the order of 102 yr. The principal limitation to the robustness of the predictions of the current model relate to the possible effects of dust on the dynamical and thermal profiles of the gas. Specifically, the shattering and vaporization of grains, which can enhance the total grain cross-section, have not been taken into account. Furthermore, there remain significant uncertainties relating to the rate of reformation of H2 molecules, on dust grains, at the high gas kinetic temperatures at which this process occurs in the shock wave.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2013; 436(3):2143-2150. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work is to perform a comprehensive analysis of the interstellar chemistry of nitrogen, focussing on the gas-phase formation of the smallest polyatomic species and in particular nitrogen hydrides. We present a new chemical network in which the kinetic rates of critical reactions have been updated based on recent experimental and theoretical studies, including nuclear spin branching ratios. Our network thus treats the different spin symmetries of the nitrogen hydrides self-consistently together with the ortho and para forms of molecular hydrogen. This new network is used to model the time evolution of the chemical abundances in dark cloud conditions. The steady-state results are analysed, with special emphasis on the influence of the overall amounts of carbon, oxygen, and sulphur. Our calculations are also compared with Herschel/HIFI observations of NH, NH$_2$, and NH$_3$ detected towards the external envelope of the protostar IRAS 16293-2422. The observed abundances and abundance ratios are reproduced for a C/O gas-phase elemental abundance ratio of $\sim0.8$, provided that the sulphur abundance is depleted by a factor larger than 2. The ortho-to-para ratio of H$_2$ in these models is $\sim10^{-3}$. Our models also provide predictions for the ortho-to-para ratios of NH$_2$ and NH$_3$ of $\sim2.3$ and $\sim0.7$ respectively. We conclude that the abundances of nitrogen hydrides in dark cloud conditions are consistent with the gas-phase synthesis predicted with our new chemical network.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed a population of radio galaxies with enhanced infrared molecular hydrogen (H_2) line cooling, above that expected by star formation heating alone. We present Herschel observations of these galaxies, which show unusually powerful [C II]λ 158μm line emission of very broad line-width. The C^+/PAH and C^+/FIR flux ratios are found to be extremely large, in most cases greatly in excess of that expected by photoelectric heating of the gas, and comparable in power to the mid-infrared H_2 lines. In contrast, [O I] emission is found to be quite weak. We show that the [C II] line emission mostly traces the molecular gas, and that a very large fraction of this gas is diffuse and warm. We also briefly discuss the possible heating sources of the gas (turbulent heating and/or cosmic rays). These results have profound consequences on our interpretation of FIR cooling lines at high-redshifts and on our understanding of dissipation of energy, feedback and energetics of galaxy formation in general. The fact that C^+ and H_2 can be strongly enhanced in shocks and turbulent systems in general will be of great importance for ALMA (and perhaps SPICA) observations which will extend Herschel observations to much higher redshifts, where the proportion of turbulently-heated molecular gas may be more important.
    11/2013;
  • P. Boissé, S. R. Federman, G. Pineau des Forêts, A. M. Ritchey
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Spatial structure in molecular material has a strong impact on its physical and chemical evolution and is still poorly known, especially on very small scales. Aims: To better characterize the small-scale structure in diffuse molecular gas and in particular to investigate the CH+ production mechanism, we study the spatial distribution of CH+, CH, and CN towards the bright star ζ Per on scales in the range 1-20 AU. Methods: We use ζ Per's proper motion and the implied drift of the line of sight through the foreground gas at a rate of about 2 AU yr-1 to probe absorption line variations between adjacent lines of sight. The good S/N, high or intermediate resolution spectra of ζ Per, obtained in the interval 2003-2011, allow us to search for low column-density and line width variations for CH+, CH, and CN. Results: CH and CN lines appear remarkably stable in time, implying an upper limit δN/N ≤ 6% for CH and CN (3σ limit). The weak CH+λ4232 line shows a possible increase of 11% during the interval 2004-2007, which appears to be correlated with a comparable increase in the CH+ velocity dispersion over the same period. Conclusions: The excellent stability of CH and CN lines implies that these species are distributed uniformly to good accuracy within the cloud. The small size implied for the regions associated with the CH+ excess is consistent with scenarios in which this species is produced in very small (a few AU) localized active regions, possibly weakly magnetized shocks or turbulent vortices. Based on observations made at McDonald Observatory (USA) and Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France).
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first Herschel spectroscopic detections of the [OI]63 and [CII]158 micron fine-structure transitions, and a single para-H2O line from the 35 x 15 kpc^2 shocked intergalactic filament in Stephan's Quintet. The filament is believed to have been formed when a high-speed intruder to the group collided with clumpy intergroup gas. Observations with the PACS spectrometer provide evidence for broad (> 1000 km s^-1) luminous [CII] line profiles, as well as fainter [OI]63micron emission. SPIRE FTS observations reveal water emission from the p-H2O (111-000) transition at several positions in the filament, but no other molecular lines. The H2O line is narrow, and may be associated with denser intermediate-velocity gas experiencing the strongest shock-heating. The [CII]/PAH{tot) and [CII]/FIR ratios are too large to be explained by normal photo-electric heating in PDRs. HII region excitation or X-ray/Cosmic Ray heating can also be ruled out. The observations lead to the conclusion that a large fraction the molecular gas is diffuse and warm. We propose that the [CII], [OI] and warm H2 line emission is powered by a turbulent cascade in which kinetic energy from the galaxy collision with the IGM is dissipated to small scales and low-velocities, via shocks and turbulent eddies. Low-velocity magnetic shocks can help explain both the [CII]/[OI] ratio, and the relatively high [CII]/H2 ratios observed. The discovery that [CII] emission can be enhanced, in large-scale turbulent regions in collisional environments has implications for the interpretation of [CII] emission in high-z galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 777(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the origin of the composition of solar system cosmomaterials is a central question, not only in the cosmochemistry and astrochemistry fields, and requires various approaches to be combined. Measurements of isotopic ratios in cometary materials provide strong constraints on the content of the protosolar nebula. Their relation with the composition of the parental dark clouds is, however, still very elusive. In this paper, we bring new constraints based on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in dark clouds, with the aim of understanding the chemical processes that are responsible for the observed isotopic ratios. We have observed and detected the fundamental rotational transition of C$^{15}$N towards two starless dark clouds, L1544 and L1498. We were able to derive the column density ratio of C$^{15}$N over $^{13}$CN towards the same clouds, and obtain the CN/C$^{15}$N isotopic ratios, which were found to be $500\pm75$ for both L1544 and L1498. These values are therefore marginally consistent with the protosolar value of 441. Moreover, this ratio is larger than the isotopic ratio of nitrogen measured in HCN. In addition, we present model calculations of the chemical fractionation of nitrogen in dark clouds, which make it possible to understand how CN can be deprived of $^{15}$N and HCN can simultaneously be enriched in heavy nitrogen. The non-fractionation of N2H+, however, remains an open issue and we propose some chemical way of alleviating the discrepancy between model predictions and the observed ratios.
    08/2013;
  • A. Faure, P. Hily-Blant, R. Le Gal, C. Rist, G. Pineau des Forêts
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    ABSTRACT: The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH3 were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the "anomalous" ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia (~0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H2 gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of ~2.3 for NH2. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H2 naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2013; 770(1):L2. · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • D. R. Flower, G. Pineau Des Forets
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed further the technique of time-dependent modelling of magnetohydrodynamic shock waves, with a view to interpreting the molecular line emission from outflow sources. The extensively observed source L1157 B1 was chosen as an exemplar of the application of this technique. (8 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the chemical and emission properties of mildly irradiated (G0=1) magnetised shocks in diffuse media (nH=10^2 to 10^4 /cm3) at low to moderate velocities (from 3 to 40 km/s). Results: The formation of some molecules relies on endoergic reactions. In J-shocks, their abundances are enhanced by several orders of magnitude for shock velocities as low as 7 km/s. Otherwise most chemical properties of J-type shocks vary over less than an order of magnitude between velocities from about 7 to about 30 km/s, where H2 dissociation sets in. C-type shocks display a more gradual molecular enhancement as the shock velocity increases. We quantify the energy flux budget (fluxes of kinetic, radiated and magnetic energies) with emphasis on the main cooling lines of the cold interstellar medium. Their sensitivity to shock velocity is such that it allows observations to constrain statistical distributions of shock velocities. We fit various probability distribution functions (PDFs) of shock velocities to spectroscopic observations of the galaxy-wide shock in Stephan's Quintet (SQ) and of a Galactic line of sight sampling diffuse molecular gas in Chamaeleon. In both cases, low velocities bear the greatest statistical weight and the PDF is consistent with a bimodal distribution. In the very low velocity shocks (below 5 km/s), dissipation is due to ion-neutral friction which powers H2 low energy transitions and atomic lines. In moderate velocity shocks (20 km/s and above), the dissipation is due to viscous heating and accounts for most of the molecular emission. In our interpretation a significant fraction of the gas on the line of sight is shocked (from 4% to 66%). For example, C+ emission may trace shocks in UV irradiated gas where C+ is the dominant carbon species.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outputs from the grids of shock runs used in the paper. * The first level of the directory tree decides the value for the magnetic field (b=(B/Bo)/sqrt(nH), with Bo=1μGauss=10-10T): b0.1/ for b=0.1 b1/ for b=1 * The second level decides the value for the density and the type of shock: b0.1/J2g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=102cm-3 b0.1/J3g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=103cm-3 b0.1/J4g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=104cm-3 b1/J2g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=102cm-3 b1/J3g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=103cm-3 b1/J4g0/ has J-type shocks for nH=104cm-3 b1/C2g0/ has C-type shocks for nH=102cm-3 b1/C3g0/ has C-type shocks for nH=103cm-3 b1/C4g0/ has C-type shocks for nH=104cm-3 * The third level contains : - static/ the run to get the pre-shock thermal and chemical equilibrium - steady/ the 'PDR' run from these pre-shock conditions. - u .o3/ each output from the run at u=N km/s. - chemistry.in: the chemical network used - species.in: the pre-shock chemical composition. - inputmhdrun.u.template : the template with all physical parameters used to sample the grid of velocities * The fourth level contains for each run the following ascii files: - cooling.out : local total emission from a number of species. - energetics.out : various energy fluxes - err_cool.out : a few error messages whichi have occurred during the run. - excit.out : H2 excitation diagram throughout the shock - fe_lines.out: zero (we discarded Fe emission) - fe_pops.out: zero as well - H2_lev.out: integrated column densities of each H2 level - H2_line.out: integrated emission of 200 H2 lines - info_mhd.out: an ascii file which describes the parameters used in the run. - intensity.out: integrated intensities of several atomic lines. - jlb.out: a specific output file for J.L.B. - mhd_coldens.out: column densities of all species along the shock - mhd_phys.out: various physical quantities of interest along the shock - mhd_speci.out: the chemical profile (abundances) - populations.out: local populations of some atomic levels - species.out: post-shock temperature and composition Each ascii file has a self-explanatory first line which contains the names of each quantities in the column below. (3 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 11/2012;
  • David Flower, D. Rabli, G. Pineau des Forêts
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    ABSTRACT: Interstellar methanol has been observed extensively at radio frequencies from the ground, and, very recently, it has been observed at higher frequencies, by means of the Herschel satellite. Being a complex molecule, methanol has a rich spectrum exhibiting rotational and internal torsional motions. However, by the same token, the determination of the cross sections and rate coefficients for the excitation of methanol by the principal perturbers, helium and molecular hydrogen, is a far from trivial task. We have recently extended and considerably improved previous calculations of these data. In the case of molecular hydrogen, results are now available for the excitation of both A- and E-type methanol, not only by para- but also by ortho-H2. These data have been used to model the HIFI observations of the outflow source L1157 B1. The methanol emission is computed self-consistently, in parallel with the dynamics and the chemistry, allowing for the optical depths in the emission lines by means of the LVG approximation. The results of these calculations are summarized.
    10/2012;
  • D. R. Flower, G. Pineau des Forêts
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed further the technique of time-dependent modelling of magnetohydrodynamic shock waves, with a view to interpreting the molecular line emission from outflow sources. The extensively observed source L1157 B1 was chosen as an exemplar of the application of this technique. The dynamical age of the shock wave model was varied in the range 500 ≤t≤ 5000 yr, with the best fit to the observed line intensities being obtained for t= 1000 yr; this is of the same order as the dynamical age derived by Gueth, Guilloteau & Bachiller from their observations of L1157 B1. The emission line spectra of H2, CO, SiO, ortho- and para-H2O, ortho- and para-NH3, and A- and E-type CH3OH were calculated in parallel with the dynamical and chemical parameters of the model, using the 'large velocity gradient' (LVG) approximation to the line transfer problem. We compared the predictions of the models with the observed intensities of emission lines of H2, CO, SiO, ortho-H2O, ortho-NH3 and CH3OH, which include recent Herschel satellite measurements. In the case of SiO, we show (in Appendix A) that extrapolations of the collisional rate coefficients beyond the range of kinetic temperature for which they were originally calculated lead to spurious rotational line intensities and profiles. The computed emission-line spectra of SiO, NH3 and CH3OH are shown to depend on the assumed initial composition of the grain mantles, from whence they are released, by sputtering in the shock wave, into the gas phase. The dependence of the model predictions on the adopted form of the grain-size distribution is investigated in Appendix B; the corresponding integral line intensities are given in tabular form, for a range of C-type shock speeds, in the online Supporting Information.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2012; 421(4):2786-2797. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first detection of interstellar mercapto radicals, obtained along the sight-line to the submillimeter continuum source W49N. We have used the GREAT instrument on SOFIA to observe the 1383 GHz Doublet Pi 3/2 J = 5/2 - 3/2 lambda doublet in the upper sideband of the L1 receiver. The resultant spectrum reveals SH absorption in material local to W49N, as well as in foreground gas, unassociated with W49N, that is located along the sight-line. For the foreground material at velocities in the range 37 - 44 km/s with respect to the local standard of rest, we infer a total SH column density ~ 2.6 E+12 cm-2, corresponding to an abundance of ~ 7 E-9 relative to H2, and yielding an SH/H2S abundance ratio ~ 0.13. The observed SH/H2S abundance ratio is much smaller than that predicted by standard models for the production of SH and H2S in turbulent dissipation regions and shocks, and suggests that the endothermic neutral-neutral reaction SH + H2 -> H2S + H must be enhanced along with the ion-neutral reactions believed to produce CH+ and SH+ in diffuse molecular clouds.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on single-dish radio CO observations towards the inter-galactic medium (IGM) of the Stephan's Quintet (SQ) group of galaxies. Extremely bright mid-IR H2 rotational line emission from warm molecular gas has been detected by Spitzer in the kpc-scale shock created by a galaxy collision. We detect in the IGM CO(1-0), (2-1) and (3-2) line emission with complex profiles, spanning a velocity range of 1000 km/s. The spectra exhibit the pre-shock recession velocities of the two colliding gas systems (5700 and 6700 km/s), but also intermediate velocities. This shows that much of the molecular gas has formed out of diffuse gas accelerated by the galaxy-tidal arm collision. A total H2 mass of 5x10^9 Msun is detected in the shock. The molecular gas carries a large fraction of the gas kinetic energy involved in the collision, meaning that this energy has not been thermalized yet. The turbulent kinetic energy of the H2 gas is at least a factor of 5 greater than the thermal energy of the hot plasma heated by the collision. The ratio between the warm H2 mass derived from Spitzer IRS spectroscopy and the H2 mass derived from CO fluxes is ~0.3 in the IGM of SQ, which is 10-100 times higher than in star-forming galaxies. In the shocked region, the ratio of the PAH-to-CO surface luminosities, commonly used to measure the star formation efficiency of the H2 gas, is lower (up to a factor 75) than the observed values in star-forming galaxies. We suggest that turbulence fed by the galaxy-tidal arm collision maintains a high heating rate within the H2 gas. This interpretation implies that the velocity dispersion on the scale of giant molecular clouds in SQ is one order of magnitude larger than the Galactic value. The high amplitude of turbulence may explain why this gas is not forming stars efficiently. [abridged version]
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2012; 749(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular counterparts to atomic jets have been detected within 1000 AU of young stars. Reproducing them is a challenge for proposed ejection models. We explore whether molecules may survive in an MHD disk wind invoked to reproduce the kinematics and tentative rotation signatures of atomic jets in T Tauri stars. The coupled ionization, chemical and thermal evolution along dusty flow streamlines is computed for a prescribed MHD disk wind solution, using a method developed for magnetized shocks in the interstellar medium. Irradiation by wind-attenuated coronal X-rays and FUV photons from accretion hot spots is included, with self-shielding of H2 and CO. Disk accretion rates of 5e-6, 1e-6 and 1e-7 solar masses per year are considered, representative of low-mass young protostars (Class 0), evolved protostars (Class I) and very active T Tauri stars (Class II). The disk wind has an onion-like thermo-chemical structure, with streamlines launched from larger radii having lower temperature and ionisation, and higher H2 abundance. The coupling between charged and neutral fluids is sufficient to eject molecules from the disk out to 9 AU. The launch radius beyond which most H2 survives moves outward with evolutionary stage. CO survives in the Class 0 but is significantly photodissociated in the Class I/II. Balance between ambipolar heating and molecular cooling establishes an asymptotic temperature 700-3000 K, with cooler jets at earlier protostellar stages. Endothermic formation of H2O is efficient with abundances up to 1e-4, while CH+ and SH+ can exceed 1e-6 in the Class I/II winds. A centrifugal MHD disk wind launched from beyond 0.2-1 AU can produce molecular jets/winds up to speeds 100 km/s in young low-mass stars. The model predicts a high ratio H2/CO and an increase of molecular launch radius, temperature, and flow width as the source evolves, in agreement with current observed trends.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen bearing species are common tracers of the physical conditions in a wide variety of objects, and most remarkably in dark clouds. The reservoir of gaseous nitrogen is expected to be atomic or molecular, but none of the two species are observable in the dark gas. Their abundances therefore derive indirectly from those of N-bearing species through chemical modelling. The recent years have accumulated data which stress our incomplete understanding of the nitrogen chemistry in dark cloud conditions. To tackle this problem of the nitrogen chemistry in cold gas, we have revised the formation of nitrogen hydrides, which is initiated by the key reaction \ce{N+ + H2 -> NH+ + H}. We propose a new rate for this reaction which depends on the ortho-to-para ratio of H2. This new rate allows to reproduce the abundance ratios of the three nitrogen hydrides, NH, \ce{NH2}, and \ce{NH3}, observed towards IRAS16293-2422, provided that the channel leading to NH from the dissociative recombination of \ce{N2H+} is not closed at low temperature. The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is constrained to O/P=$10^{-3}$ by the abundance ratio NH:NH2, which provides a new method to measure O/P. This work stresses the need for reaction rates at the low temperatures of dark clouds, and for branching ratios of critical dissociative recombination reactions.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
722.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • UPMC
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003–2013
    • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2000–2007
    • Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris
      • Laboratoire de Radioastronomie
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1975–2003
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993–1997
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1987–1992
    • Cea Leti
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1991
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1988
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States