G. A. Kriss

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (334)840.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The proximity profile in the spectra of z~3 quasars, where fluxes extend blueward of the He II Lya wavelength 304 (1+z) A, is one of the most important spectral features in the study of the intergalactic medium. Based on the HST spectra of 24 He II quasars, we find that the majority of them display a proximity profile, corresponding to an ionization radius as large as 20 Mpc in the source's rest frame. In comparison with those in the H i spectra of the quasars at z~6, the He II proximity effect is more prominent and is observed over a considerably longer period of reionization. The He II proximity zone sizes decrease at higher redshifts, particularly at z > 3.3. This trend is similar to that for H I, signaling an onset of He II reionization at z~4. For quasar SDSS1253+6817 (z=3.48), the He II absorption trough displays a gradual decline and serves a good case for modeling the He II reionization. To model such a broad profile requires a quasar radiation field whose distribution between 4 and 1 Rydberg is considerably harder than normally assumed. The UV continuum of this quasar is indeed exceptionally steep, and the He II ionization level in the quasar vicinity is higher than the average level in the intergalactic medium. These results are evidence that a very hard EUV continuum from this quasar produces a large ionized zone around it. Distinct exceptions are the two brightest He II quasars at z~2.8, for which no significant proximity profile is present, possibly implying that they are young.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent intensive Swift monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 yielded 282 usable epochs over 125 days across six UV/optical bands and the X-rays. This is the densest extended AGN UV/optical continuum sampling ever obtained, with a mean sampling rate < 0.5-day. Approximately daily HST UV sampling was also obtained. The UV/optical light curves show strong correlations (r_max = 0.57 - 0.90) and the clearest measurement to date of interband lags. These lags are well-fit by a lambda^4/3 wavelength dependence, with a normalization that indicates an unexpectedly large disk size of ~0.35 +/- 0.05 lt-day at 1367 A, assuming a simple face-on model. The U-band shows a marginally larger lag than expected from the fit and surrounding bands, which could be due to Balmer continuum emission from the broad-line region as suggested by Korista and Goad. The UV/X-ray correlation is weaker (r_max < 0.45) and less consistent over time. This indicates that while Swift is beginning to measure UV/optical lags in agreement with accretion disk theory, the relationship between X-ray and UV variability is less fully understood. Combining this accretion disk size estimate with those estimated from quasar microlensing studies suggests that AGN disk sizes scale approximately linearly with central black hole mass over a wide range of masses.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 170 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and broad emission lines, with amplitudes ranging from ~30% to a factor of two in the emission lines and a factor of three in the continuum. The variations of all the strong emission lines lag behind those of the continuum, with He II 1640 lagging behind the continuum by ~2.5 days and Lyman alpha 1215, C IV 1550, and Si IV 1400 lagging by ~5-6 days. The relationship between the continuum and emission lines is complex. In particular, during the second half of the campaign, all emission-line lags increased by a factor of 1.3-2 and differences appear in the detailed structure of the continuum and emission-line light curves. Velocity-resolved cross-correlation analysis shows coherent structure in lag versus line-of-sight velocity for the emission lines; the high-velocity wings of C IV respond to continuum variations more rapidly than the line core, probably indicating higher velocity BLR clouds at smaller distances from the central engine. The velocity-dependent response of Lyman alpha, however, is more complex and will require further analysis.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the analysis of the seven broad-band X-ray continuum observations of the archetypal Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 that were obtained with XMM-Newton or Chandra, simultaneously with high-energy (> 10 keV) observations with NuSTAR and INTEGRAL. These data were obtained as part of a multiwavelength campaign undertaken from the summer of 2013 till early 2014. We find evidence of a high-energy cut-off in at least one observation, which we attribute to thermal Comptonization, and a constant reflected component that is likely due to neutral material at least a few light months away from the continuum source. We confirm the presence of strong, partial covering X-ray absorption as the explanation for the sharp decrease in flux through the soft X-ray band. The obscurers appear to be variable in column density and covering fraction on time scales as short as weeks. A fit of the average spectrum over the range 0.3-400 keV with a realistic Comptonization model indicates the presence of a hot corona with a temperature of 40(+40,-10) keV and an optical depth of 2.7(+0.7,-1.2) if a spherical geometry is assumed.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425401 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An extensive multi-satellite campaign on NGC 5548 has revealed this archetypal Seyfert-1 galaxy to be in an exceptional state of persistent heavy absorption. Our observations taken in 2013-2014 with XMM-Newton, Swift, NuSTAR, INTEGRAL, Chandra, HST and two ground-based observatories have together enabled us to establish that this unexpected phenomenon is caused by an outflowing stream of weakly ionised gas (called the obscurer), extending from the vicinity of the accretion disk to the broad-line region. In this work we present the details of our campaign and the data obtained by all the observatories. We determine the spectral energy distribution of NGC 5548 from near-infrared to hard X-rays by establishing the contribution of various emission and absorption processes taking place along our line of sight towards the central engine. We thus uncover the intrinsic emission and produce a broadband continuum model for both obscured (average summer 2013 data) and unobscured ($<$ 2011) epochs of NGC 5548. Our results suggest that the intrinsic NIR/optical/UV continuum is a single Comptonised component with its higher energy tail creating the 'soft X-ray excess'. This component is compatible with emission from a warm, optically-thick corona as part of the inner accretion disk. We then investigate the effects of the continuum on the ionisation balance and thermal stability of photoionised gas for unobscured and obscured epochs.
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) Our deep multiwavelength campaign on NGC 5548 revealed an unusually strong X-ray obscuration. The resulting dramatic decrease in incident ionizing flux allowed us to construct a comprehensive physical, spatial and temporal picture for the long-studied AGN wind in this object. Here we analyze the UV spectra of the outflow acquired during the campaign as well as from four previous epochs. We find that a simple model based on a fixed total column-density absorber, reacting to changes in ionizing illumination, matches the very different ionization states seen in five spectroscopic epochs spanning 16 years. Absorption troughs from C III* appeared for the first time during our campaign. From these troughs, we infer that the main outflow component is situated at 3.5+-1 pc from the central source. Three other components are situated between 5-70 pc and two are further than 100 pc. The wealth of observational constraints and the disparate relationship of the observed X-ray and UV flux between different epochs make our physical model a leading contender for interpreting trough variability data of quasar outflows.
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    ABSTRACT: We present in this paper the results of a 270 ks Chandra HETGS observation in the context of a large multiwavelength campaign on the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 509. The HETGS spectrum allows us to study the high ionisation warm absorber and the Fe-K complex in Mrk 509. We search for variability in the spectral properties of the source with respect to previous observations in this campaign, as well as for evidence of ultra-fast outflow signatures. The Chandra HETGS X-ray spectrum of Mrk 509 was analysed using the SPEX fitting package. We confirm the basic structure of the warm absorber found in the 600 ks XMM-Newton RGS observation observed three years earlier, consisting of five distinct ionisation components in a multikinematic regime. We find little or no variability in the physical properties of the different warm absorber phases with respect to previous observations in this campaign, except for component D2 which has a higher column density at the expense of component C2 at the same outflow velocity (-240 km/s). Contrary to prior reports we find no -700 km/s outflow component. The O VIII absorption line profiles show an average covering factor of 0.81 +/- 0.08 for outflow velocities faster than -100 km/s, similar to those measured in the UV. This supports the idea of a patchy wind. The relative metal abundances in the outflow are close to proto-solar. The narrow component of the Fe Kalpha emission line shows no changes with respect to previous observations which confirms its origin in distant matter. The narrow line has a red wing that can be interpreted to be a weak relativistic emission line. We find no significant evidence of ultra-fast outflows in our new spectrum down to the sensitivity limit of our data.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2014; 570. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424662 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Supermassive black holes in the nuclei of active galaxies expel large amounts of matter through powerful winds of ionized gas. The archetypal active galaxy NGC 5548 has been studied for decades, and high-resolution X-ray and UV observations have previously shown a persistent ionized outflow. An observing campaign in 2013 with six space observatories shows the nucleus to be obscured by a long-lasting, clumpy stream of ionized gas never seen before. It blocks 90% of the soft X-ray emission and causes simultaneous deep, broad UV absorption troughs. The outflow velocities of this gas are up to five times faster than those in the persistent outflow, and at a distance of only a few light days from the nucleus, it may likely originate from the accretion disk.
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    ABSTRACT: Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the most luminous persistent objects in the universe. An excess of X-ray emission below about 2 keV, called soft-excess, is very common in Type 1 AGN spectra. The origin of this feature remains debated. Originally modeled with a blackbody, there are now several possibilities to model the soft-excess, including warm Comptonization and blurred ionized reflection. In this paper, we test ionized-reflection models on Mrk 509, a bright Seyfert 1 galaxy for which we have a unique data set, in order to determine whether it can be responsible for the strong soft-excess. We use ten simultaneous XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL observations performed every four days. We present here the results of the spectral analysis, the evolution of the parameters and the variability properties of the X-ray emission. The application of blurred ionized-reflection models leads to a very strong reflection and an extreme geometry, but fails to reproduce the broad-band spectrum of Mrk 509. Two different scenarios for blurred ionized reflection are discussed: stable geometry and lamp-post configuration. In both cases we find that the model parameters do not follow the expected relations, indicating that the model is fine-tuned to fit the data without physical justification. A large, slow variation of the soft-excess without counterpart in the hard X-rays could be explained by a change in ionization of the reflector. However, such a change does not naturally follow from the assumed geometrical configuration. Warm Comptonization remains the most probable origin of the soft-excess in this object. Nevertheless, it is possible that both ionized reflection and warm Comptonization mechanisms can explain the soft-excess in all objects, one dominating the other one, depending on the physical conditions of the disk and the corona.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2014; 567. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423494 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spectroscopic observations of quasar outflows at rest-frame 500Å-1000Å have immense diagnostic power. Wavelength coverage of this range includes absorption troughs from OIV and OIV*, which allow us to measure the hydrogen number density through collisional excitation modeling, leading to a measurement of the outflow's distance from the central source. In the object we present, FBQS J0209-0438, such absorption troughs separate into five kinematic components, allowing for velocity-dependent photoionization modeling, and a determination of the distance-velocity relation. Through this relation, our analysis shows that the outflow from FBQS J0209-0438 has a lesser outward radial velocity at larger distances than it exhibits closer to the AGN (i.e. it is decelerating either as an outflow or infall). Absorption troughs from very highly ionized species such as NeVIII, ArVIII and MgX also appear in this spectral range and confirm the presence of two ionization phases, where the high ionization phase carries the bulk of the material. This is similar to the situation seen in x-ray warm absorber studies. These two results create a detailed schematic of the structure of this typical AGN outflow.
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    ABSTRACT: The Far Ultraviolet (FUV) detector of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) uses a large-format, two-segment microchannel plate detector with a Cross Delay-Line anode. Since the installation of COS into HST in 2009, the detector's properties have continually evolved, and changes to both sensitivity and microchannel plate gain have been observed. In order to maximize the lifetime of the detector, we have been monitoring its local properties as a function of time, cumulative exposure, and other factors, and we have constructed models to predict its future evolution. These models will allow us to actively manage the microchannel plate high voltage levels and the location of the spectra on the detector in order to extend its life without limiting its scientific use. We are also tracking the global sensitivity of the detector, which has been decreasing since installation; the rate of degradation has been found to vary with time, and appears to be correlated with solar activity.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2013; DOI:10.1117/12.2024708 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a recent (March 2011) 160 ks Chandra-LETGS observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4593, and the analysis of archival X-ray and UV spectra taken with XMM-Newton and HST/STIS in 2002. We find evidence of a multi-component warm absorber (WA) in the X-rays with four distinct ionisation degrees (log xi = 1.0, log xi = 1.7, log xi = 2.4, and log xi = 3.0) outflowing at several hundreds of km/s. In the UV we detect 15 kinematic components in the absorbers, blueshifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the source, ranging from -60 km/s to -1520 km/s. Although the predicted CIV and NV column densities from the low-ionisation X-ray outflow are in agreement with those measured for some components in the STIS spectrum, there are kinematic discrepancies that may prevent both the X-ray and UV absorbers from originating in the same intervening gas. We derive upper limits on the location of the absorbers finding that the high-ionisation gas lie within ~6 - 29 pc from the central ionising source, while the low-ionisation gas is located at several hundreds of pc. This is consistent with our line of sight passing through different parts of a stratified wind. The total kinetic energy of the outflows injected into the surroundings of the host galaxy only accounts for a tiny fraction of the bolometric luminosity of the source, and it is therefore unlikely that they may cause a significant impact in the interstellar medium of NGC 4593 in a given single episode of activity.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 435(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1497 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope in May 2009. Although COS was initially designed to perform high-sensitivity medium- and low-resolution spectroscopy of astronomical objects in the 1150-3200 Å wavelength range, new wavelength settings have recently become available that allow medium-resolution spectroscopy down to 900 Å, at effective areas comparable to those of FUSE. Here we provide an update on the implementation of the new short wavelength settings G130M/1222, 1096, and 1055. We discuss changes to the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) and Near-Ultraviolet (NUV) dark rates, FUV pulse height filtering, new and improved flux calibrations for FUV Lifetime Positions 1 and 2, changes in sensitivity for both the NUV and FUV channels, and give a general overview of the calibration projects undertaken in Cycles 19 and 20.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of an outflowing ionized wind in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy Mrk 335. Despite having been extensively observed by most of the largest X-ray observatories in the last decade, this bright source was not known to host warm absorber gas until recent XMM-Newton observations in combination with a long-term Swift monitoring program have shown extreme flux and spectral variability. High resolution spectra obtained by the XMM-Newton RGS detector reveal that the wind consists of three distinct ionization components, all outflowing at a velocity of 5000 km/s. This wind is clearly revealed when the source is observed at an intermediate flux state (2-5e-12 ergs cm^-2 s^-1). The analysis of multi-epoch RGS spectra allowed us to compare the absorber properties at three very different flux states of the source. No correlation between the warm absorber variability and the X-ray flux has been determined. The two higher ionization components of the gas may be consistent with photoionization equilibrium, but we can exclude this for the only ionization component that is consistently present in all flux states (log(xi)~1.8). We have included archival, non-simultaneous UV data from HST (FOS, STIS, COS) with the aim of searching for any signature of absorption in this source that so far was known for being absorption-free in the UV band. In the COS spectra obtained a few months after the X-ray observations we found broad absorption in CIV lines intrinsic to the AGN and blueshifted by a velocity roughly comparable to the X-ray outflow. The global behavior of the gas in both bands can be explained by variation of the covering factor and/or column density, possibly due to transverse motion of absorbing clouds moving out of the line of sight at Broad Line Region scale.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 766(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/104 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a coordinated IR-to-X-ray spectral campaign of the QSO IRAS 13349+2438. Optical spectra reveal extreme Eigenvector-1 characteristics, but the H-beta line width argues against a NLS1 classification; we refine z=0.10853 based on [O III]. We estimate a BH mass=10^9 Msun using 2 independent methods (H-beta line width & SED fits). Blue-shifted absorption (-950km/s & -75km/s) is seen for the 1st time in STIS UV spectra from Ly-alpha, NV, & CIV. The higher velocity UV lines are coincident with the lower-ionisation (xi~1.6) X-ray warm absorber lines. A dusty multiple ionization absorber blueshifted by 700-900km/s is required to fit the X-ray data. Theoretical models comparing different ionising SEDs reveal that a UV-inclusive (i.e., the accretion disc) ionising continuum strongly impacts conclusions for the thermodynamic stability of the warm absorber. Specific to IRAS13349, an Xray-UV ionising SED favors a continuous distribution of ionisation states in a smooth flow (this paper), versus discrete clouds in pressure equilibrium (work by others where UV is omitted). Direct dust detections are seen in both the IR: PAH emission at (7.7 & 11.3)micron which may also be blended with forsterite, and (10 & 18)micron silicate emission, and X-rays: iron dust with a dust-to-gas ratio > 90%. We develop a geometrical model whereby the QSO nuclear region is viewed through the upper atmosphere of an obscuring torus. This sight line is obscured by dust that blocks a direct view of the UV/optical emission region but is largely transparent in X-rays since the gas is ionised. In our model, 20% of the intrinsic UV/optical continuum is scattered into our sight line by the far wall of an obscuring torus. An additional 2.4% of the direct light, which likely dominates the UV emission, is Thomson-scattered into our line-of-sight by another off-plane component of highly ionized gas.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2013; 430(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt050 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the planning, implementation, and initial results of the first planned move of the default position of spectra on the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) Far Ultraviolet (FUV) cross-delay line detector. This was motivated by the limited amount of charge that can be extracted from the microchannel plate due to gain sag at any one position. Operations at a new location began on July 23, 2012, with a shift of the spectrum by +3.5"(corresponding to ~ 41 pixels or ~ 1 mm) in a direction orthogonal to the spectral dispersion. Operation at this second "lifetime position" allows for spectra to be collected which are not affected by detector artifacts and loss of sensitivity due to gain sag. We discuss programs designed to enable operations at the new lifetime position; these include determinations of operational high voltage, measuring walk corrections and focus, confirming spectrum placement and aperture centering, and target acquisition performance. We also present results related to calibration of the new lifetime position, including measurements of spectral resolution and wavelength calibration, flux and flat field calibration, carryover of time-dependent sensitivity monitoring, and operations with the Bright Object Aperture (BOA).
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) The simultaneous UV to X-rays/gamma rays data obtained during the multi-wavelength XMM/INTEGRAL campaign on the Seyfert 1 Mrk 509 are used in this paper and tested against physically motivated broad band models. Each observation has been fitted with a realistic thermal comptonisation model for the continuum emission. Prompted by the correlation between the UV and soft X-ray flux, we use a thermal comptonisation component for the soft X-ray excess. The UV to X-rays/gamma-rays emission of Mrk 509 can be well fitted by these components. The presence of a relatively hard high-energy spectrum points to the existence of a hot (kT~100 keV), optically-thin (tau~0.5) corona producing the primary continuum. On the contrary, the soft X-ray component requires a warm (kT~1 keV), optically-thick (tau~15) plasma. Estimates of the amplification ratio for this warm plasma support a configuration close to the "theoretical" configuration of a slab corona above a passive disk. An interesting consequence is the weak luminosity-dependence of its emission, a possible explanation of the roughly constant spectral shape of the soft X-ray excess seen in AGNs. The temperature (~ 3 eV) and flux of the soft-photon field entering and cooling the warm plasma suggests that it covers the accretion disk down to a transition radius $R_{tr}$ of 10-20 $R_g$. This plasma could be the warm upper layer of the accretion disk. On the contrary the hot corona has a more photon-starved geometry. The high temperature ($\sim$ 100 eV) of the soft-photon field entering and cooling it favors a localization of the hot corona in the inner flow. This soft-photon field could be part of the comptonised emission produced by the warm plasma. In this framework, the change in the geometry (i.e. $R_{tr}$) could explain most of the observed flux and spectral variability.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2012; 549. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201219956 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.
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    ABSTRACT: Observing programs comprising multiple scientific objectives will enhance the productivity of NASA's next UV/Visible mission. Studying active galactic nuclei (AGN) is intrinsically important for understanding how black holes accrete matter, grow through cosmic time, and influence their host galaxies. At the same time, the bright UV continuum of AGN serves as an ideal background light source for studying foreground gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM), the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of individual galaxies, and the interstellar medium (ISM) and halo of the Milky Way. A well chosen sample of AGN can serve as the observational backbone for multiple spectroscopic investigations including quantitative measurements of outflows from AGN, the structure of their accretion disks, and the mass of the central black hole.
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    ABSTRACT: The timing and duration of the reionization epoch is crucial to the emergence and evolution of structure in the universe. The relative roles that star-forming galaxies, active galactic nuclei and quasars play in contributing to the metagalactic ionizing background across cosmic time remains uncertain. Deep quasar counts provide insights into their role, but the potentially crucial contribution from star-formation is highly uncertain due to our poor understanding of the processes that allow ionizing radiation to escape into the intergalactic medium (IGM). The fraction of ionizing photons that escape from star-forming galaxies is a fundamental free parameter used in models to "fine-tune" the timing and duration of the reionization epoch that occurred somewhere between 13.4 and 12.7 Gyrs ago (redshifts between 12 > z > 6). However, direct observation of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons emitted below the rest frame \ion{H}{1} ionization edge at 912 \AA\ is increasingly improbable at redshifts z > 3, due to the steady increase of intervening Lyman limit systems towards high z. Thus UV and U-band optical bandpasses provide the only hope for direct, up close and in depth, observations of the types of environment that favor LyC escape. By quantifying the evolution over the past 11 billion years (z < 3) of the relationships between LyC escape and local and global parameters ..., we can provide definitive information on the LyC escape fraction that is so crucial to answering the question of, how did the universe come to be ionized? Here we provide estimates of the ionizing continuum flux emitted by "characteristic" (L_{uv}^*) star-forming galaxies as a function of look back time and escape fraction, finding that at z = 1 (7.6 Gyrs ago) L_{uv}^* galaxies with an escape fraction of 1% have a flux of 10^{-19} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} \AA^{-1}.

Publication Stats

5k Citations
840.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1991–2012
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2004–2006
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
    • East Tennessee State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Johnson City, Tennessee, United States
  • 1999–2006
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Physics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2003
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Physics
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2000
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
      • Department of Physics
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Space Sciences Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1990
    • NASA
      • Goddard Space Flight Centre
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 1983
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1982
    • Middlebury College
      • Department of Physics
      Middlebury, Indiana, United States
  • 1980
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States